ESTIMATION OF FREE-FLOW SPEEDS FOR MULTILANE RURAL AND SUBURBAN HIGHWAYS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ESTIMATION OF FREE-FLOW SPEEDS FOR MULTILANE RURAL AND SUBURBAN HIGHWAYS"

Transcription

1 ESTIMATION OF FREE-FLOW SPEEDS FOR MULTILANE RURAL AND SUBURBAN HIGHWAYS Pin-Yi TSENG Professor Department of Traffic Science Central Police University 56, Shu Jen Road, Kwei Shan, Taoyuan, 33334, Taiwan Tel: Ext Fax: Feng-Bor LIN Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Clarkson University Potsdam, NY U.S.A. Tel: Fax: Sheng-Long SHIEH Research Assistant Department of Traffic Science Central Police University 56, Shu Jen Road, Kwei Shan, Taoyuan, 33334, Taiwan Tel: Fax: Abstract: Free-flow speed is a parameter that is being used extensively for capacity and level-of- service analysis of various types of highway facilities. As part of an ongoing effort to revise Taiwan Area Highway Capacity Manual, this study collects and analyzes free-flow speed data at the midpoints of seventy-six multilane rural and suburban highway segments in Taiwan. The objectives of this study are to develop models for estimating average free-low speed and for identifying the distribution of individual free-flow speeds. The most important variables that govern free-flow speed are vehicle type, speed limit, and the spacing between signalized intersections. The resulting models facilitate both manual analysis and computer simulation of rural and suburban highways. Key Words: Capacity analysis, Level-of-service, Free-flow speed, model, Rural and suburban highways 1. INTRODUCTION Free-flow speed is the speed of a vehicle when the vehicle movement is not interfered by other vehicles or interrupted by control devices. The mean value of the free-flow speeds of individual vehicles can be determined either as a space mean or as a time mean. Time-mean speed is the arithmetic mean of individual speeds; space-mean speed is the harmonic mean. Mean free-flow speed has a wide range of applications. For example, space-mean free-flow speed is the basis of many planning models that are used to estimate average travel speeds and capacities (Dowling, R., et al. 1997). And the estimated travel speeds, in turn, are being used for estimating fuel consumptions and vehicles emissions (Dowling, R., et al. 1997; Teply, S., et al., 1995). The U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (Transportation Research Board 2000) also uses space-mean speed extensively to analyze the capacities and levels of service of open 1484

2 highways and urban and suburban arterials highways. On the other hand, all microscopic traffic simulation models have to use time-mean free-flow speed and its related distribution of individual free-flow speeds as inputs for estimating travel time, delays, and fuel consumptions. Many researchers have investigated the problem of estimating free-flow speed (Dowling, R., et al., 1997; Agent, K. R., et al. 1998; Dixson, K. K., et al. 1999; Kyte, M., et al. 2000). In Taiwan, estimated average free-flow speeds are needed for simulation analysis of various types of highways. They are also needed in manual methodologies for capacity analysis of highway segments with uninterrupted traffic flows. Figure 1 shows an example of the need to predict average free-flow speed. It reveals that the relationship between flow and speed on a multilane rural or suburban highway is governed by its average space-mean free-flow speed. For a given flow rate, a highway segment with a higher average free-flow speed can be expected to have a higher average travel speed. Therefore, it becomes necessary to know the mean free-flow speed of a highway segment before an appropriate speed-flow relationship can be established and used as a basis for estimating capacity and level of service. Very little research, however, has been conducted in Taiwan to understand the characteristics of free-flow speed on multilane rural and suburban highways. As a result, the Taiwan Area Highway Capacity Manual (Institute of Transportation 2001) lacks a proper methodology for capacity and level-of-service analysis of this type of highways. As part of an ongoing effort by Taiwan s Institute of Transportation to revise the manual for capacity analysis, this study investigates the free-flow speed characteristics on Taiwan s rural and suburban highways. The objective of the study is to develop models for estimating the space-mean free-flow speed, time-mean free-flow speed, and the distribution of individual free-flow speeds. This paper presents the finding of the study Harmonic-Mean Speed (km/h) Tai 14B 5K+400 N. Tai 2 1K+940 S. Tai 2 1K+900 N. Tai 2 1K+940 N. Sibin Inside Lane Sibin Outside Lane Flow Rate (small veh/h/lane) Figure 1. Observed Relationships Between Flow Rate and Harmonic-Mean Speed on Taiwan's Multilane Rural and Suburban Highways 1485

