AGRO-PASTORAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE CENTRAL ANDES

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1 G r, r GOLAMb 594 k' AGRO-PASTORAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE CENTRAL ANDES David L. Browman INTRODUCTION ' I 1 I t Maxinsizalion and relited Ieast-cf(ofl analyscs, such as optimal foraging and Iincur prugram ntudclling, enjuy currcnl pupularity in ecununlic studies in che Central Andes. 'I'hc;c Inudeis are not tic nu)sl 5pprupnate characlcriz,ltiuns uf actual ir dit;cnuus ccununtic 1 ehaviur strategies. Least-cust ur maxilual-yietd mudas presupposc a dctiuitiun uf "rationality," as apptic(t lo ecunnlt IC hehaviur, that invulves ntilxin izing pruduetiun, a cotoruar: assunrptiurt uf capitalistie analyses. Because rescarehers are unconsciu( sty inllucncc(i )y lucir (lwn cultural SLtting, thcse rnaxlnnzation nu dets appcar tu Iban tu tellecl "ratiorlal" Itehaviur and are often acccpted ;ts beiug "true" withuul ( uestiun. (viajar agro-pastura) devclupmcnt analyses alc inilueneed in Chis manner; lar cx;unple, I-Iardin's (1)68) explana.ion for the "tragcdy uf tic Cun(rnuns ssuc is predicated upan the unyuestiuned assuniptiun tlt tt ulaxlnlilalloll IS t1 e orlly "rational" appruach lar hci(crs. Risk rcducliurl mal ;t ^Cment tachar chau icld maximizatlon is IhC ma'or Kr%rMrri II i-:ruuuuuc Aulhrnput g.) Vuluu e 8, pagrs 171-2(M). (1 righ l7 hy JAI ) r(ss Inr. AIt righh ur rcpi duct(ui in cuy (tris( rnwrrred. t511 r: t.my232-(x(($ DAVID L. 11ROWMAN eiunumic (Iecisi)n strilegy of ihc hil;hlan (1 a'ru rtsturil " leasanls" (ca,,:- ;,rr.i) ii( Íh^ I'rñlvi,,n p:::: ;rl ddulivian ulriplurro. 2 InlluCnCCd by altitude, precipitaban, and hin I-holding cunstrainls, Ihe Anchan pcasant suhsisk,icc ha^c rangcs (ron) p.:storalisnl tu Inixed abra -pasturalisn tu puye cullivallon, I ivcstuck are alai: ly indigcnuus cantelids (II.Irna and ;dpaca), sheej), and cattle. 'I11c rnairt evps are frust -resistant t ubers ( )( tatu, and such ulher Iucal tubers as oca. saña, ulluku, ara( urru('ri('hu) and graius (;nilaranth, che chet)l)udti ( (i(irll)(i illlj LU!1ii11S(I, In;uta, whc,ll, :id IIrIe Y) 1.(x'a1 produccrs (kiibcralely ch)a se 10 farnl up tu 7O ur titl mili-parccls of )and located at scveral dílfcrc nt elevatiuns and in sevcral differcn( nlicioclitiia1es. Argumcnts fur Ihe ra u nali1y of the ini ruduction uf cconunty uf sale (a nlaxilntzadion I ludci) iutu Ihe Peruvian highl^utd agricultural sector have beca advanccd lirst by Wc^ltern capilalisl advisers, and suhscyucntly 1 y Castern bltx: Marxist advisers. Develuprnent prujects utilizing Ibis.idvice havc been failures, however. 1 tle local pf( (IUCC'fS Vle'W 1LICh ;II)pruaches as irratiunal. \Vtide fronl our pcrslltcntie it appears irratiunal tu utilice JUZCrls uf narra - parccls, che local proilucers Nave fuund that this is che nlust ratiumd mediad, in lheir circu:i: Iances, uf rninlnllzing risk IIi a capriciuus euvlrunlnent. Andean pcasants peed tu del with fou,^r m,ur c,itt;t rics^(^f lrnthlt'liull anal niarkclin k; envtronnle^tlal, technical (assuci^lted lvitit )ruductive 1111)11(5), ecunultllc ( assoctated v'lltl inarkels iitlti Ill^ltkctlllg), and 5t)e'leta) (,lssoclated with extertal pt litic.ti or guverrtntental actiuns). 'Ftte ntanagcntent of risk ul the Andes is ali underappreciatcd aspecl of Lite Antlean ecunomtc perspeclive ; che failure of recen ( agrtrian rrfurms and develuprrlent prubratns is duo in pare tu lack of underst,utding ol chis aspecl uf highlatd ecufomte beltavior. Risk management in Ihe Andt.'s involves ftve majar strategies; 1. Risk management may lve rcducing productiva risk by creating more Iucal uptirltal crtvirunnlcitis to é'n.'hanl I cite Iarld's carrying capaeity. huy cultivaturs, incrcascd pn )ductive capacity mal include vatiuus land anta water management systenls, sucn as raised or rtdged tiekls ( cumclluilt's), tcrracc systems (undt'ries), sp:cialized cuntainment netwurks (gocftus) and sectorial f 111"uwintb systents ; fur h 1crs, it may invulve spcciat )asturin I 6 and stocking strategtes. 1?. Itisk rcduction may incittd. spreadinb risk through Jivcrsiticatiutt uf pruductive activities. Productiun diversitication rnay inclutlc; trlisan ur col- I;t-tndustry produeliun uf various ítems, which cuuld be exchanged fur suhsistcnce guuds or uther Cortito )dines, as well as the widcsprcad praclicc uf tul S )CCiJIilin6 tu unta erup but cultivatiog che broadesl range uf plant lypes pussihle. Evcri with respecl to single crup, divcrsilication is etophasized: PCasants rcgularly nlaintain frunt a half duzen tu twu dozcri or AS'ro-Paslorn! Risk Munati'e,su,:l in che Central Arrdes 173 muro: yaces of putato seed and similar numbers of vaucties of other cultivars, each with a ditferent response tu lueal lnicroenvirnumrnta.l shifts. Risk aversion for the cultivaturs would invulve avoidance of eridangcriug arl already luw incaute by mearas of a diversdied purifuhu of resources. Crucial tu Chis strategy is tic existente of an appropriate infrastructure-- Inarkets and transpurl netwurks. Long -distanec llanta-earavan transpart, pruvided hy highland pasturalists, has ara ;tntülllity of al teitlt lhrec rniucnia 1 Ifl iht^ 1itgh tjlliis bu l nuw has hecn m aut ly rcplaced hy track and bus transport (Rrus inatl n.(.l.). Markets an d ma rketing principies cxist today, I ut tiere is ara active debate ^((nu ng Au ( lcanists abuut thcir level uf signili eanee and their his urical developine o1 3. fvluvcnlenl is 1tic t tud nlcchan:snl of risk managenlent.'1'he physical slre^^d of duzens uf parccls uf t,incl in differcut rnicru - cnviruntnertts is a kind uf sedeitiarists' stratct;y akul lis ntuvernent. I'he vcrbc: i archlpclabu nladcl, pupul ; ril.cd by hlurra (1c972), Iinght be Sl(t) ltlllle(1 uildcr Ih15 Catcgury, 1)111 I svuuld algtie Ihal it would he more appruprrltely cunsidered undcr tlic securld i ul igenlcrll strategy, that of che diversitication uf pro- (IuCtiun. ltecenl rc(iticti)n uí llluvclncnt Inri inlensihciatiun uf agrictiuural pruductiun has Ic cl 10 al)arl(lunnleo1 uf sectorial f;lllowing systenls, increasing )ruductive risk f runi irlsccl pests atril in laos of grcater custs for inputs such as lenlí(ter. 1uvcntent as risk reductiun Is llle stralegy ulosl readily utilit.ed hy tic itstorallsts. Seasonal rnigrant tahur shuuld be considered under Ibis stratcgy, althuugh o is as wcll a diversiticatiun al pruductive mudes lechnttlue. 4. The four h síralegy cunceptualtzed Is that of sharing the risk through inf\ r nal sucia! iietworks,and formal couperatives. The arguntent ntay be ' "árs as ; che grealer tlle degree uf risk, the wider Ihe rango of social institutiuns w sharc che risk. ^1'ilese iostitutions includc the lora at ol fictivc kin systems ( with a focos opon aflinal ntenihers if access tu labor is emphasized, and upan consanguincal links if access tu tarad is critica)), the huuseht Id and (r)"11((5 groups, ches urban clubs and puisunu networks, and the agr((-past ( ral cr uper,ttivcs estahlished during Ihe agravian refurm movemetlh. The diversdied, ertcnstve pruductive nu)desinercase che peed Iu recruit labor fur periuds ul (-ak deinan (l, tncreasutg tic pressurc ora reeiprucai uhligatiun urg:u(iia tiuns as nlechanisnls ol risk management. 5. I:irtally, risk Inanagetlent cntails sturage technulugy. Sturge perhaps uught Lo he subsut ied undcr ntanagenlcnl of envirunmental risk (# 1, above). 1 segregatc it as a separate analytical category, hoscver, because it is ara ec(inunlie aclivity in whíeh Ibe contenlporary Andan peasants perceive majar risk, and which has beett tic object uf successful develupnient prugranrs. C(lrllpultCnts uf this Inanagenlent strategy invulve Ihe technulugies dcvclupcd in the treatment uf the subsistcucc guuds ur craft iteras tu nlarintizc their duiability or iuugevity in storage, and the con-

2 un r u L. utcvwman, A^^r -p,uf rul Risk 11urlu nt nt ur flu' Ce Itru1 Andes 175 su urdan uf ;)pprilprtatc arl'illtcclura) facilities tu It)axilniZc adc(tuatc cu- E.11 t)u uf sturcd gouds. Storagc invulvcs mure tul;in caching surplus ilcnls; it al,o enlails Ihe apltrt I riate tcchnulogy fur prescrving and ulaintaining Ihe vlahlluy ;tnd vigor o( productive resuurccs, such as seed tuhers and grtins, (or extended periud. I t) minintizc risk, seed must he storcd for mure )han )nc year. 3'he cultivator does not plan) all hi, SCCJ, hut huijs back sople as a risk insurancc factor. Prcparatiun tcchnulogy fur clic sturagc of suh,istence ítems in che Andl-s includes che tcchniques fur tnaking freezedncjtuhers (ruma, (.'boli) or kuyu), fcrtncntcd anc) dried p)tafues (h cri.slr), parched yui lua anca nlaize, and sun-dried and saltcd Ilarrla mcat (elruryui), ntutk n (t) ulonu), and freshwater lish. Structural Icchnolugy includcs thc varlous typcs a( storagc yolrlu (silos) anca w;iii bias.` Thesc risk management tcchniqucs are examined in che scctiuns which follow, cspccially as thcy are empluyed by agriculturali, ts in differing Gtshtons )han hy hcrdcrs, but also as thcy relate tu thc nwst rcccnt agrarian refornl devclopmcnt schemes. Ao awarcncss uf ara indigenuus f)cn5 ara ri,k nl; tl; geme'nt or of Jufticinand nptllnlzing stralegies is in itsclf no) new, hit che pr11 ICy of disk av^niun is a changc in analy ) ical fucus. 'Chis pcrspcctivc of risk managcnlen ;)s a crucial factor in che nt;)intcn;lnce uf a Ilexihle series uf strategn.s d :signcd lo allow rapa) response la highly changeahle physic) and social'-nvirunnlcntal conditiuns i, aptly rellected hy Figueroa ( 1')h4: 5), y ohscrved : "Any cconontic thcory which at- Icntpts tu cxplain time hcll;ivi)r uf time pe;)sant tarnily of clic sierra (l) ghland) ntu,t induce 15 ara cssential c:ielnent Ihc prublcm of risk." ]he risk nlanal;ctncn t strategy approach oullined here is similar lo fuer ec operativc "resii,eri ' stratcgics proposed by R. 13. Thomas ( 1979: 179), which have rctcntty ^ccn rcnamcd Ihc "rno ) tarle pruduction stratcgy" hy ()Aove and Gti Itct ( It)ti5: 1). AGRICULTURAL CROO' RISK MANAGEMENT Trust a)td Altitudc Risk Water management and planting severa) crup varieties are major pro- JuclÍVe technic uc. crnlio cd tu le;i) with frotat i1)(1 altitude risk. 1:r)sl risk is grcater ora time ^ Íáts lhan no Illc'slopcs, 'althou6,h ficlds n i hottutnlands have other abrlcultural advanlat,es. AII huuseholds scek ta maaintairl agricultura! pluts in sevcral (1)1 ere)) t lopugraphical localitics (i.e.,1) 11 valley huttum an(1 ti ill,lupes, sandy suil:, and clayey 0)115, Inurning-sun 5It pes and _iutern(k))) sun siopes, etc.), A1) nlt two weeks' more ntatura1ion tirite is required fur every IIX) ntetcrs of increase in clcvatiun. Aecordwgly, having plots in severa) ti l1erent elev; tion Ievcl, is out unly a Trust Inunagentent technique, but al,tt a tahur management strategy; if lhe harvest can he spreaci out over in exterrled period uf tinte hy planhng at different ele- Va tions, une can avoid ri5ks assuciate(i with addi1 on; I incremeo)s in ob- (igatiuns uf reciprocal aicl. Frost anca altitu tc risk c;rtl also he redueed by relance or) tradicional technology and avoidanee of capital inputs. On higa-elevaban lields, fur exantplc, native hittcr p)tatoes produce bctter yiekls tli;ul "nnpruved'' pota () seed. Murcover, clic native varieties are more trust resistant and have higher culinary quality and greater pcst resistance. Prlldul'ers avoid inputs sud) as fertilizer on higa - clcvation ttelds, oven though fertitizer woutd inlprovc yielct, hceause feos) and hail risks are greater thcre. 