2 Arbeitspapiere der FOM Klumpp, Matthias (Hrsg.) ild Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27 Conception of Implementing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in a Legacy Environment Froelian, E. / Sandhaus, G.
3 Froelian, Erik / Sandhaus, Gregor Conception of Implementing a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in a Legacy Environment FOM Hochschule ild Institut für Logistik- & Dienstleistungsmanagement Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Oktober 2012 ISSN Essen The authors thank Dirk Krome for correction references to this publication
4 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments II Contents List of Abbreviations... V List of Figures... VII List of Tables... VIII Abstract... IX 1 Introduction Background Statement of Purpose Methods and Procedures Review of Literature Service-Oriented Architecture Definition Differentiation of Enterprise Application Integration SOA Design Principles Service Types Technology Selection Software Architecture Definition Architecture Principles Architecture Terms Architecture Views Middleware Services Definition SOA Services Level of Granularity Legacy Systems Definition... 36
5 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments III Development of Legacy Systems Business Process Modeling Reasons for BPM Modeling Languages Requirement Analysis IT Architecture and Requirements Simplicity Flexibility and Maintainability Reusability Scalability Separation of Concerns Security Transaction Reliability Legacy Issues Programming Languages The Problem of Siloed Applications Business Requirements Flexibility and Agility Reliability Availability Connectivity Stepwise Changeover Monitoring Conception Case Studies Deutsche Post Winterthur Bayerischer Gemeindeunfallversicherungsverband Capabilities and Limitations of SOA... 69
6 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments IV Greedy Vendors and Shortsightedness Performance Middleware Limitations Reusability Flexibility Documentation Standards Service Development Collaboration Implementation Proposal and Procedure Model Phase One Initiation Phase Two System and Cost Analysis Phase Three Legacy Re-Engineering Phase Four Software Construction Phase Five Monitoring Phase Six Project Close-Out Conclusion Results Future Perspective References... 84
7 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments V List of Abbreviations API... Application Programming Interface BAM... Business Activity Monitoring BPEL4WS... Web Services Business Process Execution Language BPM... Business Process Modeling BPMN... Business Process Model and Notation CICS... Customer Information Control System COBOL... Common Business Oriented Language CODASYL... Conference on Data Systems Languages CORBA... Common Object Request Broker Architecture EAS... Enterprise Application Software EDI... Electronic Data Interchange EJB... Enterprise JavaBeans ERP... Enterprise Resource Planning ESB... Enterprise Service Bus GUI... Graphical User Interface HTTP... Hypertext Transfer Protocol IDL... Interface Definition Language IIOP... Internet Inter-ORB Protocol JCA... Java Connection Architecture JDBC... Java DataBase Connectivity JMS... Java Message Service ODBC... Open DataBase Connectivity OMG... Object Management Group ORB... Object Request Broker ReST... Representational State Transfer RFC... Request For Comment ROI... Return On Investment
8 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments VI RPC... Remote Procedure Call SaaS... Software as a Service SCA... Service Component Architecture SLA... Service Level Agreement SOA... Service-Oriented Architecture SOAP... formerly Simple Object Access Protocol SOX... Sarbanes-Oxley Act SWOT... Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats UDDI... Universal Description, Discovery and Integration UML... Unified Modeling Language URI... Uniform Resource Locator W3C... World Wide Web Consortium WCF... Windows Communication Foundation WSDL... Web Service Description Language WSLA... Web Service Level Agreement Framework WSML... Web Services Management Language WSOL... Web Services Offerings Language XML... Extensible Markup Language XSD... XML Schemas Definition Language YAWL... Yet Another Workflow Language
9 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments VII List of Figures Figure 1: Service-Level Abstractions... 7 Figure 2: Enterprise Service Bus Figure 3: Service Registry Figure 4: Enterprise Architecture Figure 5: Legacy Components Figure 6: Validation of Legacy Systems Figure 7: Implementation of the service Customer Management Figure 8: BGV SOA Concept Figure 9: BGV Process... 67
10 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments VIII List of Tables Table 1: SOA Definitions... 6 Table 2: Tight and Loose Coupling... 9
11 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments IX Abstract This research paper discusses how existing IT-infrastructure can be enhanced with Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA). Legacy systems are known for being quite limited in terms of interfaces, standardization and interoperability with other software systems. At the same time legacy systems provide core data and functionality to the enterprise that has deployed this system. Therefore a SOA might be a suitable approach to provide legacy data and functionality to modern systems like web applications. This paper describes SOA and its design and technical principles as well as legacy systems and how both can be linked to meet nowadays requirements in the software development process. Three case studies are described to point out the capabilities and limitations of SOA and a process model is suggested for its deployment.