3 2. DATA COLLECTION The multilane rural and suburban highways in Taiwan usualy have two or three fast lanes for passenger cars and other larger vehicles and one slow lane for motorcycles. Because of high land use intensity, these highways have a large number of signalized intersections. In between signalized intersections, there are intersections controlled only by STOP signs, YIELD signs, or flashing beacons. Many factors can affect the free-flow speed of a highway segment. They include but are not limited to the spacing between signalized intersections, lane width, shoulder width, lateral clearance, median type, grade, curvature, vehicle types, speed limit, land use and drivers behaviors. This study concerns only the free-flow speeds on straight and level segments that have median barriers. Seventy-six such segments were chosen for the study with the aid of Taiwan Highways Network Information System. Each segment lies between two signalized intersections. Thirteen of the study segments were on Sibin Expressway that connects small villages and towns in predominantly rural areas. Sibin Expressway has higher design standards than the other highways investigated in this study. The speed limit on Sibin Expressway is a uniform km/h. The speed limits on other investigated rural highways are km/h. As for suburban highways, the speed limits are typically km/h. The lane width of each study segments is in the range of 3.5 m to 4 m for fast lanes and 1.4 m to 4.6 m for slow lanes. The spacing between signalized intersections is between 0.4 km and 5 km. The number of median openings on each study segment is up to 9.1/km. And the number of non-signalized intersections that are at least 6 m in width is mostly less than 2 per km. Free-flow speeds of vehicles were measured with a laser gun at the midpoint of each segment under fair weather conditions. Vehicles were classified into small vehicles, large vehicles, and motorcycles. Small vehicles refer to passenger cars, vans, and pickup trucks. Large vehicles are trucks with more than two axles, heavy utility vehicles, and large buses. Only vehicles that were separated by headways of more than 5 s were sampled. Because the speed measurements were made under very light flow conditions, most sampled vehicles had headways far longer than 5 s. For each study segment, speed samples were collected from the inside fast lane, the outside fast lane, and the slow lane. No data were collected from the slow lanes on Sibin Expressway because of the absence of motorcycles. For each segment, the sample size is usually in the range of to 140 small vehicles, 30 to large vehicles, and 30 to 135 motorcycles. The standard deviations of measured free-flow speeds are about 9 km/h for small and large vehicles, and about 12 km/h for motorcycles. 3. HARMONIC MEAN FREE-FLOW SPEED By definition, harmonic-mean free-flow speed can be determined as: Vsf N N 1 i 1 ui (1) where 1486

4 V sf N u i = harmonic-mean free-flow speed (km/h), = number of sample vehicles, and = free-flow speed of vehicle i (km/h). To develop models for predicting V sf, this study examines the following factors that may affect harmonic-mean free-flow speed: Lane location Lane width Number of median openings and non-signalized intersections per km Vehicle type Spacing between signalized intersections (i.e., segment length) Speed limit Lane location has an obvious but small impact on free-flow speed. As shown in Figure 2, the harmonic-mean free-flow speed of small vehicles in an inside lane is higher than that in an outside lane. The average difference is about 4.3 km/h. The harmonic-mean free-flow speed of large vehicles has a similar characteristic, and the average difference between the inside lane speed and the outside lane speed is about 3.8 km/h. Because the speed differentials are small, speed data collected from the inside and the outside fast lanes of each study segment were aggregated for modeling purposes. Harmonic-Mean Speed in Outside Lane, km/h Speed Limit km/h km/h km/h Harmonic-Mean Speed in Inside Lane, Km/h Figure 2. Comparison of Speeds in Different Lanes The lane widths of the fast lanes examined in this study correlate to some extent with the speed limits of the study segments. Among the fast lanes that have a speed limit of km/h, 68% of them have a width of 3.5 m and most of the remaining lanes are 3.6 m wide. The widths of the fast lanes with a speed limit of km/h tend to be wider. Among them, 34% are over 3.7 m, 36.8% are between 3.5 m and 3.7 m, and the rest are 3.5 m. The fast lanes on Sibin Expressway have a width of 3.6 m. As for the slow lanes on segments with a speed limit of km/h, 88.5% of them are less than 2.5 meters in width. In contrast, 37.8% of the slow lanes on 1487