13y the use of sectorial falluwing ;tlld native spceies wllicll are more post resistan), thcy avoid tic necd for inputs sud) as pesticidas. E sclcetmg seed such as tic hittcr ( trr'nurga or lulo) potatu Iba) does wcll in clay sois, ihey avoid tic peed for atlditiullal capital inputs fur soil inlprovcntents. In short, producers play ratiun;llly ntinintize tinanci;ll inputs tu ntirurtlize posible losses, 1Vhile in sonde lields use ol intproved/ntodern puta)() seed results in higher ytelds, clic c)sts and ri,ks are higher; if thesc are hgured in, traditiunal Icehn)l)gy is more rational ( 1 lorto)) 19K4: 42). Water ntarlagcrltent techliiques are of major importante in lhe Andes. NI any of the traditit}na) nlanae;enlenl systcnts havc peen repluced hy "mudern" tethnulogy, As a result, the drought uf 1'982--tia hall a Ouch mure severe intpact ora che suuthern Andes than cuulpar ;thle druugh1s had in times post. Droughts are a regular oeeurrence; coltivaturs think in termos of long- terne drought and frota resistance rather than in tercos of a maximum one-year yie d. Local kire has it that nne year in severa is a complete r agricultural lurc `and chic yiclds will be sub -standard in two additional years as well. 'I'bis appears tu be hornc out by Ihe cnvtronmenral parameters fur this century. In che Titicaca arca, [or instance, signiheanl droughts have occurred in perccnt uf the years recorded, that i5, [roma 1 in 6 tu 1 it)^3 years, depending ara Ihe metcorological station (Astorga 1983: 18). Dr úghts in clic Andes, Hiere che Atlantic tradewinds are time malar contrihutor of moisturc, do out seem ti) he linked wuh similar oecurrences on clic coast, where Ihe Pacilit tradewinds clurninate. This model mav he loo sinlplisilie, liowevcr, at Ie:lst fur severe druughts, as Ihere appears tu he a causal imime rconneetion hetween tic Ilteteorlllugle;tl C)Ittli1mons Ieading lo tic severe drought of I)82-19t13 in lhe suuthern highlartds and che tu sastruus (w)rs) ul tic centmi ry) ti) Nimio-Suuthcrn Oscillatiun ora che coas). In che altiplano, Ihe 1')ti2-1')83 druught resulted in tnajur crup sud livestock losses. Over ho perccnt of lhc p)tatucs and ulher rubers and 70 Ca;lu - DAVID L. Dt^^^ ^,^^ v perccnt of che grain pruduction was los) (Manrique et al. 1983: 56; Pinazo 1')tt3: Itil). Pasturage was retluced by at leas) 5(1 percent, resulting in accontpanying livestoek losses. Non-indigenous stock, such as cattle and shcep, whieh are Icss adapted to Andean climatc risk, suffered mortality ratos of up tu 20-31) perccnt, wllilc thc native alpaca and (lama mortality ratc was unly 5 pcrecnt. Livestock loss, however, involves more timan just nwrtatity; it invutvcs mcat anj wool loss as well. "Clic native stock again (arclt better timan tic introduced stock under drougbt stress: tneat yicld Ioss w;ls 4(I percent in cattle and shcep and 30 percent in alpaca; wool yield luss was 31) perccnt in shcep and 1(1 pcrecnt in alpaca and llama. Severo droughts also altea che sui sistcnce pruduction systcnts of the ff5hermen of Lake 'I iticaca. lo Ihe Tour-year drought ending in 1943, tele lake Ievel dropped so (ow Ihat Ihc.fufuru, (cattail) beis drtcd up and Itic pl;tnts tlicd. As these bcds were liste swning grotutds, liste pupulatiuns drastically declmtted, wilh time resultant coliapse of time lake tishcrics. 'Che Uru, who are che residett lakdwellers, disappe;tred Iron) lime lake altogel ter un tli Rulmviarl sido tear Desaguadero and, on Ihe Peruviar sirle near Puno, moved urlshore, ahanduning )heir fornterly iloai ttg island hon es, 1 1islorical record, Indicate that ohms evcnt has heen repeated often, wtth Ihc lake xu()lc movirlb onshore and Iherl back out lo (lucir lishing Iot:alcs cyclical)y. 1rrigation is an ohvious risk ntatagernent uecliniclue fur drought, and it Is uscd as such. II is alsu ;f labor nlanagettenl tcchnttluc sita( a slralcgy for rrlodifying altitudc corlstramtts. Fur ezatnple, irrigaled lields of sccd graits (n Ihc uppcr 1vlantaro Vallcv ftature ul) to one ntonth earlier timan nonirrmbatcd fields (Lcwis 1954: 43), ale )wittg Ihe cultivator tu staggcr planting andlor harvcst labor inputs. Indmgcnuus agricultur;tl tcchntques havc risk reduction putcntial Ihal is not adcquatcly apprectatcd. During time process uf "nl( dcrnization" of Andeati agrmcultural pn)ducliun, indmgenous, labor-intcnsivc pruduction systems havc beca replau-d w)th imponed, capital-intensive systems. In tic'l'mticaea hasit, 2(X) hl ) ha of terraces (urult'nt's) havc heen abandonul, t)(l,(_(x) ha of tluc hcrs (a hasmn type of water tnan;tgcn)ent s)'5tern) have heen abandurted Ur pl(iwed up, and K(l,(X)4) ha of raised anta ridged lucid systems (tarrrell )rrt's) ha ve heet ahandoned or destroved. In ale, clase tu 4(1(1(11N) ha of labor-tntettsivc water nlallagenlcnl systenis have hcetl Iosl. In Ihe t)S3 droughl con Puno, average patato pruductmon droppcd frota 5- ó rnetrte tutslha to;rhuul 3 ntettte tonslha. I-fowever,ut at cxpcrnncttally recunstructcd ralsed or rtdged licld 0tstc)It, even during time worsl drought in fuur decides, Ihc potato pruc'ttitlon was 11.4 nlelrlc UInS'Ita---In contras) ti) tic average uf 5.3 nlctnc lorts fi ir nortnai years ;rtd Ihe 3.2 mclric toas yfcid for adjacent Imcitis utthf.mng "ntodern" Icchnology during the drought (l rtckson 1')rt1; faca Pantiagoso f9l4). Normal rainl;lll occurred in 19h3-1984, and tic 5anle licld project (now much expanded) produced over 15 nletric (ons/ha (Gar)yeochea lanoechi 11)84), or threc tintes as much as f)elds utilizing western teebnology. As a result, majar reconstruetion projecls of Ibis traditional teehnulogy were undertaken fur time growing scason. The gvrhrts, andc'rrrs, and cwnel!ares (see Note 3) are three different systcnts for water and trust management ora agricultural lands. In sople years there is tau much water fur che ) iorly drained clay sois, and time associated fti Fuws or canals of each syslenl expedite drainage to keep the tuber crups frurlm rotting. (n other years water is searce, and the systems timen can be readily nwdihc^l tu intpoun(l or conserve water. `Valer ms inlportant no) orlly as alw^j im agettt; in time high ftost-risk sierra, water's heat retcntiun properties ;ore significan( in time reduclion of frosl damage. Furrows ancl canals are placed cmther at right ingles or parallel tu tlte daily caurse uf time sun fruta casi to west, Iluth of )hese furrow alignments maxiumize ileat capture hy Ihc water atol Ihc sum) around che plan1 rdols; radiatiun of chis energy at night keeps Ihc lucal rtmierucnvironmenl a degree or sol warnlcr timan Ihe stftruum lirlg Lands, re(lucmng or elmminaling frusl dantage, cieariy ara apprupriate risk rtlanagement slralegy. Such lields reyuire subslanlial labor i(11)015 ti) nlaitll^)u) lime farros' and canal systems. Cleanirlg lile soil out of lime dilches is not lust an additmunal tahur barden, huwever. Algae and other water planos grow in these water management structures, and tic rttucking out and deposititg uf thms rtlatermal un time asst)cialed ridges is ara enrmchmng or fertilmzing prucess. Accordingly, the ccurfc'iiurti's and c ut'itcts have Tour ttmajor functions: Io mauage ra)nfall, lo ;lruvide dr minage, to nu derate frota effects, and lo provmde natural fertmimzer. ^r,iq1t!ti^\ Capital lnpu^s Fertilizer ancf inlproved 5ced are time tmosl fre(iucnt capital inputs proposed hy constlting ;)gronurllisls, Fertilmzer is a crilieal contlx)rlent of productivity. I)etm;lntl fur allirlmal dung fur fertmimzer has tncreased whmle supplies have dccreased, with Ihe result dial crups are: recetving Iess ferttllzer I hacl IIl tele ilsl, In explanatmon, lhc sltm11 frmimo agro-pasl^)r fi tu more specializcd agricultmi tai ecurlonties has mncrcascd denland hmr dung hui, al the same )manee, resulted in fewcr ammmmlais tu produce lt. Pupulalmon growth, coupled svllll Ihe h ss 01 sttcil plan) fucls as yurc'fa (Ilruwrrlan mm.d.), has alsu resulted in incre;lsed dellmatd for anormal dung for fuel. Land dial was formnetly uses urliy fui br;)zing has heen brought under cultivalmon, enlarging time den(at t fur dung as ertmlmzer while curtailmng time asamiahie sui)illics. l:urlhcrmore, tulle intenso fan( use has lcd do tncrcased erosion; in time iluliviarl aitii)laflo, such erosion, in con junctmon wilh lack uf adequate

3 lo UAVIU L. W<UWMAN A,sro-Pastoral Ri;k Mattat;t^ nott in titt^ Central Attih^ ti-, tertililcr. has resultcd in an annu.ll decrease uf a perccnt in potato yietd (Augst1)urgcr 1'»3: 337). ('hcntical fertilizcrs could be us.: d Iu supplant ur replace Juno. As noted, huwever, (tic risks uf frost anj h;t.l dalnage are so great in uppcr-ctevation licltis th;) t thc pruducers scck tl. IUIOII11ILe loses by nnnintiling capit;ll Inl)uts there; Ilc incrcascd pussit Ic yicid by to Of fertilizer is t ore than utfscl by c;ipital lusses in cases.) f frust or hail (ranulge. "('he argutnent pro)t)scd hy Long and Ituherts (It);i4: 17O), that chemical fertilizcrs are n,,t used ht eause che asants havc no interest in expansion ol pruduction, Is false; such inputs sirttply are rtut cost-effective in uppcr -elevatiun liclds. Chenncal fertilizcrs alsu are incrcasinl ( y Cxpensive. In 1t)82, fur exatnple, a Lultivator had tu seli 1(5) percent more putatocs 11h10 in 1')111 in order lo purchase ttic sanee antuunl uf chet,tical fertilizer, wlide if animal Junio were uscd, unly 10 perccnt llore wats reyuired (Augsthurger 1953: 338). Furthcrnwre, hc org;lnic ma1rlx uf durtg heles tu ahsorh and [elaiu addi1iol li soil rltuistore, enh;lncing lis destr.^bilily in Chis lel1o - arid arca. \Ve ^huulij note in passing lhat clint;ttie stress results in highland Jurltestie anirtlals hcing nluch sltlaiier tha11 their k wland cuunlerparts ; accordingly, llore htghl,tlld are rtccessary lu produce 1 te s;tmc (luantilies of dung. \Ve-,terlt agrollululsl\ lave calcul ;tted Juno pruductiun rales al 25() kglyr fur Ittwland sheep, while Ihc actu;tl rtte;tsured pruductiun in Pulo i5 cluser tu hall uf 11111, all ;average (11' 1 12 kg'tir (hnapp l')k4: 172). Une allentpt lo intprove furage fur liveslock, and dung I^vaiI lhility, resoltcd in a serious agricul1ural peal. lo tite 19 4Os, kikuyo grass (f'enni; sc (tu,l t1uuiesrinlun ) was intruduted from Easl Africa. ' I'bis grass gruws rtpully and has a htrge ruot system. As a result, i1(luickly culoni'.es falluw agricultural fiel(is, and its extensive ruut system ntakes rcciainting cite lield lar crups cxceedingly difticult. It has;tdded substancial labor tu lield preparatiun and in sume creas has cause ) eultivaturs tu give up crupping in tite inv dcd lields altugether ( Skar 1 )2: 152). Ltivcstuck are freyuently pastured in tallowcte ) lields, fertilizing ihe field with tltetr druppings while scavcn p ng crup Sttilihlc, Sectorial f ;tlluwing is pracllced widely in the Andes under a nuuthcr uf nantes ( Iuy1:ti, ronco, uvnutja, n,t110y, (0, su)'o, rrrt I cu tlc 01.01, and utlers ; tvlayer 1983, Camino 19112). Under tite tradicional svstem, eaeh huusehold had from II) tu tul separare parcels in che variuus sectors, tlis mili-parceiiz ; tl un clearly hcing une uf tite ntechanisrns ol risk ntanagentent discussed ahove. Unly a 1) of Ihese lields were in actoe pruducli011 at any une time, che 1ettt tining heing in falluw, in a rttt;tted paltern. (; cnerally, tite falluw periud w;ts ('-1 years, a )eriud w11ich rtol (t111v allowed regeneraliun of ferlilily 1)141 ;uso irtsured tite death uf cert.rirt utsect vct:iurs, sucit as tite put,itu nctltatodes.. I'upulatton cxpansit,n, parttcui a tiy in tite Iast yuarter ccntury, has re- sulted in tite cti^táilllg or ahanjttnntcnt uf tite falluw periud itt flan)' zones, inercasing tite need fur capital inputs. Ferttitzcrs are nuw reyutred tu restare or maintain fcrtility in cunst,ttttly utilized hclds, and nos' utseetietdes are required tu curttroi netnatutles and uther inscet vectors. w itere^rtllo i5 still practiced, hutnan popal;ttitut inercase has ntea centratioos uf livesttx:k are nuw pasturcd un tite falluw tields. While these lields with their Juno, tucir heavy use retarás natura anirttais do terúlize tite regetterat1(111 ut tul y uf Ibc i eit ; lucir strip)ing Of vegetatwn atso Increases wiod anal water etusiun, and their of tite tield dccreases trurtpiing pcrmeahility (ti fue 5oi1. tite prtncipal develupwent teeh- Untti recently, itttl)ruvetl seed has heert nology pr( poscj. In hight;ut(l Peru, as eariy as P)5-t (S,tler tlt195. 