12 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Enterprise application software (EAS) is permanently caught in a crossfire of influences. Changing laws, new business processes or mergers and acquisitions imply software changes. Many different projects and requirements have an influence on IT architecture and often reduce its agility and efficiency. An architect is responsible for the development of an enterprise architecture. He has to match the strategic point of view with operational goals. 1 There have been many attempts to keep an architecture agile and fulfill new requirements. Over the course of time, many software solutions have been developed and their complexity has increased. From assembly programming language over procedural programming languages to the object orientated paradigm, new technologies have been invented to grapple with this complexity. These new technologies always leveled up the degree of abstraction to master more complex software systems. The latest and highest level in the sequence is the paradigm of service-oriented architecture (SOA). 2 The Enterprise Data Model was an approach in the 1980ies to implement a standardized, global data model for all business units in an enterprise. All projects failed. In the 1990ies the Enterprise Software Bus was developed. Middleware standards were to connect and homogenize the application environment company-wide. The reality is that companies had as many incompatible middleware products as they had applications. 3 In contrast to the Enterprise Data Model and the Enterprise Software Bus, SOA does not dictate strict standards. It tries to integrate new application logic in an architecture technology independently. 4 A great deal was written and said about SOA in the early 2000s. It went through the Gartner Hype Cycle Trough of Disillusionment from 2005 to 2007 and the Slope of Enlightenment in 2008 and 2009 and now seems to have reached the Plateau of Productivity. 5 Burton Group analyst Anne Thomas Manes declared SOA dead after the economic recession in 2008 with only its offsprings BPM, SaaS, Cloud Computing, etc. surviving. She writes about costly projects with IT systems which have not improved on previous 1 Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Melzer, I. (2010), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. sys-con.com (2011), 28. May 2012.
13 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 2 ones. But only the term SOA is dead, she says, not the need for an agile serviceoriented architecture. 6 Anne Thomas Manes launched a debate with her article. She found not only agreement in the community. Analyst Jayanth Angl argues that the industry is consistently moving towards a view of interoperable services and approaches like SaaS will replace traditional application delivery. 7 Ruediger Spies, vice-president of enterprise applications at IDC Central Europe, answers There are people in the market saying that SOA is over. Nothing is more wrong. 8. He adds that SOA provides a framework for cloud computing. Companies will fulfill their IT requirements simply by purchasing fee-based Web services from third parties - similar to the way they currently buy electric power or telecommunications services. 9 Nicholas Carr claims in his 2003 article IT Doesn t Matter that IT became an ubiquity commodity factor of production. It is no longer of strategic value. The advantages that IT brings to companies are vanishing. Carr distinguishes between proprietary and infrastructural technology. While a proprietary technology like a patent for a drug is valuable for the company that holds the patent, an infrastructural technology is valuable when shared with many, e.g. railroad tracks, telegraph lines, power generators as well as information technology. Only in the early phase of a technologies build out it can gain advantages for companies over rivals. But one day it becomes accessible and affordable for everyone and is no longer of strategic value. Interconnectivity and interoperability are key facts of business IT. Replication of standardized products is much cheaper and outperforms the benefits of individual software. With a standard software, a company also buys standardized processes and takes advantage of best practices. 10 Carr was criticized for his article, especially by IT vendors. But others, like Gartner, agreed. Gartner pointed out, that the value of an IT strategy is to make business processes faster, more reliable and cheaper. But a clear measurement is necessary to state the value accurately. Other comments relate to the Core and Context Model by 6 Cf. burtongroup.com (2009), 28. May Cf. cio.com (2009), 8. Aug networkworld.com (2010), 8. Aug Carr, N. (2003), pp Cf. Carr, N. (2003), pp