5 segments with a speed limit km/h are wider than 3.0 meters. As illustrated in Figure 3, for a given speed limit, the lane width has no discernible impact on mean free-flow speed. Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed, km/h 75 Average Width of Fast Lanes 3.5 m m Intersection Spacing, km Figure 3. Variation of Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed with Lane Width (Speed limit = km/h) Figures 4 and 5 show respectively how the harmonic-mean free-flow speeds of small vehicles and large vehicles vary with speed limit and the spacing between signalized intersections. On average, harmonic-mean free-flow speed increases rapidly when the spacing between signalized intersections increases from 0.4 km to about 2.5 km. The mean speed then reaches a more or less steady value. Figures 4 and 5 also show that the mean free-flow speeds of four segments on Tai-26 highway (lane width = 3.5m and speed limit = km/h) are all higher than the averages for other segments with the same speed limit of km/h. Tai-26 is a highway that serves primarily tourists. At present, it is not clear whether highways that serve primarily recreational traffic will consistently have higher mean free-flow speeds. For the slow lanes, Figure 6 shows that speed limit has little effect on the harmonic-mean free-flow speed. Like the mean speeds of small vehicles and large vehicles, the mean speed of motorcycles also increases with the spacing between signalized intersections and reaches a more or less steady value when the spacing is more than 2.5 km. But the impact of the spacing between signalized intersections is very limited. The relatively low top speeds of motorcycles are likely the reason behind this phenomenon. On average, the mean free-flow speed of the small vehicles is about 5 km/h higher than that of large vehicles on segments with a speed limit of either km/h or km/h. The speed differential between small vehicles and large vehicles tends to increase with speed limit. On Sibin Expressway, where the speed limit is km/h, the difference is about 11 km/h. The mean free-flow speed of motorcycles is about 18 km/h below that of small vehicles. Based on the characteristics of the free-flow speeds shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6, the models listed in Table 1 are developed to facilitate the analysis of multilane rural and suburban highways. In 1488

6 these models, V sf represents the harmonic-mean free-flow speed (km/h) and S is the spacing between signalized intersections (km). It should be noted that the number of median openings and non-signalized intersections per km has no significant impact on free-flow speed. Therefore, this factor is not used for the model development. 95 Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed, km/h Speed Limit km/h km/h km/h Speed Limit km/h km/h km/h Tai-26 ( km/h) Estimates Intersection Spacing, km Figure 4. Variation of Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed of Small Vehicles with Speed Limit and Spacing Between Signalized Intersections 85 Speed Limit km/h Harmonic-Mean Speed, km/h km/h Speed Limit km/h km/h km/h Tai-26 Estimates Intersection Spacing, km Figure 5. Variation of Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed of Large Vehicle with Speed Limit and Spacing Between Signalized Intersections 1489