2la )- agrununtisls had developed seetl strains tlll hed che )redicted Icvel. riculture prudut:tiun, hui yields stiil b,tve n t)t reac I l Ite irttpruved experitrtettt;tl yiclds rcy(iired sustantial c) Ilhulcl drs l `bh)r inputs and thtts cuul&i 1101 l)e re,tdily transferrcd tu tite tit cullivate titule th,ut t)ll percent ol Ihe ;tr;thli kttt?l ustrtg tr;ttliti(n;)i tech ttoiogy (I'antalcan Albino autl Artnguernt l) i. 22). I hese srtlall protluc ers, tite hulh uf tite rural ;t gocultural pupuiatt tt, base lintttcd c,tpttal resources and trust cutllpienlerlt thcir agricultural pro(luctiun with uther eeununtic activtties, such as tentporary nttgr;itiun. Therebtrc, opp0rturttty peen projectcd by devel- l'usi uf lucir tahur is also ntuch greater titan has opment 1)l tnncrs. Develupntent progrants ttftcn fucus on tnereastng harvest quanttly, tgnurirtg tite related issue uf crup quaitty. Intproved leed and use uf c.tpttal inputs such as fertilizers and pestietdes ntav result in higher yields, bttt researchers from tite Iltternational Patato Center fountl that se' eral of their highcr yiel(littg varieties were perceived hy consuntcrs to hc of secundary culinary qu;tlity and t11us cuntmanded substantialry lower market POats 1982: 12). 1f tite market quality uf tate nattvc patato ts considered alung with its superior resistance to disease, better storage char- priccs ( thcn traditional acteristics, and lower capital input retluirenteots, technolugy tnay provc to hc more cosí -el lcetive than is tite modem technolugy. Sharing Land Access A^signilicartt ;uttuunt uf risk reductiott i5 aclieved thrttugh tito nractice 01 partir, wa :t, upar uf siidring pruducuun risks. 'I bis system, known as ('t^rt(t, t ltikrtt^t.,rtirtutt'ros, 111ttjrrv 1)u ttr), rv1)t ),rlii0, and otiter terrns I [3rOwntan 1)83, 198.1; Urday (uttcha 1982: t)o), ttttoives tite capitai utpuilantl, seca, and fertilizer) heing )rovidcd by onc individual and tite I^hor by attuther; che harvest is s11ared 511:511. Wlile Chis i5 a tradtttonal system, long -- DAVID L. UROWMAN uttlized in rural villages, it Itas O1)viaus attraetions fur modem investurs hl,tllt)n (1')8 :3: 318) rei ) urts Ihat nterehants increasingly are renting I;utd ante pruviding set:), white I; ndless teas;tttts pruv' ide tite Ittbur iess return than half, often fur ul tite h.tnesl. Laod;dsu nt;ty be (/ttjnoc-cu) tentpttrarily pawrted in surte ;Ireas ( Laile 1'184), allt wing Ihe cultivatur to secare tite tteeess;tty ca1ti1;ti fur ag ricuil pral inputs un utlcr IielJs. Sturage Storage luss of tubers in che Andes lrollahle was traditionaliy ole uf tite uncu risks, with avcrage pust - harvest pcsis and lusses uf 25-31) percent due lo spoihtge (Ktt tpp 19fi ; 215). Seed putatt, t ften tended lhat survived lo be uf luw 1 ti5 sturage (111;.lita. lrrtpn )vej low-ct)st stt,rage fur has bcrn tite major pot;ttues develupntcnt projeel suecess in Ihe Anales, In out otity reduced pest ata resultin sptniage lunes 1)111 ulsu a seed tuher witl be1ter viahiitty and bet ter gro'tth chartcteristies. This techsoloby transfcrrcd has beca to other arcas wilh etlual succcss -- fur cxant Ipl>utrs, where ImI)101!0! sc(.( 1 )Ic ^ the I hll ' s,)ra b (.^ resulted it seed witlt a 23 perccrtl gre;tter yteid prr untt plan ed I(hu:ldes cl al. 1983: 1.1), and tu Sri L^rttka where it surte Iban duuhled Ihe yickis ( Rhoadcs 1')8.1,t: 15). In ca:ii'r,t 1tentpts tu tmpr (tvc ytelds, rece;trchers acarea ihe lhe cause, syrttptunts ralher luan f^ttlirtg lo re,tlize ri,at Ihe pwblcnt was tul st) I1 t (levelul) Ing utpruvcd seedas il ovas uf develo tin g Ihe lec t t( una, ry lu Itatnl,lin.red, I;^)ult,lf,y tttnucss,lry from seas( t tal seasun. `C'he aj stkial sctcnttsts )t.^hluck lar and agrunurlti,,ts invulvcd was Ih^tl t bf)iunthj upnlcnr strltegies tronl lheir 0~011 cree olio 111 pruposcd dcvel- 1'Jh3, 1'); Ilhoa(lcs I'18ah) r:tthcr)1h^ I 11 Uf 1110 pfohit:lll (sec liurtun an fruts Ihc pruducers perceptius. Agrarian Rcfo ; m Impacr us Agricultur1 On lhe cuasi 0f Peru anal in thc temperare andluw Ihe agrarias I'tn(f valle y t) ul I3 I^ lroiaresullcd In tntpruvcd pruduclit^n per cullivacetj. 1o t 1 re(ornt which d;ite (rom 1t)53 in uoiivi a al)tl 1 t)( tn r.ruhuth a,untrics, im ur tt. I)tbhlands u( howevcr, che rclurn)s hall realer Iban produclive spheres l,lnct; In che sucia) ; highl:uta acricultural sur lu.^ on I ) ruducllun (^ur Junio, Peru, Lung and ( IucllncJ, Itubt:rts (l!)}{,l, 253 ) re p ha 111 tuhcr pruduciiun in 1 1)1(I (u 1(^I ^ drup Irum 215,1)IH1 (XXI ha ln 11)76 In I uno, Pero 1 terrera (19i2 :,'rantayo 130) reponed a drup in potato pruduction 1rom 1'hI,IKNI niclric and a (Jrup ul (:heno )ud rl 31HI,INIII lu lu O,IHKI ntelric.1^ l., ; 6 n pruductit )u froto 23,IN111 bits. ln 13uhvi,t ht ;tker and Wennergl en (1')82: 41)) repon sistilar drups in hilhland ( wt ` uher and grain pruductiun (lurirtb g Ihc first Oevades uf cite agrarias relurrn. Long and Rtlberts (I')8a ) attril^utc ihe tlrop in gruss production in hibit- Agro-!'asrt ral Ktsk 'lastt t;t,icnr 111 tlt l.tntrai A1u1t tris huid Pera to a pcrceive(i ntarked mercase in pruductiun un tite coast under tite agrarian refurrtt, and taus a decreased peed fur highland agricultura) prujuctiun. Whitaker and'veuoer gren (1982) attrihute the Jrop in hectares itt prttd(tct On in 13ttlívt t tu a " f;tnt; sttc incrcase ' in per hectare production, re(uiring Icss latid fur tite salve yteid. I luwever, h1u11ck ( 1')8.1: 3o) récords a drup in agrtcuiture as a coutputtcnt uf (;1) P from 18 to 8 PCECCrt1 from lybil tu 1)811 in Peru, and troto 20 tu Ili percent in t3ultvía fur the salte periud. Severa) authurities (lave notetl that I'cnt and Ilttlivi;t liase shiltcd fruti) Ihe status ol fuod-cxi 1 ttg tu fuud - irrtpurting countries. )`'hile Lung and Ituhcrts (198.1) and 1Vhitakcr and `Vet utergren (1')82) hace argued lit;it pruductiun incrcascd in che higitlatnls, tite actual st1uatiun has deterioraied during ale (ast tiuartcr -century. l'l e hasic causes fur titis decline are subsumed under the analytical eategury uf socictal risk. { toth Peru anal iiulivia tustttutcd stabdtlatiun policics that adverscly affected tite dcveiupnlent and expansiun of agoculutre. I-ow lixed prices fur staples were esiablished fur tite urban cunsunters, and erice suppurts were instituled, subsidizing istpurts, in orden tu maintain prive cuutruis. `1'he result of (hese prive cottrois was a decline in return un investtncnts tu agricuitural pruducers. In Peru, highland producers freg ttettly fousd chal iheir pruductiun costs were hitghcr (han tite rnatket return in Ihe urb;tn cenlers, in response, they cut back productiun (Bruwntan 1')h4: 31')). l'he state puitcy dcctsiun lo maintain low bread cusls it Lima, fur exattpie, has resulled in Ihe replacettcrt1 uf must of che Peruvian wheat productiurt hy low-cust U.S. impurts (('laverias 1tt l3b: 51). In short, che decrease in highland 1 ) rt)t1uctll It was out dite lu gre11cr lowland pruductiurt hui prttnt;trily to tite pruducers' inahility tu SCCllle an adc ( Ittatc retu(tt (Itt ihetr t.'t)iltltlt)lilllt's. Prive cuniruis were siricter fur Ihe large cu tslal urh :tn arcas. such as l.inta, iban in Ihe highland urban arcas, such as tite city uf Tuno, where prices were as ntuch as -)II perccnt highcr (Alhcris )')1;3: 24(t). A nt:tjor result ul Ihe )rice curttrois was a 1ratsfcr of surphts utlt of :tgncultti re hy suhsidtuing urban intiustti.ti labor thruttgh cheap fuud 1) ces (a Is)licy goal uf Ihc Peruvian refurtn guvcrnstertt ), 1iots irrnslornling agtteuitura1 asseis init) itdustrial captt lal (sec Ilruwttlan 1')84 ). r\iuttg ihe horder reetons, fuod prive cuntruis havc scrved lo subsidize pruducers atd cotsumers in neighburing countries. If local fut 11 priccs are higher than teruss tite horder, fc)od is süt..''g i1 m (suhsidizitg fureign producers ); i1 lixed prices are )ower tetan aerrss tite borden, then fuud is smuggled out (henehtting fureign cotsumers ). I^urh praclices tend lu raise tite prive of tit)ntesti C re)ative Lo intpurted foutl : in Ihe lirst case Ihe euntpelilt ( n uf luwer - priced, imporied 100(1 de c{eas (; y sales of lucai prujuction, driv 1111) up c tsts; at o.) in ihe sccond case the i ure uf che higher yicld uf iilegal transactions un tite biuck tnarket reduces iitlocatl foud suppiy, once aga in drivtng up local prices.

4 top DAVID L. prowman A,'ru-I'tr,tural Ili>k hl,rrt,i t rrier11 irr!lit' Ccntr rl An I,'s 183 Agrar1) rcforms can focos cither un inrreasiug pnh uction or un ac cou,l,lishirlg etluity in acccss (1) prutluclive relourccs. 13uth Peru and Ilulivia ÍUCUSSetl Oil IanJ redistribtltiun as the prime gu;il. A hasic assuntption was 1t it inlprovctl access lo or Ct Uru) of (and wuuld result in greater gruss a);ricultural prt)ductivily, ;u)d IIu Chis grcatcr pr()(iuctivity wuutd tr;utslate d^reclly intt) cununcnsurttc ''surplus' chal eould he cxiractcd to suppt)rt che industrial sector and urhan poputace. In general, thcrc is assuntcd to he low elalstici1y in de iuir I fnr ft)uti, pul in 1)01h cuuntrics 1here was a highcr cl;lsucíty in dcntand for fooj Iban was supl)usetl; increascd productivity in che agriculturtl s:ctor was offset in part hy highcr internal COUSumptiort by Ihe dumcstic farro units (('1iI'AL I9H2: U); Alheris 1')83; IO5; tiruwrtran 1')8.1: 3.!'5), wf:tch mean( th;tt inrpruvcntenls in yields did out translatc dircctly mr) comparable incremerr(s in surplus. Othcr govcrnsnental pulicies also werc pan( of Ihe sucictal risk faced by che snr;cll pruducers. Witht)ut detailing all tllc aspeets, thc salient guvernntent pt IíciCS resulting in socictal risk are as follows. First, hoth Pero asid Bolivia fucussed agricultura( lu;lns un clic agri-husincss cctor; Ihc ssitall pru(lucers, Ihe fiajurily uf Ihc highland pcas;uus, lacked atlctluatc credit acccss (ltrowrnan 1')84: 318, 32-1 ), Secund, loreign 1rtde pulicies trat have kepí high intport duties on ferti:izer and agricultural equipnscnt Nave priced thesc goods heyund the reach u)f s n;rll producers. 