14 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 3 Geoffrey Moore. Moore distinguishes between context, which is a commodity and accessible for everyone, and core, which represents strategic value for a company. 11 The Core and Context Model is an innovation lifecycle model and consists of four parts. An innovation starts in the core categories Invention and Innovation. The focus is on differentiation. A company can differentiate from its competitors with a new product, business process or service. Over time, the innovation gets standardized and becomes a commodity. A commodity delivers no strategic value for a company, but is often required by the customers. That are the context parts Standardization and Commoditization. 12 Service-oriented architecture is quite suitable to the Core and Context Model. It supports the implementation of standard processes in the enterprise IT architecture as well as outsourcing of commoditized processes. With SOA it does not matter whether a software solution is standard or individual. End to end business processes are possible. Unlike the other approaches, SOA is not an IT-only topic. Implementing a serviceoriented architecture has to be done in collaboration with the business. It follows that SOA does not work with embedded or retail software. It is designed for EAS and supports business processes in companies or governmental organizations. SOA has shifted IT from a commodity to a business enabler. 13 It is a well-known fact that most companies of the western world could not continue their business without IT. Software supports business processes and improves the level of automation and thus gains efficiency and profit. 1.2 Statement of Purpose The development of software in companies took a considerate amount of time and money. Many of today s running application have been developed decades ago. In 2003, David Strom reported on a company, which has Lotus 123R3 for DOS installed on 150 laptops and PCs. 14 Lotus 123R3 dates back to 1991 and is a spreadsheet application like Microsoft Excel. The company cannot update to a newer application. A specific spreadsheet must be uploaded to a mainframe that requires the Lotus 123R3 format because of hidden characters and codes. This legacy application on the 11 Cf. computerwoche.de (2003), 26. Jun Cf. fh-hwz.ch (2009), 26. Jun Cf. Bean, J. (2009), p Cf. informationweek.com (2003), 8. Aug
15 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 4 mainframe was developed before 1991 and provides business value for the company. But as seen it is not possible to adjust the legacy application to deal with Excel spreadsheets and furthermore it forces the clients to use other legacy applications - DOS and Lotus 123R3. Companies developed their applications further and they became huge software monoliths that are hard to maintain and even harder to customize for new requirements. Refactoring of an application helps to reduce the complexity and improve the agility. 15 But refactoring is expensive and the application will remain a monolith. Over time, the complexity will increase and the agility decreases again. Rebuilding an application from scratch in a service-oriented way cannot be the solution. Luckily the SOA paradigm supports the reuse of software assets. That means that the old software treasures of a company do not have to be thrown away. The so-called legacy software can be integrated in a modern architecture and their value can be preserved. That is what makes SOA so relevant for companies with legacy applications that want to improve their business agility. The goal is that IT supports the business rather than determines business decisions constrained by technology. This paper draws a concept of how legacy applications can be integrated in a serviceoriented architecture. Therefore it deals with the following questions: What are the concepts of SOA? How does SOA fulfill the IT and business requirements? Which technologies are available to implement SOA? What are the limitations of SOA and what if SOA becomes legacy? How can an SOA be implemented? The audience of this paper are students of the subject IT Management, as well as managers of IT and business departments. It is no manual that can be used to implement an SOA. Much more information and detail is required for an implementation. The paper gives an overview and covers the most important aspects that are of importance. 1.3 Methods and Procedures The author believes that many companies have developed applications that map their business requirements very well. Much money has been invested in order to optimize and extend these legacy systems, but the maintenance became more and more difficult by now. The author wants to find out whether and how the SOA approach can help 15 Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p. 27.
16 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 5 you take advantage of legacy systems and integrate them into a modern IT architecture. This paper takes a qualitative approach to answer this question. The chosen research strategy is a text-based research including a review of literature and case studies. The paper has a descriptive and explanatory purpose and uses deductive reasoning. The sample selection is evaluative and the data was collected from literature, journals, magazines, websites, blogs and publications. Chapter two is a detailed review of literature to describe the basic knowledge of SOA. It clarifies the fundamental terms architecture, services and service-orientation, legacy systems and business processes modeling. Chapter three deals with requirements. The IT, as well as the business requirements and legacy issues are considered. Chapter four provides case studies of SOA implementations and draws a conception of how the requirements can be implemented with the methods of SOA. This can only be a generic proposal. Every company has to consider its individual requirements.