7 Harmonic-Mean Speed, km/h Speed Limit km/h km/h Estimates Intersection Spacing, km Figure 6. Variation of Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed of Motorcycles with Speed Limit and Spacing Between Signalized Intersections Table 1. Models for Estimating Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed Vehicle Type Small Vehicles Speed Limit (km/h) Models Standard Error of Estimate (km/h) V sf = e -1.89S 3.6 V sf = 25.5e -1.32S 3.1 V sf = S S 2 S Large Vehicles V sf = 89.2 S > 3 or V sf = S 20S 2 S 0.5 V sf = e -S S > 0.5 V sf = S 20S 2 S 1.5 V sf = e S S > Motorcycles or V sf = 51.4 S 1 e

8 4. TIME-MEAN FREE-FLOW SPEED Time-mean free-flow speed is the arithmetic mean of individual free-flow speeds. It can be determined as: V tf N u i i 1 N (2) where V tf = time-mean free-flow speed (km/h), N = number of sample vehicles, and = free-flow speed of vehicle i (km/h). u i Under free-flow conditions, the difference between harmonic-mean speed and time-mean speed is very small. Furthermore, as shown in Figure 7, observed time-mean free-flow speeds and harmonic-mean free-flow speeds have a very strong linear relationship. For ease of application, the following empirical relationship is recommended for estimating time-mean free-flow speed: Vtf V sf (3) where V tf and V sf are respectively time-mean and harmonic-mean free-flow speeds (km/h) and is 1.6 km/h for small vehicles, 1.3 km/h for large vehicles, and 3.5 km/h for motorcycles. 100 Time-Mean Free-Flow Speed, km/h Harmonic-Mean Free-Flow Speed, km/h Figure 7. Comparison of Harmonic-Mean and Time-Mean Free-Flow Speeds 1491

9 5. DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-FLOW SPEED Each individual free-flow speed of a segment can be normalized into a proportion of the time-mean free-flow speed. The cumulative distribution of the normalized free-flow speeds varies only slightly from one segment to another. Figures 8 through Figure 10 show respectively examples of such distributions for small vehicles, large vehicles, and motorcycles Cumulative Proportion segments Speed/Time-Mean Speed Ratio Figure 8. Cumulative Distributions of Normalized Free-Flow Speeds of Small Vehicles Cumulative Proportion segments Speed/Time-Mean Speed Ratio Figure 9. Cumulative Distributions of Normalized Free-Flow Speeds of Large Vehicles 1492

10 Cumulative Proportion segments Speed/Time-Mean Speed Figure 10. Cumulative Distributions of Normalized Free-Flow Speeds of Motorcycles The normalized free-flow speeds of small vehicles and large vehicles have a minimum value of about % of the mean and a maximum of about 1% of the mean. There is no significant difference between the normalized distributions of small vehicles and large vehicles. In contrast, the normalized free-flow speeds of motorcycles are more dispersed. And their distribution is significantly different from the normalized distribution for either small vehicles or large vehicles. Based on Figures 8 through 10, Table 2 presents the representative cumulative distributions of the respective normalized free-flow speeds of small vehicles, large vehicles, and motorcycles. 6. APPLICATIONS Taiwan s Institute of Transportation has developed a microscopic simulation model for analyzing the performance of signalized highway facilities. This model, referred to as Highway Traffic Systems Simulation Model, has incorporated the models as represented by Equation 3 and the distributions given in Table 2 to generate default time-mean free-flow speeds and the free-flow speeds of simulated vehicles. For capacity analysis of highways segments not affected by signalized intersections, the Institute of Transportation has established the representative flow-speed relationships as shown in Figure 11. To use this figure, one has to estimate first the harmonic-mean speed of the highway segment being analyzed. The Institute of Transportation plans to adopt the models given in Table 1 to provide the needed estimates. 1493

11 Table 2. Representative Distributions of Free-flow Speed Cumulative Free-flow Speed / Time Mean Free-flow Speed Ratio Percentage (%) Small Vehicles Large Vehicles Motorcycles Harmonic-Mean Speed, km/h km/h Free-Flow Speed Flow Rate, small cars/h/lane Figure 11. Representative Flow-Speed Relationships on Taiwan's Multilane Rural and Suburban Highways 1494