1'hird, guverntnent Enpon SUhStiluliun pulicies Nave Kcnerally ignured peslicides and fertilizcrs, nrost uf which are still impurted al )rices ahoye che financia( reach of tttc snt; II projucers. Foursti. in)plementation uf expropriation undcr che agrrrt;trt refurnts Ittuk several ye;rrs fur che large rcfurm cooperarives, alluiving Ite prevruus owrters tu decapita,lize Ibe prt I)erties, rcducing Itic pn)ductivc c;tp;lbililies uf oven time agri-hu^iness concerns in che highland. hiftti, pul icies estahlishing govcrnnresit C operatives failed tu achievc lncmhcr identificabon wirh and cornlrtll1)iclll ti) lhenr, resulting in less Iban expccted yichts; fur cxantplc, in Puno, cu, perative rnenthcrs (sr)eius) were pruducing che sarne yicld in unc-fuurih clay un their privare parceis as they were pnxlucing (ur ttic cntcrprise during Ihc rcn)aining threc-hiurths tiay (Claverias 1')) ; 1211). Sixitr, lack of infra siructure (ruads and ti insport systern, r1)furmasiun nctworks, cte.) restilted in peor access to nrlrkets fur all pruduccrs. Ileduction oí thcse sorts uf sucielal risk (thuse (Iue to government pulicies) is diflicult fur clic highlartd producers, hecause lhey raye relatively 1ittle política) vuicc in n;)tion;rl a fairs. Itather, their majar sirategy appears to be to avuid capital inputs in arder tu ntininlize lusses uwing tu (hese 11)11 uthcr uncontrollahlc risks. G()vcrnnrensa) dcvelulrhn:nt t olictc-i do not huld rnuch prl ntise fur risk rcductrun in thc fulurc.!n Pero, thc Novennccr I(, 1')82, I)ccreto Ley Nunt. 2 csscntially paved che w 1y t^ r t te dissolutrun uf pi oduclive coopcra(ivcs tt) Itic highlarlds and ^heir restrucluring through parcelizatiott, Currcnt capital inputs favor tre (urge corita( agri husincsscs. Thc govcrnnunt has invested in costly, long-tcrnt irrigations prt)jcct, such as thc Chira- I'iura and Nlajes prujects, resutting in time decapilalization uf short- and median)-ternt projects (Scltydluwsky and 1Vrcht 1')83: I (4). Wttltakcr asid Wcnnergtcn ( t982: 235) sketch un ctlually pessituistic scenariu for Bolivia. In fact. sucictal risk appears tu he increasing tus time futuro; a cont.urrent increase in applicatiun of risk reduction stralegies to COpc with tt hy time highland ptuduccrs shuuld uccur. HERDING RISK MANAGMENT Environmenta( Risk Thc prinlary lirniting factor for herir nrurlgentent is funge, and funge management tcchnitlucs are prinrarily thrt ugh stocking strategtes. Until roughly time last tluarter ccntury (and continuing in sume isolated arcas thruugh time present tinte), "cornntt)rt'' or "open" pastare has hcen carcfully murriturcd hy time hcrdcrs and herd n tnrhers huye hecn adjustcd accordingly (Brownran l')83: 2.13, 1984: 3(.1). Few pastures werc truly "cunuuon " as specilic houschold gruups exercised usufruct rights thrt)ugh proptnqurty or use ((3rowman 1974: 193).'Ihe rcccrrt tren) tuward priv,lttzatton of (asid asid de-communaliz;ltiun of pasturc rutatiun and sectorial fallowing lands, bruught ahuut by population pressures and governnlcnt pulicies, has reducid access uf (asid fur stock and Icd to incrcased cnvirunmental risk. Ovcrgrazing siot unly reduces net productivity hui results in increascd growlh ul toxie pl,rnis asid incrcased erosiun, rtcgativcly atfccting carrytng capacity. Stocking dccisions fur nlaxinlunt pruductiun depcnd un unes delinition uf appruprtate yield. At Itic Pcruvian govcrnrnent's Pan)p;i Galeras reserve, Iwu dilfcrcnt stocking rases were inlplemented- une of 0.33 he;at'lia and thc oshcr a1 Il.6() hrid/ha. At che luwcr stock ing rate, woul and n)cat pruductiun per animal wats beuer bus pruductiun per hcctare was lower. Woul pruductiun as the (uwcr stucking rate wats (1.7(1 kg/ha and (1.81) kglha at thc highcr stocking ratea ntcat pruductiun was 1.0')1 kg/h;1 versus kg/ha, respectively (Calle Escorar 1982: 7f1). Obviously, nlaxinlizirlg yield per rcctarc resulls in diffcrcrtt stueking dccisiuns than m;ixrmtzrng yield per arrima((. "Overstocking" appears tu bc a uscful risk management strategy; (hc larger herd nuntbcrs not unly alluw rapid approprs;rtc responses so druugl t ur )anima situarions asid pruvidc added sccurrty ro cerros uf hcing ablc tu bundle cither increascd ofi-takcs or increascd losscs, but time average pruductivity per unir of (asid is greater undcr Chis stratezy. I)ruught 'ir precipisatiun inadeyuaey SS generally mct in time highlands 114 DAVID L. UI^OWMAN by rnuvcnu'nl stratcgier., that is, shifting pasturc usargc to take advantage uf locally ;lhund;tnt ruin rt,wcrs sir pernr;urenl water resuurces. Andan rcrders raye develc 1)Cd 1s. iddiiiun;ll Iechti ical strattegies tu nlanage water stress. 'Ihe lirst is tic cunstructiun uf 1)rnrt:,sien( ñrarr;h arcas (Ihe pre- (erred (unge plrysil^lypc (ur time natire carnelicl spccies), Iucally Ierrned ho/dalc's, /)turturo'., uc /rn., r 'tr 'l!(ts, and (/OCJ!^,s (lirt wrir un t9ti3: 243); thc SCCt)nJ rs tu prt)vrde scasort;lt itrigatiun, tcrrtled (/ur )rl ' ur res^utl'ir "ri,uru! (I I1)1CS (hitu;1 I`)i-I: 2112), fu nariii1 iin ycar-round pruductiun uf succulcsrt gr;tsscs. fluth of these sirategies erlhance lhc local carrying c;lpacity. I unge erlhancenlcnt Iir; ilsu hecn attcnipicd tliruugh bursting and gr;iz tng. A nrc dcrately grazed licld Izas highcr artnual biuntass yielj chala in ungrazed p;lsttire hec;rlr,c grrzing pressurc incrcases ;rhuve-gruund pruductiun ( Risser et rl. 11)131: 31')), 'I'bis incrcased surf;icc growth, ht,wever, is currclated with rcduced rout pruductiun and reduced fuod reserves. Ordinarily, ur tcr cunditi:)rrs of muisture stress (druugtrt), vegetalive gruwtls is supl)ressctf in fa'rur uf rout gruw h. Since grazing reduces ruot bitlnlass, Ihc cflecl uf muisture stress is ntagnilicd, wirh greiter uvera(( (or;rge losscs. Thus, highcr app;rrcnt foragc bir)nl;rss yicld under a nloderate grazrrrb slrategy is cuuplcd with Iliglier drt ught risk. rlnnu,il hurning t)l grating aireas is a tretluerrl rtt^lnagenterll stralcgy etllpluyed by time I';itla)cs Aytu ira herrlers t s ii ketl wirh arr und L,ike 'l ittt:;ic i, Used ;rt lertglhy irttervals (5--II) yc;trs), lire c;ul he ;ril apprupriate nlan^igenlellt tuol tu clinuuate untlesirahie tu ti uals ^itl(1 woudy shrubs chal frcrlucrrtly invade uvcrgrazcd licltls. Ilul arlnual hurnirrg is untlesirahle; it reduces hutti total t)ionr;tss (11r;rbg 1t)78: 252) and soil ni trugcn corltcnt (Whysurlg and 1leislcr 1'178: b')7), resulting in reduc-d carrying capieity. Nloreover, In;1ny grtsslarrds are tau he,rviiy grazcd fur l'trc tu he a uulul managenlerrt tool (`'right 1978: b')1), as is (he case anlong the l1i ajes Aynrira, where annual burrling lrequcntly involved (ighting indivitlti ti clumps uf u1w grass, hecause therc Is IIUI sullieierlt Iltter uti (hc gruund even ta carry time llames fn.nl clunlp tu clunlp, l1) additiun tu (unge ur raovcnrcnt stratcgies, stockirlg rates nt iy uso he utrlizctl ;ts a nranagcnrent techlii jue tu dca1 wirh risk associated v i(h nluisturc Insutljcicncy. Sanfnrtl ( It)82) has ideiti lied twu stuckirlg stratcgies cunrmunly cnlpluyetl: att uppurtunistic al)pruach, i 1 which livcstuck numbers vary with time availahility uf funge, and a conservative appruach, in whrch stc cking ls kept al a cunstant rate. Ihc cunservaiive strategy ís argued Iu havc high custs, hccausc iu sume years Ihc li rage is undcrutilized and In othcrs is overutjlized. 13ut in tcrnts uf risk r1l;tnagct11ent arllorlg An(lcan hcrdcrs, Ilos secund siratcg,' is prelerred, hccausc if a perder de-stocks, lic u out afile ti) re-stock (a,t crtouglu alter a droughudc-slucking tu take approl)riaic advarltage u( tti pruved cundilrt)ns. 1lerders witlt (urge nunii ers o( anirn;ils are at an utlvaiit:ugc do ring A'ro-15.r>tar rl Risk hl,rrr,rt^ernt'nt in tlrt' Cintra! Andes 185 druugtrts as cuntpared su ti snr;tll hcrdcrs. Lvcn during good tintes, (he snrall perder rtrust eng;,gc in oulsidc labor (Icntpur;rry ttrigration) or nlarket up1)urturrities (1)1:11)' ct;ill prull rctio r. tr;rnspurting and speculaling in subst^lencc c1,rllrnl)drltcs, cte. ) It srlrvrve, and rs r,rr;,hle ttl;rticnd lit tris arrrrnals ;15 c;rrctully as clic rich rerdcr tvhu si;nys wirh bis tlr cks. Thus, during a druught, Irc snrall perder is out able ru cntplt)y nlanagcrtrerlt decisiuns thai tivuuli casare survly;ll t)i che niaxirtntrrr rlunihe r ol herd ;ttlirrtals; hc is unahle iu irrlplcnrcrrt apl)rnl)ri;,tc rlu vcntcnt slraiegies al critical n unlcnls to take advaullage mil a1) ephersreral shower, tu prutcct Ihe henil fruto in incoming stc)rnt, etc., as he is u ken away frunt tris hcrds hy time peed to engage in tahur or mal kcl aclivity. lusses fur rietr versus pour I'atlajcs Aynrara herders during time (ast druught are similar tu thusc cxpcricnccd hy (urge versus snrall pasturalists in ulher unid tuncs. ('Oí cxani1)lc, in Kenya during the (Irougris ul Ihc n)iddle 1970s, rich Maasai luerders sol lercd losscs of 42 percent uf (lucir anita;ds, while snrall Maasai hcrders liad losscs uf 52 pcrccnt (Sandlt)rd (')87: 75); and losscs fur rich Galole Orma hcrders were 51) pcrt:cnl, whilc lusses fur pour (atine Ornla hcrders reached 74 percerlt (I:rlsrlringct 1)8.1: ( Sinlil,rr )allcrns ate obscrvcd in Ihe highlands uf I'eru and Ilulivia, where drouglil resullcd in Ihc translerence, cunecnlratiun, ;rnll rcnlr.rliz,lliun ul we;tllli anrurlg Ihc ricli hcrders and irlcrcasing intensa) thllercrlli;riinn anrong Ihc Ilcrdurg gruups, Ouisirlc labor m,ukels rtlay dccrcasc as a result uf druught, aggravating Ihc rlr;rrgina1 posti urt ul Ihc sntall hcrtlcr. A freyuenl risk managemctll SIratcgy is tlt;11 uf e irrting supplerrtcnlary irtcunre 1loorlbll seasonal tibor nligratiun lu che mines, urhan centers, l)r Ihc cuasi, ucnlarld fur labor is rcduced in thc tilines asid urhan centcrs during droughts hccausc uf depressed ccoo tire cunditions. "FIie agricultur,rl mista) arcas usually can absurh signilicant qu,ttliliics uf addilional labor, bu( during Ihc l1)83 highlarld druught, Ihc I'cruvian coas( sulfcred a coincidcntal cnvironnunial dis^ister, Ihc drartláttic LI Niuo Southcrn Oscdlauun, which eliminated seasunal labor nligratioa I(iere as a possih(e risk nlan;lgenlent strategy fur hcrdcrs during (bis pcri))d. "1 hc slrategy etnpluyed hy nlany uf Ihc snrall herrlers was a shilt tu ctotagc-industry pruductiun and nlllrkcting (as deserihed heluw). 1 he normal herd ulf-cake rato in the highlands is 1(I-12 percent.'during time druught, pastare was reduccd more (han 5(1 percenl, and carryirlg capreity averages in I'slnu dropped fruta 1. 2 iii)tu tl ir ilslha tu (I.4-II.6 animal unils ( I';rretlcs 11)83: 1 I(I; ('oulrmira l3cduya 1')83: 1-1 1).' Dc-stucking was ncccssary lar nrrlty hcrdcrs, pul hccausc uf Ihc nlassrve sale, priccs ldl llr;ratic:rlly. With che return u normad precipitatíun p;rrtcrns, iheft and rusttrnc risk is grcally increascd. Nut unly did hcrdcrs necd o re-stock more ral)itlly (han n^ tura1 repruductiun w))uld alluw, hui hccausc r)f Ihe reduccd herd nuulbers, wuul pruductiun was duwn and woul prives nluch