17 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 6 2 Review of Literature 2.1 Service-Oriented Architecture In literature there are a number of different views and opinions on service-oriented architecture (SOA). Despite of the fact that there is no generally accepted definition of SOA, one can say that it is a paradigm for software architecture. This section defines SOA in the context of this paper and points out the fundamental principles as well as possible technical solutions Definition Table 1 shows a selection of SOA definitions that can be found in the current literature. In this paper, SOA is defined as a paradigm for software architecture that supports business processes, which are implemented on distributed systems. Different underlying technologies, operating systems or programming languages can be used to develop components, which are loosely coupled with contracts and interfaces. SOA enables the reuse of legacy systems and addresses all aspects that occur during a lifecycle of a software component to provide a future-oriented architecture. Table 1: SOA Definitions Author Papazoglou, M. (2012), pp Finger, P./Zeppenfeld, K. (2009), p. V Hurwitz, J. et al. (2009), p. 44 Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p. 77 Newcomer, E./Lomow, G. (2005), p. 13 w3.org (2004), 29. Jul gartner.com (2003), 29. Jul Source: Own Depiction. Definition Service-oriented computing is an emerging computing paradigm that utilizes services as the constructs to support the development of rapid, low cost composition of distributed applications. For the service-oriented paradigm to exist, we must find ways for services to be technology neutral, loosely coupled and support location transparency. SOA is not a new technology, but a paradigm for the structured utilization of distributed systems. We define a service-oriented architecture as a software architecture for building applications that implement business processes or services by using a set of loosely coupled, black-box components orchestrated to deliver a well-defined level of service. A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software architecture which is based on the following key concepts: application frontend, service, servicerepository and service-bus. A service consists of a contract, one or more interfaces and an implementation. A service-oriented architecture is a style of design that guides all aspects of creating and using business services throughout their lifecycle (from conception to retirement). An SOA is also a way to define and provision an IT infrastructure to allow different applications to exchange data and participate in business processes, regardless of the operating systems or programming languages underlying those applications. A Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) is a form of distributed systems architecture that is typically characterized by the following properties: logical view, message orientation, description orientation, granularity, network orientation, platform neutral. Essentially, SOA is a software architecture that builds a topology of interfaces, interface implementations and interface calls. SOA is a relationship of services and service consumers, both software modules large enough to represent a complete business function. So, SOA is about reuse, encapsulation, interfaces and, ultimately, agility.
18 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 7 A service-oriented architecture can be divided into abstraction layers. Figure 1 is an overview of these layers. They are described below: Application Frontend: Application frontends initiate and control all activities of the enterprise system. An application frontend could be a GUI and also a batch program. It can pass a part of its responsibility to a service, but in the end the application frontend receives the results. 16 Business Processes: A business process is a flow of activities, initiated by one or more events with the goal to reach a specific result. 17 Services: Activities to perform business processes, defined in a reusable and technology independent way. A service provides value to its consumer, encapsulates functionality and has well-defined interfaces. 18 Components: A component is a binary software module that supplies functionality to a third party using interfaces. 19 Components in an SOA implement and execute the services of the layer above. Business Data: The data usually stored in databases, systems-of-record or other files. Figure 1: Service-Level Abstractions Source: Newcomer, E./Lomow, G. (2005), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Stähler, D. et al. (2009), p Cf. Stähler, D. et al. (2009), p Cf. Balzert, H. (2011), p. 24.
19 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments Differentiation of Enterprise Application Integration Previously, it was very complicated to make adjustments in a computing system. New devices such as printers or connections to new applications always needed to be done by programmers. The outcome of this was an inflexible architecture that was difficult to manage and expensive. In the 1990s Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software was introduced and hyped. This software was to eliminate the need of custom coding by introducing standard connectors. These connectors reduced the effort to connect application packages, but it did not help with custom-built applications. The main problem though was that the standard interfaces themselves were inflexible. With the Internet becoming more and more popular, companies needed to connect with their partners. EAI was too limiting and only written for specific circumstances. SOA was the next step. Many EAI products evolved into ESB products and therefore became a part of SOA. 20 The EAI software bus connects two applications of the same technology, while the SOA service bus is technology independent. The EAI applications are stand-alone, but the coupling is done by a centrally managed software bus. This tight coupling does not support scalability. With SOA, services are coupled loosely. The technology of the applications is not important. One advantage of SOA compared to EAI is the scalability of the service bus SOA Design Principles There are several design principles that characterize a service-oriented architecture. Loose coupling is probably the most important principle, because it allows an architecture to be flexible. Nevertheless is it just one principle of many described in this section. Loose Coupling The concept of loose coupling has been popular in other industries for a long time. Automobile manufacturers for example use the same modules in many different car models. A steering column is designed to fit in several cars. The manufacturer can exchange a power steering column with a manual steering column and does not have to adjust the other parts of the car. 20 Cf. Hurwitz, J. et al. (2009), pp Cf. Finger, P./Zeppenfeld, K. (2009), p. 28.
20 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 9 The term coupling stands for the dimension of the connection between things. Software components are loosely coupled when they are not codependent. Every component is independent and can be joined to and separated from other components easily. 22 Coupling has to be considered on different levels as table 2 shows. Table 2: Tight and Loose Coupling Layer Tight coupling Loose coupling Physical coupling Physical connection required Physical broker Communication Synchronous Asynchronous Typecast Strict type casted system Slightly type casted system Interaction pattern Controlling of process logic Detection and attachment of services Interoperability OO-navigation in object trees Central control Statically attached High dependency on operating system an programming language Source: Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p. 68. Independent messages Distributed logic components Dynamically attached Independent of operating system and programming language Physical coupling: The separation of concerns is important for loose coupling. There must not be any code related to the hardware in services. When the business logic and the technology are separated, it is possible to bind the components dynamically in real time. The coupled services will behave like one application. 23 Remote Procedure Call (RPC) based applications are tightly coupled, because client and server need to be available to communicate. On the contrary, applications that communicate via a message-oriented middleware (MOM) the middleware acts as a broker between them. The broker forwards a message when the recipient is available. 24 Communication: This is contingent on physical coupling. Normally, asynchronous communication uses a physical broker. But in the case of a one-way-rpc-call, the client sends a message to a server and does not await a reply. That is an example of asynchronous communication even though the client and the server require a physical connection Cf. Hurwitz, J. et al. (2009), p Cf. Hurwitz, J. et al. (2009), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), pp
21 Schriftenreihe Logistikforschung Band 27, Froelian/Sandhaus: SOA in Legacy Environments 10 Typecast: Strict type casted systems are more likely RPC where the required transaction or activity is coded in the interface. That is called interface semantics. For example the transaction is defined by the self-descriptive function named getcustomer(). However in a slightly type casted system the required transaction is embedded in the message, either in the header or in the application-specific body. As one can imagine that is normally MOM. In a strict type casted system, bugs are noticed during compilation. For instance when the function name is changed to getmycustomers(). With MOM, the problem is not avoided but shifted to runtime. 26 Interaction pattern: There are different patterns of how the interaction of components can be realized. The ORB pattern for example requires a very good knowledge of the affected objects to navigate the object s structure in an object oriented way. The client needs to know how to navigate between the objects. The result is a very tight coupling. Message-oriented systems are easier, because there is usually only one queue as an entry point for requests. 27 Controlling of process logic: In huge monolithic systems, like ERP systems, the ownership of processes and sub-processes belongs to the ERP system. The underlying database can use features to ensure referential integrity or consistency. One problem with distributed process logic is that the status of a process does not need to be consistent at all times. For example, an order can be cancelled in one system while there is still an invoice in another system. 28 Detection and attachment of services: The way that service consumer and provider find each other has a huge impact on the level of coupling. Static bound services are tightly coupled, while dynamic coupled services are loosely coupled. Methods like UDDI allow a flexible locating of services and support loose coupling. Nevertheless the service consumer needs to know the exact name of the requested service. Experience has shown that the field of completely dynamic coupled services is very tight. 29 Interoperability: High dependency on the operating system or the programming language means tight coupling. Especially when we refer to cross-company applications, a company has less influence on the operating system of all users. Incidentally the compatibility of web browsers can be crucial as well. 26 Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p Cf. Krafzig, D./Banke, K./Slama, D. (2007), p. 70.
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