5 -'Avru L. LJKUWMAN uíghcr, rnaking ruslling particul a rly prolitahlc in thc 1')84 shearing seasun ('fcrry \Vesl, I)c rst)nal cummunlcatjun), Brenca and 1 )c\vit (1)'3: 1345) have proponed an interesting ntanagcntent strategy for )tur.cl are;ts Ihtt receive Iess iban SIXI aun uf prccipitatiuo : Innually, which wúuld include the greater purtion of Ihe I'eruvian and 1Ji JIVian inghland hcrd, ng arcas. As a ntcchanisin lo (Jetl with drought risk, as wc ) I as che I ) ' pro 1 active capabilities uf tic t)aslii rc ( and, 1ttrs, low as well as dclayed gruwth ratos for livestuck), they suggest ntairllaining unly hrccciing stock in Ihe^c arcas and taking Ihe young ;u ) irnals lu arcas uf highcr precipitation tu (;aten for rnarkct-as is done currcntly in Ihc Unitcil Slatcs, and, tu a linoitcd extent, vu1i catite around Lakc -) iticaca. 1c t)ropusatl appcars lo h tvc prutnisc hut wúuld rccguirc iml)ruvemcnts in (he infrastructure hefute it cuuld be succcsslully iotplcntcntcd. Technical Risk (Alpaca vs. Shcep) Choice of herd stock in che high Andes carnes with t lechnical managentcnt problcnts. Thc nativo herd anin als ( alpaca, llama ) have pruductive advanlages Ihat ntust bc balanccd against thc rnarkct advantagcs of che iruroduccd dontcsticatcs (sheep, guats, hugs, canje). As 1 have discusscd clscwhcrc (IJrowrna1983, 1984 ), che ti ve cantelids can rnctab olize Ihe high ccl1uluse pasture in che hjghlands with a 1( )-5() pcrccnt greater cllicicncy, have substantiall^' luwer retes uf tourtality duo tu environtncntal slress, and have highcr feo lily retes. 'I'hcse advantagcs were particularly cvtdenl in thc 191{2-83 druut;ht. C;Ittle and sheep múrtatity ratos in I'unu were 20 pe rccnt, while ( he cameljd cate was unly 5 pcrccnt; mead k ss in cable and sheep was 4t) pcrccnt, whjle noc at k)ss in dhe alpaca was 3O perccnt; ;and sheep wool luss Wats 3(J perccnt, ss le alpaca 5v( 01 luss was but IO lkrccnt (I'inazu 11. 1)113: lt)o; Cuacguira Ilcduya 1983: 142). In additiun, alpaca wuul t)riccs have beca as ouch as -4(5) l ercent greater dita sheep woul (flores Ochoa 1')84: 219). 1o cerros of guuduction, a sltift frun cante and sheep lu jndil,enutts livestuck wuuld apputr tu be indicatet1 by these ligures. In cenos ol n;ttional ;and world ntarkets, huwever, tic intruduecd stock have greater econutoic utiltty. llecf and molino are in ntuch greater demand thao is can )elid meat. 'Diere are bota cultural anc) elass stigntas at1acheel lo cocal trust Ihc trtdigertous dock; oven though carnclid local eonsutn ) tiurt has increased in tic last decide, it is toosi freyuently sold euphenotstieally as "cuate del pace " ( natiunal tteat ). Sinoilarly, though alpaca wuul cumrnancls a signilic;cntly greater rnarkct prive tito sheep wool, the dentand for sheep wool ts substanttally higher in tite internation;rl ntarket. Several attcntpts have heert madc to enhance tic produetivity of tite introdueed stock. A major cuntpunent of agrariart refornt funds for live- stock dcvelt pntent jo fono, Pero, were applted It ) importing thousands of sheep of jntprovcd var etles ( II rowtoan 1)83 : 244,1984: 31S). hlost of there anint; is succunthc(i to envin ) nnutttal stress ; che survivors pruduced either 10 bet ter or nu tlore thaut II) percent hacer than the local criollo varey. I hese "itnpruved '' sheet) hrceds are dso more suscct)tibie ru disease. (In fact, in suote arcas of I'eru diere are strong local ) c)scriptions against hringiog it uutsidc stock, as thcy increase local disease risk.) Reccntiy introdiiced irttpr()ved sheep stock in Junio etiere found tu reyuirc lave tiene cure ceretge l)er head Ihan che loca) crispo Vaocty (Can pana and R ver,t 1')1i t: 97). 'I iius, frun tic Andcatc herder's pcrspcc:tive, tc luisit0)0 of in prc ved stock ntay hc ccúouioic cily irrationai. Othcr techrticatl inputs tisú nty he perceived as heirtg economically irractional, as recluiring gre;ttcr capital inputs and greater risk Ihan return. I )r exantple, in Irpa (.'hice), Uctiivia, ('atrtcr atol fvlantar t (1982: 11 S) report hat tite cherttictls for Ihe anti - tif7iñ c livestuck bath eost more t tan the perceived aninttl lusses, so tite nutnigentenl techniciuc was ahtndoned. Another devclut)ntent ohsttele is Aymara herders' strong cultural preseriptjurts ;thout appropriutc mate-fenttle, fanttly-outsider rciationships. l ie fact that agricuhural extensiun ;tgcnts are cxciusivcly tale, whtle herders, parrtieularly atrtu tng tite agro pastoral groups, are often female, severely lintits access of there herders tu infurntttton froto extenston agents (and vise versal). l:ront an econonty -of-,cale pcrspeettve, an improvcrnent in the shearing schedulirtg wuuld erthance wool returns; ( ahor toig',ht he toorc effeettveiy utilized, capital jnt)uts justilied, etc. Campana anee l(cvera ( 1')84: 94) go su far a5 ti) arrue that die ahscrtce of systentatic shearing; is a tnajor cause of Lite lack uf al^prol)rjate ecúot)inle relato ot sheep IIt I'cnt. Their artalysis ignores ihc ftct thact clic; infrlstructure fur trutsp^)rtttiút and marketing such a ntassive shearing; is I:aktng; herders wuuld erpericnce sturage and tr;tnst)uri pruhie ts and incrcased marketing risk uncier this propusal. Cato pana atol R veras suggcst 0 0 teso ignores che fact that herders are svell aware uf ntarket priccs alud often dcliheratcly huid back woitl (by leaving it 1)0 tite animal ) tú atwait ato cuerease in wo^cl priccs. ll tcnns uf econolrtyui-sale ntatket pcrspccttvcs (wiether cat)italist or Macrxist), che capital inpttts for schedulcd shearing are rattonad ; in ternos of local Andean Perspcctives of risk noutagntett, huwever, such eco ttc)rnic proposals are irration:cl. Cuoperative Risk (wak'i) As with cultiv;ttors, sltaring risk is une of tite mcchantsms of risk averston used by livestuck uwncrs. (uoperattve sh;lrelterding (ternted wak'i, Kuaqui, al partir, corrtparüa, cltikaru, and other local narnes) ts perceived as un $J1 YIU L.' DtWVVMAN equal shartng of invcstntents and yields, as a rnecuanistn for sharing risks ;ts well as for exploiting pru.iucttve extraetive strategies uthcrwisc tos avail- ;thle tu tite tndts'tdual lu ust huld hec ;tuse uf labor nr capital shortfalls. One tndtvtdual provtdes cite Itvesluck whde the sc:cond provides tite labor (and, often, s pcct;tijzed lechnical skilis), alluwirtg cite fuel-tirite hcrder to entploy tite ntost eiiecttve antntal ntanagettteltt strategies ( see llruwrnan 1983, 198.1). 'fuere are a variety uf othcr, (css widely empluyctl stratcgies of cooper.cttvely spreading hcrdtrtg risk utilized by agro paslural ami pastoral comntunities ( ljr)wtn,tn 1974, 1.)79; McCorkle 1)82, 1')83), such as "rnajt)rily paslurirtg," )urtt) eslurtcilr,"' tnixed pasluring," ele. 'fuese Invulve varu)us nttxes uf labor inputs;rnd rana nagcttcnt strategtes tailored tu local condittons and tu labor and capital av.tilahility. I`lobtltty Stratcgies Two ntigratory possthlilies, used hy Anrlcan herders for cenluries ((irowtlhltr i d.) fur securtng, addtlional CCt )Itl Illlt: inputs, ate avaiiahle It) cultivators anc! nttxed agro-1)ast^ ralisi5 perntanen1 etittgra1iort and tentpurary seasonal tttugral Oil. In Ihe pase ; s weu as Ihc presen1, herders prelcr 11) wurk fur f;irnters anal entl)luyers who pay fur seasonal labor witi goods raptor Ihan c;tstt. [hese.e aull;tl rtltgraltort arrangeotcttts were oflen institutlonallzed co Ihe (ornt of liclive kinshjp rciationships ( compadrazgo, Ur gudparcrtthuud ) establis)led bclwcen ntigrant and cttployer ; such reja llt)rlships were oflen Iti lle,tlcd pu rilinc,cuy. 'fuday, 1hese duasi-kit relalronshlps are disappearrrag;, lit para hecause new ntarket itt(raslruc(ure otakes ti advantageuus tc)r 1 ie cntl )loyers Io pay e tsh. Casi payntcnls are less Ihan Ihe vahre ul Ihc goods tradilionaiiy exchanged, anal in ad litiutt alluw Ihc; crnpluycr lo ;tvui;l accutnulating ohlig,tliuns of reciprocas aid tccitt red under Ihe CUR paclrutgo systeto. Scasonal labor has shtited fron ) rural-tu-rural patterrts tu rural-to-urban pacieras for ntany of tite herders, suruetimes resulling jn semi-perro cttent ecncgra1 oil, 1 ha1 is, entigra1con lo tite urhan ;creas not fur j st a seasun but fur severa) years. 1(isk management in Ihis case cuncerns risk in lernts uf lirtdirtg )ut)s. Migrants are aided in this (luesl by a tvide rango of urban extended kit, workntate, village club, attd pcrúarro netwo )rks (see Note G), coito 1uUy ternted '' urban tril olmo'by Laico ( 1)81: 15!). seasonal ntigratiun is out u^.ed as a Inanagentcnl strategy l)y ale highland pruducers, Sume linancial re:;rve (fur trruspurtatiun, suhsislettce, etc.) is reyutred lo employ 1 lis ) iittrt; iherefure, Ihe puurest herders are unable lu ccici te it. 1Vcallhy hcrder; du not engag;e in seasun;cl erltigratiut as a raparte;rgcntcnl si rategy'as ttf len as do les wcll olf herders, bec;tuse, as oled cibuve, seasun; I ctnigr:ttiun rnay ren uve Ihe hcrder at critica( periuds, A,''ru-1'astorctl Risk Ala Irtge ne r irt the Central Ancles 189 preventing him froto intplententing management decisions that optjtoize off-take frorn livestuck; thus, tite rich hcrder avoids seasonal ntjgratjun tf he js afile. The ntigrant laborers are not transfurming thetoselves julo a rural proletaritt, sinee the reproductton of the mtgrant labor force oceurs printarily outside uf the etoployrnent sector. Even though there is sonde internal social and economic differentiation and some fureed cornmerciali'liitiun, and although lhe pe; s;rttl pruducer is obliged tu cooperatc with other ltuuscholds, lo dt:velup a pctty-ntarkcl orientados, or lo mígrate seasonally tu liad entpluynlent, tite houschold 1naintains control over a portiurt of ils uwn suhsislcnce oecds. ` izas, tic small prociucer is rtot contplctely scparated fruto tite nteans of productiun. Ecrr pure pasloralisls in semi - arid and arid pasture iones, lhe most obvious rrtobclity strategy is that of herd touventent to take advantage of locally occurring precipitatiun and forage. WItIt otcreastltg populattort growlh, horder-crossing prohibilions, privalizatiun of lands, etc., such ntoventent Is now a Iess atvailahle strategy, allhougi it is slip utilized hy hcrelcts, where possihle, lo avuid pruductiun risks. hor tnstance, hecausc dita tea is che ata jor cause of uturlah1y fur boli alpaca and sheep nconates, herders nto ve 1 te Ilucks boto hc;tvily ulilized I),t,ture arcas (where discasecausing ntidro-uig;odiseas are enciende) lo) less uttitied 1 astures during tite bitih seasun it order tu nuttttoize lusses froto tics vector. 1lighcr neonato lusses are aisu une uf 1ltc f;cctors leaciing agro-pasturalists lo altentpl lo insttlute share-herding arrangentents. Mctvernenl is recogntzed as neccssary fur lhe general hcaitla uf' (he Uock, because it resulis in gencrally greater forage availabilily and helps tite antmals lo avoid toxic weeds, which oftcn prt liferale un overgraied pastures. Movemcnt as risk avoidance ntust he halanccd ag;unsl UII)er risk faclors ; with tic increased incidence of thefl and ruslling in Ihe ltighlands fc Ilowing che 1') 82-ti3 drought, herds are being rttatrtl ;cincd un p;tslures ur fallo+v lields dase lo seltlements for protectiurt, oven though thjs g)r;tetjce leads to extensivo over -grazjng of there lields. lit lhis case, the preventiort uf thefl is more itnportant Ihan tite knowlt bol lesser risks front failure lo utilize appropriate ntobility strategies 1u avuid ntunccdcty anal rttortaltty. VNaclchu anc! Societal Risk - lncreasc uf ' ttur/(bo' ' was a rttajur slralegy cntplo ycd hy che herders in che lt)7( s, during tite 1'cruvian agt triar refurnt. The Quechua terna, which translatos luosely as 'url)ian,'' refers to tic practico ul tic hcrdor' s ntan- ;tging bis cnvn animas ;Hong widh hose c)f t te chierprtse uf coupera1tve. l lte herderti are alluwed lo liarc-herd low wagcs are suppletnented by un understanding ti ;rt tic hcrder n ay keep and liad a it ticted nurtther of bis uwtt asistas jrt additiun tu ahuse he keeps for tite estate. '11ns practtce

6 1w DAVID L. QROWMAN vas UIIIILCd during lhe prc rcfurnl pcriod on hacicn(jas as well, but ii ) )pcrs tu 11avc grotvt st)bsl;utlr,illy during 1 IC deca(ic (I')(1')-1978) of 1tIC I'CIUVI;lll agrarlall reforln, ac Ieast III Ierlll5 1)f IllaltagCIIICIII Jeclslolls. StalisllcS a n11)aring ahsul IIC I)utt11CIS uf aniii1lis IIC111Cd by llr1uelhilll'ro.i )IC 1113 Post rc1 riii are tul I IIt t111c fur IIIUIC lew si)cci1lc prup - CrtiCS, 101 pre-refornl hacíci d ts, II'IIgOlu aninl,it tuttbcís range lrott perccnl uf Itic tul 41 InII II lis (1lruwnl;ut 1'11: 320), Cunl )arahl., I)Crcrnlagcs ;IrC 1CPurlCd fu. rd(ornl CIIIC1t)riScs. I1IC 1Y11e ui returnt enterprise kiiowi1 as SAIS'" (se.: tlrowman 141;3, 145.1) incitlded participa(it)n trono surrounding rultttlui(hl,ll s (uiiif)eiiilaa ' and, thus, IVCragC private IV(IIII JIII holdings por hcrjct are uf (C11 IIUIIe higll. "lile (Inicia) reporlcd nuntt)cr uf Ivu(Irllu Ora whieh grating lees ocre ch;lrged was t)iicii C()I1siJ cr;lt)i Icss timan thc actual nuntber uf anitnals (1'umi f3u1s1)c and Alcastara 1t)tS2: 76), conlpiicaliiig SI;ltistICal C11ulnCraIIon. As exarltpies uf Ihc rangos uf private holdings, SAIS Marangatt in Cuzco) h;td ara average uf 123 k'uy11114 aninlals/herjer, SA1 ('hurura in Puno, 223 Ivai c/tulhcrdcr; SAIS 1Ziu (i1 lude in ('uno, 32(1 II'II,lcllu:'herder; and un suiuc SAISs, more )25 I)rivatCly uwncd IvIIIIIIr4 wcrc nlanaged by i cll herdels. 11te attc17liut Uf Jevolion uf time herders lo Ihe Iloeks of time rcformestahihited coilective entcrpt ices was obviously tnitigated by thc need tu Siurtlttaneousiy nulnage theil uu'n privately held Ilucks. On these St11S C17lerpriaes, cerlain lixed nutnhers of Ivuy1'ltu anitnals were aliowed free graziitg privileges; nty research indtcates limita ranking fruto 51) lo 150 ani17tals. 1Ierders with aniut; Is in excess uf these littits were charged a graziiig fee (verbujl'). In geste, al, Ibis fee was low enough thal suhstattially llore gain could be realiretl frum hcrding CXCesS private stock timan was cncumbered throukh Ihe grating Pees. Sume rcform cnterprises werc suceessful in partially controlling private herd sizes by instituting siiding seales of gra'ztllg feos, such that time lee increased fur cach incrcmerlt of anitnals (ranking fr)m 1(1 to 50), tu Ihe point that additional anitnals cventually were uneconotnical. 1Itc sal;lrics paid by thc cnterpriscs to time socios (rncmhers) were insufficicnt tu support a huusehold; therefore, thc SAIS herc.jers were furced lo ettl loy othcr econotnic stratcgies, cspceially k'uyo IIU. Time type of rcform coopcrative cntcrprisc known as CAP" recruüted labor frum internal elnployc:s oniy, time previous laborers of the ha- CiCnda(s) frum whieh time CAP u'as formed. While time CAPs liad sotne difticulties with 1Iulrl'cltilleru.^, time prohlcrn was more readily ntanaged. 1lettiers orl SAISs e1)uld pa)' lira/rttg lees in labor ur castt, but herders 1111 CAPs uften were tdlowej tu pay l raling feos oniy in labor (C'laverías 14831: 42), whieh limited lucir ;IbilltIes tu Increase herd si'.es. 1IIVClts ct al. (19113: 32) attrihute time severity of Ihe tvuyrltu prohlem during tlle agrarias rcform lo Ihe tlct that, in tl;uly CaseS, even Ihtlugh /I^::IU-1'u )Illlul I\IJA IYI4ll1l4^1;1'lll('lll Ill VII. l.l111i111 /Il ul'j Ihe was expru1)riatcd in 19(1), lhc coopcrative enterpriae was not tirtnly CSlahlis11Cd ) delay alluwed Ille herders Iu invade Ihe cx- )toi)ri; tc'(1 hacíelldas x1711 in sl)nlc CaseS tu successfully ;lilenate muro Iban 1111 Ole tlucks 117(1 larllis. "lile arnly was llccu siurtally C171ployCd tu Cvict tiic IUIU(llrlll'rl^s, os _ltler1)rlSCS Cu17llICl Cxter lcd tu Ihe 1)oint 111;11 5()11(1., (col-11)1. rative tlenll )c15) rclllsc(i tu 1Cnd tl e cuu1)eralíve he [(1 s, refused to coiicc IIVIZC III'CSII) Ck,.111(1 51 slctilllcs Cvcn SlauglltCrCd Ihe liveslock uf 1111 cnlcr1)riu. lile agrarias retomo cntcr1)rises in 111)11901 and Peru had SUCCCSSCS as wcll as failures. ]itere is a largo i ilerature reviewing teform shortcornings (see refereitccs in Alherts 1'12-3, 13ruwman 11)84, Dcverre et al. 1l).t E:chaztl Alvarado 11)2{3, Figuero ;l 1')8.1, Schydiowsky and 1Vicht 11)8.3); sorttetimes time impression ( vvhich 1 uso cunvcycd unintenti)tally in nly 1483 and articles1 is given Ihat tue cntire progranl was a failure. This is not Ihe case; un tlany enlloesas, wool and nteal pruductiun trtcreasecl dratlalicaliy, fruto averages fur wooi of 2.5 Ibslanitnal ora non-rcform hold ings tu 3. 5 to 5.5 IhS/animal un refurnr cnterprises ( Calle Escobar 1982: 34, 58). Time ahility tu utilize capital inputs allowc(i SontC enterprtses II) i11crease animal live birlhs f ront 411-5(1 pcrccnl Iu OVCÍ 7(1 perccnt, and of1- take ratos front 8-l0 perccnt tu percent ( 13rowntalo 1981: 316; Calle Escoliar 1 982: 3'1). In PUIII), signiiie;ult inereases in iivcslock holdings were mude in refornt coopcrative enterprtses uf all lhree nuljor types ('lable 1). lslany uf tlle cnterprises had beet sevcrcly dccapitalized hetween and 1913, with upwards of 4 0 pereent ol tlte livestock suld off. In come cases, the gama may Nave hect principally re-achievenlent uf pro-refurtn stocking levels, hut itt tnany instances, there are signifieant nct increascs in overall livestuck numbers. l í11-1 ).. RECENT TRENDS 1 Cooperative Cullapse Becorning a tnetnber uf a coopcrative appeared to be a relatively attractive prupositiun al time end of che i971h. Whtie Law No gave the ex -pruperty Owners lile righl tu suc if not satismied with the inicial scttlctncnt frum time 11)69 expropriatiun, Ihe coopcrative landa were owned hy che state, with time enterpriscs essentially beittg extensions of che state operatirtg concessions ora state lands (l)cvcrre et al. 1984: 1(01. Little extcrnal risk was itvoivco fur che cnterpriscs al this 1)1)1111, as che land was inalienable. I1owever, lile new agrarias (egislltion of Ptesideti t 13c1 aundc's adntinistratiun (DeCrel(l Ley Núln. 2 of Novcnihcr 16, 1982) trunsferred 171 Tuble J. Increase uf llerd Nutnbers un Selected Enterprises during time Peruvian Agrarian Refornt' I:nlrr/'Il r 1'rar AII,II'u SI,eep SAIS ttlu GiJUdc #.$ CAI' Gl$Jntc 017$ r:l's Itu1Jl AI1;uuJ t:t's Itulal UIIIJcillrt '1)+1r In t luid (KIwr (1')N: $,777 I ^ni 2 5O4.I 57, u 23,125 $3,636 I'l^ll 5$,411) 1;5,554 I'Iln 13, ) 22,4$5 1(,1)46 t971 2,31i5 15, (,112 61,Ir46 Ihe owtership of che land lo time enterpro es and providcd time tnechanisrns uy w11lcll time cuoperatives Could be dissulved (lr purtions Sl)Id off tu retire JCbtS. Thc ahility úl time fui mcr landtlwners tu s1lc for more favurahle set1 Cl CnlS has placed lile C2ISting CtltLrprlses Itt )e(lpardy, l)ecause tow larld can atto) Huso bc Suld ulf tu ir,ly llehtá; lile flitiler laudo vt)ets ate tluite t;rmlitir with Ihe intric^icies of Ihe IlerllVÍall judlcial systent, while ttic cuoperalive mcmhcra llave titile legal ktlowledge total are unable tu defetld thcir lands adeyuatcly. h11)st Cu(lf)cr^ tives in che central and southcrn SlCrr,1 uf Peru are (lptttlg f11r "re sirucluratiunt) IstCally a parceliz; tioil uf Ihc 1.11h15 Into.1 serll's 11f prlvatc uwncrsliips antong time previous SrlciO.( (ctx)1)erative ntertlhers). 'fue series uf I tilures of Cooperatives in both Peru ano) 111)11 V13 has resulted in a pcasatit aflpraisai tii t such Cooperativos ulvulve Suhslantial, even unacceptable, risk; This negativo 01) C1C2r1y reduces Ihe uliluy uf what ruight olherwise ahhear lo be ara inlponanl nlcchanlsnl for "sharing Ihe risk" fur snlall prutiucers. Unu ntrollble SO- Cietai risk is leen as time major cunlpunent of risk by (he srllall pruducers. Markct ano! Cottage lndustry Onc response lo che drought of by Pum) arca pcasants was to Increase thcir pruductiun of Crtlfts. in I9144, 111)' respurldenls in lile suuthern hlglllatlds reponed that " Puno traders are everywhere." Time expansion uf trade in response lo a drought related agricultura) pruductiun decline, rather than in response Lo an expandilg economy, highlighis a declswn strategy frequently ovcrlouked by Andeat partieularly those trlvolved in 11ISLOrtC reconstructiuns, allhough maneo inlegration as an allernative sirategy fur prt)dueliun diversilication Lo reduce risk has beca discusseti by Latir Alncneani,ts such as SCott Cook (1982) and Dean Ar luid (11)8S). Arnoid foeuscs ill pan ora highland l'cruviarl full - titnc ceramictsts, arguing that potlcrs ollen gel OUu Lite craft lield out bccausc uf A^'ru-Pllalllral Kis11 'ti1?t11,t;1'uu'iit 1)1 liii' C1'Ittrlll Atmi1's 193 delire, hut hccause Ihe agricullure resources availabie do not provide adctluate suhsis ence, and huusehulds trust toro tu other rncans lo achieve acccpriible Icv'cis uf survival risk. A similar loodci uf trade fluorescence in time face (mf rcdueed agricultura) yield has hect advanced in archaeoiogtcal recunstructiona fur Lile 1111 I1))ht7k I! pilases 1)f thc U. S. Southwest, where time suelden lato bur$t of Irade la pruposed as heing reiated lo che incrcasing vylrl saiitizati(in 1)f time latds, time tesuit ; tllt drop in pruductivity, and time need ti) nlake 1111 time agt' icultoral suortimii throu h sccurittg agricuitural imports in exch :rtl fe for various tnanufactured -teas. 1 his salle trade tu replace agricullur; I shortfall scettll u h;is beell prul)l)sc(i as Olle uf tlte reasotis for Ihe cullapsc ul Ille prcllistorie ivlay t in time southern part Of thcir rellnt. ln Puno and uther s11ulllent puna arcas, such petty eralt pruductiun atad track orientation during t le drought was reiuforced by che fact tuat Ihere 99lS tullo 1)r no wurk un time coast (Claverías 1')83a: 1l), wllich nlc:lnt Ihat lhe risk 1la11agclnent Strtltegy of tetlporary 11ul-tttlgratiorl for seaso11al labor was a fcasihic Cco11onllC alternativo. lile il11llllriiiicc ul cr:lfts a5 riak ícductitll ntcchalisl s ought lu he more ta)tttl)le1el\ iti legralcd luto) ícgion^l1 ectlttl III 1 modela, 'l'ime "archipc1ago" nlolici 1)f vertical ecun( mic :11lI I)tlliliral ittlegralion, whi(h functiulls asen where local cotllnlunilies llave re;ldy access ti) adjacettt vertically-stralllied ClauUnCS, fila itt 111 ter topugrapllte silu3l0u115.'1 hcrc is a cl ntrasting, 'a1-1iplatt '' Inotlel uf CeOnoltiC attd 1)1)1t1 cal integraliol (13rowman o.tl.). For che ;liliplano residclt, sito:llcd in time nlidst uf a Dogo basil 11X1 miles by lioll miles in sine, wherc villages pr1)duce time sane agricultural pruducts as thcir neighhurs and expluitatiun of vertical zotes is 0111 readily aehieved, Iwo signuic;lnt prll(hiclloil diverstfcaliurt 1)1) aro upctt : (a) to develop small cotta11e-eral1 produclion, spceialtzing in crafts wllll Ill;lfket putent ml, ur (h) lo heconte involved in caravan Irade, tu he olio Iransporlers and Cxpcdilers for 1112 cullage erafl pruducers. Snlallhulder craft produc(ion has nlulliple functions; il is a nlechanism of risk reduct Ion as well as che mearas I) whieh holiscitoicis regularly may óain acccss 111 buth subsistence anal luxurv go0lis. Carav;ln Capahililies st II rel;lin SOntC COnlemporary inlportance for risk managemcnl 1i rowman n.d.). A11hough ntulurtzed ve ocies are che tnajur transpon nteehdllisttt, atld Iltany fortner mole and llanta drovers now rus truck fcets, llama earavan Iranspurl waxes and wanes wtllt sblfts Iti fuel prices. During che two worldwide oil shurlages of Ihe 197(}s, llama caravans reappcaretl in many lueales where they had not beca sccn fur years. Again in 1985, with tlle inllation rase in Bolivia ^tt 27(x) perccnt and in I'eru al 2311 perccnt (as Of Ivlareh 1985 ), earavan tianspurt fur botit suhsisience iteras and CurtlrnCrCial CunltnaditiCS has hecortle contpctittve. Sntuggling and biack market activities are a'continuing alternative source of lnarkct iltcumc. Althnugh che lishcrics collapsed ora Lake Ttiicaca in

7 y 194 DAVID L. 13R(JWMAN AXru PlI l Irul Risk A4^rn1Itrrnr rrf i,t (lre Central Anrlcs IyD I')( 9, lishcrrncn prosper today as agcnts in a lively smuggling trade in footlsluffs and ntanulacturcj gouds acruss Ihe I'eruvi: n/l3ulivian international buundary (Laha 1979: 351). A suhstantial block nlarkct in light irtjustrial go( ds (clcoronics, plastics) also Ihrives in southern Peru (13rougcre I')tiO: 311; Ilrowman 1(xH4: 323). Furiher, a signilicant proporlion of ihe alpaca and shccp mear in the highlands is moved un the block ntarket in 01tlc'r tu avuid official slsughtcring fees, agricultura) inspections, and guvernnlent quota systems Chut scek lo reguhite livestock prives and oiftake rates. 1'hc alternativc risk-reduction strttegics avarlahlc lo (he high land snusllholder thus include viable opportunitics in hoth ihe ufiicial asid Ihe ursanctiuned econuntic secturs. SUMMARY Surpius cxtraction is cffected through several nlechanisnu. Many highland prudurers ai.e required to P,IY reno tu che uwncrs ul lucir productive resources. \Vhile tuday rent is piid printarily in cash, 1hete ire still instanecs where it is paid as a po tion ul Ihe harvest (a pocerot uf Ihc potatu crup ur uf (he rtcwborn livestoek ) ttr in labor (pariicularly in sharc-cropping asid sharc-hcrding suuations). I';lyntcnt of rcnt frcqucntly nccurs at a lir(tc when Ihc P<asanl is furced tu sell a hi)h pcrcent uf ihe oulput (:( distress sale) lu ntcr:t Ihc cash rcgl irenicut whcn Ihe nlarkct priccs are Iow. Ilccause Ihe pcasant is unahlc tu oteo basic subsisicnce necds thruugli ihe portion of outpul retainc(l, thcrc is an "involuntary market dcpcndcncy' in ternos of Ihc simple furced nced fur (he smallhulder tú hecurne irlvulved in wage I:rlx r nr marketing activities. A1^tt, I(se snutllholder frequcntly rnust huy capital iopuis (feriilizer, insecticides, vetcriiiary supplies, etc.) as high priccs nr borrow caah so huy Iuud hct%vecn Ihc h;rrvesis (distress huying). AS puintcd out in Ibis essay, furced conuncrcialization" printarily affects ihe poor pcasants, 1)01 the rich pcasants, resultirrg in increase(i clses differentiatiun. Sorne of Ihc puurest pcasants becume trapped in thc usury cycle (lhc unequal cxchange rnd burruwing cycle) and trltii itely lose control of any productive means, bcing torced co rely solely on sale of thcir labor, hecunting true rural prolelarians. Whde thrcc majar mcthuds for cxtraction of surplus are empluycd--(i) real paid tu thc cosoruller nr owners of productive nteans, surh as lartd; (ii) lees paid lo merch;rnts asid lenders in Ihc pruccss Of capii rl circulalion; and (iii) sale ul labor power- 1l e use of risk management s1rategies hy the highl;rnd pru(luccrs h;is alluwed Ihc majority uf peasants (o sil;liiii ii cuntrul uver a puriiu ( ul Iheir mearas uf pruducti)n ;rnd rcpruduei os cunlp(cn(enicd wirh seasonal labor and intlependent pe1iy couiiiu li(y pruduc(iun. Risk rltanagcntcnt pcrspcclives serve lo explrin, ii run predio, Ihe contlnucd ability ol lhc high- land producers tu operare in Ihe labor and nr:u'ko system wiohou( alienating tlleir ovrn labor, il at is, wiihoui hcconlinb ihe rural prulctariat predicicd by both "dependcncy" and "modernizaiion" paradignos (see Palel(lis 119R()^ discussiun (lf IhiS poto( as well). nther Ispects uf risk rnanagentent eould be described in similar detail. Enough has hecn covered, huwever, to make ihe point that risk management is ihe rnajur economic stratcgy nos just of Use cuntemporary peasanls but of the arcas historie asid prehistoric agricultural populations as well. Mudels which focos printarily ora effort mininlization or yicld nlaxiinl(zation, rathcr (han un risk (nanagcn)entlntininuza(ion, are reconstructions of pat (cros and rltiosialcs which may never Nave existed in the Andes. NOTES I. "Canlhcsinu" t5 Ihc legal (crm fur Ihc rural agro pasrura( pn duccrs in lhc htghljnds. While il prtntartly Ielcrs lo cuhivalors asid I colers, II ;JSu tnvludes Individuals ;volved in sn all, rural cullage nnluslrtc5 "Canlt)Csuto" gl cses in l:nghsh as "pc:rsartl." Uct ause ul Ihe 5( lic111:1 ncgaiivc t ii l.llii)l s Jssuctalcd wtth "(icasjlii " 1 wtuld plelel (o IClaln "cano ICSIII " hui in Ihe Inlcresl Bit case lar I:nghsh (ea_le S. 1 Ilavc uscd "pcasanl.' 2 "t'uuj" asid ".iliipl;s Io rcler, respccltvcly, ti) Itic l'eruvlan and ll hvia i seno arid htgl)i'luds. ftic.tltipl:rnt" in p;lrlli ul,lr rete( II) a high I)lalcau; Itic Peruv,,lll pusj 15 Ilill J5 unilurls Ihe puu;r asid alll(ilnu r;olgc in cicv.iliun mito ),IMAI lu 4,51x1 UICICI1 asid coser nc:ltly I(I,IAAI,INMI hect;lrcv, ir ruughly 25 perceul ul 1lullvia and Pcru. 3. "Ooclt;rs," "C;uuCllunCS," asid "andcues" are Iltlce dltlcren( land rnt Jthcarlon Iech raques ", tijcncs" JIC Ihc lerraces ht m whtclt Ihc Andes recetvcd Ihcir sume. "Camellones" retes tu scvcral raised ur ridged lield systems wnlt (ti llcl Illrruws, adlcclur c451(5, di unge canals, elc., which co, he used lo trtipuusid ur dr.un w,llcr as nccessary. "OtKhJs" re(ers tu a reces ily tdeltltlictl walcr Intlnagcl ICIII sysienl Chal Is based un Ihc cunstrucrlun uf smjll dcptcsattns (" pochas"). In sedo scasuns ley play Icnyv rauly resenlhlc sulall p,)nds, whcnse Ihcu I:nghsh gis. "l.tkes" ur "punds " Waler sltrage ir dr:un.igc un Ihc tntcrtur ul oliese Jcpressitttis 5 eiiccled by systems ul lurruws and canais. 4. (hc luncli i i i : ul lii htghland Il.uua carivau netwnl15 and Ihc niure rcccnl Iruck netw tiiv Is uulhned ul hrown an 1 i d.). lu general, htghl. nd he(ders are nul scil sullicicnl agrtcullurally. 'I'hey set tul un IradIllg Irips ycarly uf orlen more lrcrlucnlly. These tradtng II tps coi i tdc wlllt Ihc harvesi seasun tn luwcr elesaliuns. 'r1 c hcr(iers sccurc agrlcullurji sullststencc gt uds uy cwliaugulg enher Ihcir labor ir lhclr guuds wirh lowcr alllludc culti valurs. In Ihe (unner case, Ihe caravan druvcrs work in Ihe harvcs(, ustng Ihcir llantas as hcasls ul hulden (u Irutspurt (he harvest lr( rerurn lar 1 Izad in 11 ur 1 h ul Ihe Iields tu Ihe sturage Iauhltes, usujlly tu etl tu III. In IIIe case tt eucltallge uf gouds. Ihe systems ts motu muro el;thuralc. 'Ihe druvcrs dtreclly enchange Ihetr uwtt pastoral products, sucli Js wtwl, nteal. and IcJlllcr guojs.1 llcy uso hccunte Illvl111'ed Iti scvcral sciuit Jary euchangc nclwurks, tstúllg une culntnunity tu atllutre poucry luí sub,cqucnl eschange wtth Ihe luwland Culti v;turts, anuthcr htghl;tsij ctuunrttrltty tu sccuic salt, cuastal Conltnunllles tt tthet ctastal agtlcultur.ll prutluiis, and cutnn kcrusctt. nutidics, segar. c1c. (he druvcrs lhen tl,lde Ilicsc gt Jsqutre trutts atol cretal icnters lu sett)rc such gtke_ls ;l5 m;tlihcs, i)iis wlth (hc mtddlc eicvattun ctillnaturs los suhsistcnee ttcnts such as t tt,tluc5,' leal, hit;ttte, Jnd 5tt lni 5 "AvIlu" i5 a wides(trcaj Iclnl nt hc Andes lo( a cur( tra(c gtoup. In rnus( Cases ii u a Iandhuldtrlg dcscenl gtuu t l use Ihe lean luoscli iti (h.it scnsc. unviu L. bkuwman 6. "Paisano" gi wcs as "cuunlryl tan " Acccss lo puwcr ur resuurccs is (n qucnlly cuan ucliecj it ruugh indtvidual s whu cccgnue obligjliuns u Ihc Oelitiuner ora I(Ic b;lsls uf a t:'u lnun t i clan&villagc/geugrjpüc Can 7. "Antnlal unte" is ara Jgrunonl.c (crm uscd lo cquahrc cumpari or s of livesttck of di((crcnl J fcs ur dl(fccclll spc la. II n Jettnell Js I,(NM) ii hve wcig( ur kg per unir J(cJ. C Jrrylrlg capaci(y i5 delined in an i.l untos per arca, railes Iban iu sheep per atea ur atole Ixr arca, as annnais va y in sic, Jcpeaaing vi Jge (lantb ny. rallo) IIr vjricty (si tilltrll vs tcbu), cc. 5. "N'uyrhu" tras icen a nfuvcd 'rltti ccv (eralsvc hcrtlrng, s'/ i. in s)mc puhirj(tuns (e g., Altlerst n Slniih 194: 124), hul Ihe iau atea guilc duitnci ur.nil(gcntenl sira(cgics. 9. i1u4c.'t iodos" is a luipanicualiun uí Ite "wagchu." A "huacchilleru" is a hender whu herds "wagchu" nr "huaccho," wl,s'llirr 4IJAe ur as addlllull Io sh c'k frun a (;rrge estafe, I(1. SAISs (Solde ls lcs Agnc il s Jc In;erCs Social) wcrc nnc t ( (cc rnajur lypes uf ctn (Kralrvc gruups S el up hy Ihe I'eiiv J,IJfl:ul rcfurm (see Ntis 1.1 ; I d la Ir lile ulhcrs) 1l c SAIS cumpnscj Ihc fututo h^aertda(s) pies all surruundulg, tnlpuscrisled CJIn11o511w CumJnuniltcs, IhC "curnunljjdrs tjfl (v. su as" (scc role was a luan uf cunipiunuse l elwccn a lull Ilcdged cut perjt ve and Ihe previuus lasidhohhng syslem; tl was destgricd lo incorporase (tilo Ihe Cullecrive Ihe furnlcr laborers in c)nlntunuics surruunding Ihc uld hscicnjas. 1I. "Cunlunidadcs campesinas" ( pcasanl communities ) were Ihe former "Comunidades indigcnas " ( sjlrve ei)lnntunsiles ), whith hjd Icen furrned under sute pn leoiult, hlsically 111 lljcr lo mjullain acccss lo and cosc o) uf i^'me land hy Ihc IIIJian cunultunity in Ihc face u( cncruachulg haciendas or uf alienauun ti Ihcir lai ds hy I llier ntet:hanisnis. Tllc "iudige nuus, cumnlunilies were renalned "caulpcsintl" culrnnunitics U1 Ihe Agrarias Refl rnl hui ulhcrwisc rcinarned Ihe salve as previuusly, (2. "Sucn s" wcrc Itic nlemt ers of Ihe rcfurm cuoperatives. 'I'hey were usually Ihc eshienda rnlpluyecs. On rertaln cnterpriscs. such as ihe CAI's (Nrite 13), Ihcy torued Ihe nijµ nly uf COslj) memllers, bul un ulher cnlerpnses, such as ncc SAISs (Nule III), Ihcy were III J nlulurtly Un ((le SAISs, Ihc surruuudin; ' untunida lcs canrpcsinas" slcle vuhng alcltl l ers nl IlIc CIN)IIC(J(Ive alld sharej In Clic pro nihui Ihc cx h;rcicnda wurkcrs, Ihc sucios, wcrc (he prl Juclive nlembers 5 lsisc I; IM r 'nvluchun w15 thus sh,sred I y several non pru Jucing nlemhers uf Ile coops. I). ('AI's (Cus peralrvas Agrarias de t'rt iucnbn) were urganiled in Ihuse cases whcrc Itere wcrc fcw ur nu surruuijtnd "C111111IIIIJáJCs campesinas" lu he ctmsidcrcd, and whcn, lhus, Ihe en h;rcicn lj wal kcrti (hcrrlscl,cs l^ raied Ihc hulk uf tic IncnthCrship ul Ile IICW Ielurm prtrjuciil)rl Cl operalive, 14. "Empresa" was a Ieg1l Ierm luí a numner uf Ihe tllf fenol ly(xs uf reform cooper;lllves, (ruin SAISs lo CAPs lo LPSs (Elnpresrs Jc Prup1cdad Social). REFERENCES Alberti, (1983) Agruriun Refornr oid Rural Pa eoy: '1('co Sludy of I'Cru. Buulder, CO: Wcslvicw Press. Aldcrsun Smllh, G. (19114) "CunfederaLuns oi ll IusehulJs: Extended DumeslIC Entcrpr(ses in ('ay and Cuuntry." Pp In N l,ulg 1111 II. Ruhe ls (cds ) Altners, PrQIUHII und Lnrreprtntu s: Regional l)eveluprncrr;n ihe ('r,urul Ilg''lllunrll ( I '(tu. Camhridge, GN(i. Canlhrldge lluivcrsll) I'ress, Lun ^nlerican SIuJIcs, 45. Arnuid, D. ((555) ('rrurnic Iheury und ('u11r, P ocess. New V nlv: Caulbndge UntversUy I'ress. Aslurga, J. (1953) "Tecnología andina y modera, Ircnlc a la seguía," I'p, (5-23 ill I(. CIJVeria Agro-Pastoral Risk Munrrerne rt i r the Central Ararles 197 and J. Manrique (eds.)!.u Setlulrr err li,ur: Alrernattt^al I,hJritufitnules, Tecnológicas y -_>!'upulwrrs. I'urlu, (cru: Inslilulu de InvesltgslCIi) nes pala el Desarrt IIu Social del Alto plano y tlntvcrsidad Nacional '1lcnica del Alltplanu. -Augslburger, ('. (I't53) "Agrusiutntc and lax nusittc I'utenltal sil Marturc in Uultetan Vallcys and 5ltghlands." Axriiultrrn' 1:iosyslrrrlr rutt1 Lm-tronrnrnI IP: 31S-345. Ilragg,1. (1. (1'(711) "LIICCIS u( Iruriting, Calllc (ira,.ing, and (r lit)graphy tul VcgclJtttrl ti Ihc Chuppy Sands ICJnbe Silc in Ihe Ncbrlska SJndhtlls I'ratlte " Pp in D. N. 11ydcr (col.) 1'ra)r'eedirlgr uj lhe lir1i Internultur ul Rungelund (u'tgrrss (Uenver, Augusl 14-15, )t)75). 1)cllvcr, (1): Soctcty (ur Range Mallagelltcltl. llrcltlan, l l,,;mil C. 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Sanllagn (moled Naüuns PUhhcali(1115, ('lavcrias II., It (Ir)sl) "Airuuulacibn y crisis en las empresas agravas, Icutta y mloonlos para su l'sludio." 1(1. 'St-162 iii 1'ruhlrmru Atirupecuurius e I Tuno: l'eurlu y Alltudos puro su Estudio. l1tiilu, PCIU: Illsll(uit de I1lveslti IclulICS para el DCsarniliu Scvaal del Allipl;hilo y Univc(sitlaJ Nacional licniea del Alllplauo. (1)53,s) "1'ccnulogta andina y mudcnla Irenle a la sequta. Pp. 9-18, in R. Claveras and J. M;rniquc (vols.) La Seyulu en Puna: Allernurtvus Irun uctunales, cc-,iohfgtcus y Puln(lures. Puna, Pcru: InstilUlo de Inl'eslrgaclunes para el UCSarIUIIo Social del Alti(tlauu y llntversalad Nacional 'I'éeniw del Ahtplanu. (1)53h) " Capu ;rl y psublcues agrario en el Pero t)sl Ciencia y Pueblo I : 13-5(1, CrIaglllra hc' duy), J (1')133) "Piagn(lslied de l ;s sequía tlc i Departamento de PUnO " Pp t) In R CIavertas asid 1. Manrique (cds.) La Seyutu r» Punu Alternulivru Irurtrucu)n ulrs, I'rrnul,',gs in y l'upulures. I'unt, Peru: Insltlutu de Investtgaaurles para e) Desar tullo Social del Alltplanu y Universidad Nacional Tesnica dcl AIItpIJno, Cuuk, S. ((52) Lup(Itrl Srunrn'urken: 1'hr!)wsun sch ti Ru u1 Si n!)1r (ummudtrl Pruducnun tu Afudrrn Alruca r Cupllula,n, Waslungwn, t)c: Untverst y I'ress u( Amerrca.

8 198 DAVID L. UROWMAN (levare, ('., G. I ig;dlu, H. Malcu;r, 11 NtJtoyc(, Jnd V, Sama. (197.4) Rrfurrnu Agntria c1 rlu I'/l,ils0 Sucral: Analuu y Pe sr(llivu Nuctonul. Linea: Ccnttc PII)flhX'ittil) Caiu1s,, adu. de Invcsligación y h hatu ARaradu, J. (1983) Los PtuI)Ie:+sas.4Arurius C'a n'ennus dr IJubuu. La Paz: Talleres (irslsius (LUIS. Ensnungcr, J. (P)S4) Puhticul Ec'unomy urnung rhe!'asrorul Ga1o!e Orrnu: The Effects uf AlurÁer lnregruuun. Ph.O. disscrlation. Nurllrwcssern Univcrsily. Crícksurl, C. E. (1982) Exf)cnmcrlls in (u cd I icld Agriculture: 5Iuatla, I'cru I ')H Univcrsily uf Ilhnuis-llrbana. Dcpartnscnt u( Anthropolugy. Minlcugraphcd Rcpurs. Figueroa, A. (1984) Cupuulut Drselupnlrnr und rhr 't u use Ecunumy in l'rrts. Canlbridgc, ENG; Carnhndgc Univcrsily Press flores O.Iio. J. A. (1'184) "LJ ecunotria.c1 pastureu actual." Pp in M. A. Tapia Nuncz asid J. A. I'lures O.:hua (cds )!'.,toreo y Pustizulrs de los Anda J1 Sur de! Luua: PIOgrarllJ ('I,I.IthuJ111'I) dl //fks% J fa IIIv. tig.lcióis l'll Rullllrlanlca N1clll rl'a. GarJycls hej Zus cctrl, I. (1984) "IIu11IJ. ii rcacaie de los c4iiu IIorie." llu us Euruus (Revisru!'unrnu de Anuluu. Opini 1n ('urnenlurios) I: 34-4b. 1Iardln, G ( I9ts8) Illr 'rragcdy uf Ihe ('ommuns." Scirr+ce 1(2: l cns, A. E., S. Laslarrim Curnhlcl, md G Otcto ( I')83) "Class Strugglc asid Ihc Agririan Rctur n Prlxxss " I'p in 1) U:th asid U. Sorj (cds.) AI:INury RI'furnsis,rl und Sucio! Claurs: lhe I'rruv,un Eape, rncr 9(.J93() Ncw Yurk: Si. M;srrins I'Iess. 1 l,rrun, U 1: ( 5983) "I'ulalo I uri nng i l It,c andes: Sunlc Lcssons (ruin Un I aren Rcacarch in Pcru's Manlaro Vatky.".4ri,ulnu.l,' 1 "(.l,i$ 12: (1')84) Suctul Scienrssls ur AKnt uils,,ll k1 srrtrríl: Lrssunl fr(m Ille tlursruru Vullry I'rulecl, Prru. OItmW;l. Onlaric : lllll'rn4l 1)cvelupmcnt Itcscatch ('csilrc. Knapp, (i. ()74) Sil. Slupe und Wurv m Ihr L uururru! Andes: A S'Iudy uf!'rrltitruric A {rlculturu! Adul,IUuun Ph D. dlaserl;,t;un, ()nivcrsuy ut Wiscuusni. 1 hj, R. (1 97')) l.ish, Pe;llatlls JIN) 11atc Uurcaucrlcics: '1'hc Ue cluptucnl o( Lake 'rili cara." ('uml)uruuvr Poluu'ul Srurhr'; Laisc, 1. (1981) lndusrriul Ue)rlupulrru Vid tlsgrunr Luhuur in Luan Amr'rtru. Austin: Uni vcrsity 1)1 '1 cxas Plcss. (1')8-7) "Nllgratiun asid Sacia) Dillcrcnujlir n amung Mant:rru Vallcy Peasanls." I'p 1( sil N. l 1 rlg asid U. RubciSS (cda s.t(users,!'rrrsur+r.r,uu1 Entreprrneurs: Re^iunu! 1)rvrlc,prnrn1 in Ihr!Isglslunds uf Prtu. CJmhridgc, I:N(i. C,unb(idgc Univcrsily I'ress, L+usi Amcncan Studics, 48. L:wis, A. U. (1')S4) "1)cvclof)Illg A^rltulrurd 1Zcau utccs." I'p iu V. Salcra, A. U. Lewis, L. 1'. Wclls asid Presluu 1 cds 1171e ASvicu!Iurul und L'e'ununtic 1)es'eluprne,lt of rhe A(anruru Rrglun uf Peru. Ncw 1'l ri;: lillcrrlauullal UcvelUpmclll Servias, Inc. t.ung. N, asid U. Rohcrss (1984),tlusrrs, Pea unes und I:,itrrprerseur.s. k.' tui rl Drvrh,prnrnr ol rhe ( tntrul 11:Kls1u,sdr uf I'eru. (unhr,jgc, EN(i: Ciiiibi dge Univcrsily Pres. Lalsn AlllcItcall Slutllcs, 48. M rllun, F E. (198.3) Jle l)efense uf Curnnrun v irr!'eru'.r Crntrul lligirlunds:!'rctranr Slrugglr und Cupitulut Trunsitiun, I3(^0-1941), Pr,r.:clon, Ni: I'rincclun Univcrsily Prcas. Manrique, l.1. ('laverías, asid P Estnqucz (1 '43) "!:I I IJ)SA y las cumunltladcs campesinas: alacrnauvas y cjccucibo de prisycctu, trcc: c a la scquia." 1'p in R. Claverías asid J. Nlannyuc (cds.) Lu Serluru rrl 1'un'): A..e'nulivuj lnstirucionules, lecnulógtc'cu y Pupu-!urrs. I'unu, Pcru: Inslitulu de Invcsllga,; ^t cs para cl Desarrollo Social dcl Altiplano y UnivcnidLmd Nacional 1'clcnica del Altipl^au. MJyer. E. (1')83) org;uuzacijsi %Om mal L: la prnduccrón cn la agricultura Iradiciuaal andina " Pp In ('umuuin de ('or'.muciá I dr 1,.e,,r,luliu A rdrnu. Prir te'r Curso Tullir de 4 gricu!ruru Andina. Cusca, I'crj: Talleres Gráticus ('cnlro [.o Casas. Mc('utklc, C. M. (1')82) Orguni:onuncd 1)tw,(;acs uf Animal Afuuulvrlrnt. Culun bia, N1O: A,uru-1'autorltl I(lak 11'11I n1xtrncnt ul lot' Lm' t(rrll Nnrtc 177 tlsiivcrssly uf Nllssuuri, 1)cl Jrlu cul uf Itur ;l) Scxinll gy, Small Rurninani Cullaiwrativc Rcscan h I'n,grans Rcscarch Kc1ssrl Nu. 5. (1983) cenit und I'uruisu's: Jhr A};rupasturul I)iulrctic iu un lrsdigenuus Andina Corra nuurity. s%iiii!nlplicur+nrl Jisr Drvr! P,nenr. Ph.l) disscrlaliun, Slanfurd IJniversily. Munck, R. (1'784)!'abetes r nd!)rpsndrnry trt tlar '1'hird World: The Cure uf Latan Anlericu. Lundun. Lcd Uuuks. Murra, J. V. (1912) "LI 'cultual vertical' de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la econumfa de las sck'icdjllcs andinas." Pp la I. Ortiz dl' Zunlga (Visitador), Vista de la!'rur'uu r,t rlr Lisia dr llrau uco (JS(i'), Vul. 2. l lu;snucu, lid u: (luivcrsidad 1lcrmlliu Valdizan. Orluvc, U. S., and 1). V. Guilla (1985) "1'hcorelical asid Meshudological Cunuderalions un Ihe Study uf Muunlaus Pcuplcs: llellcctiuns un Ihe laca o( Subslstcncc 1 y1x asid che Rulc tul 11islury in l luilcus liculugy. " Aluuntuirl Rrseurr'lt asid!)rvrlopme,ll 5: Paca l'aliisagu). 1. (1')841 'Inician asilp;silm para iescatar' camclhrncs' para agro puneño.' vi,,iu1(dasly ncwspaprr, ()clubcr 18, 1)84: (11. Palcrin. A (1'18111 Ar irupolugiu y,tlurxissius. Mcxicls. 1)F: [disto ml Nueva Imagrn. 1'alcdcs, F. (19131 I'uhrcca, alsandrín y cucinl;l... sryuia." in R. (:I:rvufas asid J. Manrique 1cds. ) l.+.1'erlui i ere!'uno: r1ltrrnunvus lnsulucionulrs, Trcsiul,iu iras y 1'o ptulurrs. furia. Pcns: (nalslulu de Istvcsligacionca para cl Ucsarn)IIu Social dc5 Aluplano y tlnivcrsl^lad Nacional '1'CCUica dc5 Altiplano. l'u azu lt., S. (1'78)) "1),ss^)s caladi^ricus suhrc las ScquiJ " I'p ) in I( Claverías asid 1. M;uuiquc (ctr.)!.1r Sryulu en 1'unn' Alrrrnunvas l,ssonsiiunulrs, 'Trrrsulugieas y Pupuhtres. fono. I'cru luslilulu de Invcsssg,sciuncs para cl Dcsarnsllu Social dcl neoplasia y Ilnivcrsui sd Naciun;ll '1 (5555 a del Altipl;nlu. Puats, S. V, (1782)!'usos 1'n'fs'r,vsc'es: A 1'rrlinsisiury l:au ssrstusos. t.inla: InternJtiunal I'osalu ('enser Wurkusg 1'a1scr Nu Rhuadcs, I(. L. (19844) ('tisis u l'usr llurm'r.si Sysrcrrl: Inspclcr uf 1)i/fiord l.ighl Posutu Srlrres us Sri Lanka. Liula. Intcrnauunal I'ulasu Censes, Wutking Pa1xr Nu (1984b) "l)rldcrslanding Snsall scalc Fasnlcrs in Dcvcloprisg Cuuntrics: Stxirx' ultural I'crspcrsiscs un Agronuusic F srm Trials." luurnul uf A1;ronumic Educurion 13: (r1-68. Rhuadcs, R E, R. N. Uuulh, asid N1. J. (1')83) "Farmer Acccpsancc of Inspsovcd Pss(atsi SIUra1e I'racsiccs in 1)cvcluping Cuuntrics." Uurluuk us Abriculrurr 12: 12-I5. Risscr, 1' (i., L. C. llsrncy, I1. 1). lilnckcr, 5. W. May. W. 1. 1'arlur, astil J. A. Wicns (1'181)!he Tris!'ruirre Lcusyslt',n. Str1 ISdsburg, PA: 1lulchinsun Russ I'ublish ng (.:unsp;sny. Salcra, V. (1')54) "Agricultura) Isinuvaliulls." 15p. 21(1-225 in V. Salera, A. U. lewis, L. 1. Weils, asid 11 J. I'resunl (s il ) 1/se Agrie ulturul und Ecunonsic Devrluprnrnt uf che Alunsuru ll 55)5555 f Prn+. Ncw Yurk: Inserssasinss;,l Ucvclupmcnt Serviccs, Inc. Sastdl+sssi, 5. (198') "l istus ml Sssascgics risa Ucscrulscasou: ()pportunisns asid (unscrvasssm iii 1)ry Lands." I'f. OI-811 isi U. Spuuncr asid 11. S. Mmstn (cds.) Drsrruficuriun und 1)!npusrnr: 1),vIcurrl Lculo,15 in.1'55 c'5ul Prrsprclrvr t.ulsdssis. ACadcrl Ic l'res1. Schydluwsk), D. M., asid J. 1. IVkhs (1')8.1) fhc Anatomy of ara Econunssc I-ailurc." Pp in C. NlcCissssslck misil A. F l.uwcsilhal (eds.) The 1'rruvaurs Lsprrir lrnr Rrcun sulrrs'd. I'rincelssn, Ni: Priu1C11 n l)nivcrsity I'rrss. Skar, I I.O.1198'_) 1/se lt'ur,n Vullry 1'ruple: Duulity asid ).und Rrfurm amung 5/se Quechua l,srliuns uf Iliyhlund Peru Ua11, Nurway: LJnivcrsssesstu(lagel. Tanlayu 1Serreta, 1. (I')82) llu'suria Social e lndigrrlt.s tu rn L7 Aftrplanu. Lima: Ediciones Treinl;utres. 1'ansalcun Arhulu, l., asid J. L. Arangucna (I') 8-I) "Propuesta de un prograrrla de suslllución. de Irsgl, Insp1)rtadl en liase al dcsa ( rc llo de la cc1 nolula agriciila uidllla." Allpanchú!'Isururintu 23: I llurnai, R. U. (1979) " Effccts o[ Change ora IIigh Mounlain hluman Adaptive Paltcrns." ( - p in P. J. Wcbbcr (cd.) Iligh Ahirude Geueeulugy. Uuuldcr, CO: Weuvicw Prcas. - cc;^l^(hcc Tumi puispe, J., asid A. Alcalllara 11. (1982) "Reforma agraria, economía y reproducción de la fuerza de trabajo."!' uhlentdnca Sur Andinu 4: Urday Concha, F. (1982) "El proceso de acumulación eutcnsiva de la tierra y las ruigracioncs cn la región sur dcl Pcrú." P UbIMldtira Sur Andina 4: Whilakcr, M. D., asid E. U. Wcnncrgrcn (1982) "Unlivia's Agriculturc sincc 1960: An Asscasnlcnl asid Prugnusis." I'p in J. R. tadnlan (cd.) Aludc n Duy lluliviu: l.rgucy uf (he Revulu(iun und Pruspecis for che F'urure. Tcmpc: Atizona Suite Univcrsity Ccntcr fue Laos American Sludies. WhysUng, G. L., asid M. N. Ilcisler ( 1978) "Nitrogcn Levcls o( Soil asid Vcgctation in che Upper Sunuran Desert as Afleclcd by Fire." Pp in D. N. Ilyder (cd.) Pro ccrdingt of che First Irsternatiunul Rungelund Cungress (Deuver, August 14-18, 1978). Ucnvcr, CO: Slxicty (os Ran1 c Management. Wrighl, II. A. (1'178) "Usc uf Firc tu MJnagc Grasslands uf Ihc Grcat Plains: Central and Suuthcrn Greai Plains." Pp in D. N. Ilyder (cd.) Procecdings oj Ihc Firsl ln)errwrionul Rungeland Corsgress (Denvcr, August 14-18, 1978) Denvcr, CO: Sociely (os Rangc Management. AGRI C ULT U2AL INTLNS iticati ON AND DEINTEN S IFICATION IN L ARI, COLCA VALLEY, S OUTHE RN PERU David Guillet INTRODUCTION Mach interesl has heen cxpressed over che last two dccades in che Doserup (1965) mudel of agricultural miensificalion whictl holds, briefly, that population PFCSSUre will load tu higher levels of agricultural use. Although this mude! has been strongly supported by empirical research, jt remalles highly controvcrsial (see Cowgil! 1975). One direction 110W being taken tu reune it is 10 search for factors that!imit its applicability, Rublo (1973) has shown, for example, that clinlatc and pohtical structurc can be important co-determinants, along with population pressure, of peoplefland ratios in agricultural history. Our accunlulating knowledge of che eco!ogy of mountajns ante their endctnic halards suggests that, in chis selting, the effects of population pressure lnay Vary significantly from che predictions of the Roscrup mude!. In particular, che Central Andes offers evidence lhat both intensiflcation and deintensification of production can occur simultaneously at che regional or even che community leve!.. Agrarian change in the Central Andes takes place within che context of a Rcscarch Iu Econumlc Arllhrofwslogy, Vulurrx 8, prgci Copyright O 1987 by JAI Prcas lime. A11 righls 5)r rcpruducltun in uny runu reserned. ISBN; i

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