12 7. CONCLUSIONS Free-flow speed is an important parameter for capacity and level-of-service analysis of highways. To support the revision of Taiwan Area Highway Capacity Manual, this study uses data collected from 76 straight and level highway segments to develop models for estimating harmonic-mean and time-mean free-flow speed and to identify representative distributions of individual free-flow speeds. The study is focused on multilane rural and suburban highways. The results show that speed limit, vehicle type, and the spacing between signalized intersections are the major factors affecting free-flow speed. Mean free-flow speed, however, reaches a steady state once the spacing between signalized intersections is more than 3 km. On average, the mean free-flow speed of small vehicles is about 5 km/h higher than that of large vehicles if the speed limit is either km/h or km/h. At a speed limit of km/h, the difference increases to about 11 km/h. The difference between the mean free-flow speed of small vehicles and that of motorcycles is about 18 km/h if the speed limit is not greater than km/h. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was sponsored by the Institute of Transportation, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, ROC. REFERENCES Agent, K. R., Pigman, J. G. and Weber, J. M. (1998) Evaluation of Speed Limits in Kentucky, Transportation Research Record No. 1640, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D. C., pp Akcelik, R. (1982) Traffic Signals: Capacity and Timing Analysis. Research Report No. 123, Australian Road Research Board, Victoria. Dixson, K. K., Wu, C-H, Sarasua, W. and Daniel, J. (1999) Posted and Free-Flow Speeds for Rural Multilane Highways in Georgia, ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.125, No.6. Dowling, R., Kittelson, W., Zegeer, J. and Skabardonis, A. (1997) Planning Techniques to Estimate Speeds and Service Volumes for Planning Applications, NCHRP Report 387, Transportation Research Board. Institute of Transportation (2001) Taiwan Area Highway Capacity Manual, , Ministry of Transportation and Communication, Taipei. Kyte. M., Khatib, Z., Shannon, P. and Kitchener, F. (2000) Effect of Environmental Factors on Free-Flow Speed, Transportation Research Circular E-C018: 4 th International Symposium on Highway Capacity. Teply, S., Allingham, D. I., Richardson, D. B. and Stephenson, B. W. (1995) Canadian Capacity Guide for Signalized Intersections. Institute of Transportation Engineers, District 7. Transportation Research Board (2000) Highway Capacity Manual. National Research Council, Washington, D. C. 1495

CAPACITY AND LEVEL-OF-SERVICE CONCEPTS

CAPACITY AND LEVEL-OF-SERVICE CONCEPTS CHAPTER 2 CAPACITY AND LEVEL-OF-SERVICE CONCEPTS CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION...2-1 II. CAPACITY...2-2 III. DEMAND...2-2 IV. QUALITY AND LEVELS OF SERVICE...2-2 Service Flow Rates...2-3 Performance Measures...2-3

More information

Speed and Acceleration Characteristics of Different Types of Vehicles on Multi-Lane Highways

Speed and Acceleration Characteristics of Different Types of Vehicles on Multi-Lane Highways Speed and Acceleration Characteristics of Different Types of Vehicles on Multi-Lane Highways Arpan Mehar 1 Satish Chandra 2, and Senathipathi Velmurugan 3 1 Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,

More information

Chapter Forty-seven. RURAL TWO-LANE/MULTILANE STATE HIGHWAYS (New Construction/Reconstruction) BUREAU OF DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT MANUAL

Chapter Forty-seven. RURAL TWO-LANE/MULTILANE STATE HIGHWAYS (New Construction/Reconstruction) BUREAU OF DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT MANUAL Chapter Forty-seven RURAL TWO-LANE/MULTILANE STATE HIGHWAYS (New Construction/Reconstruction) BUREAU OF DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT MANUAL Illinois RURAL TWO-LANE/MULTILANE STATE HIGHWAYS December 2009 2 Illinois

More information

ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA

ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol12issue3/ijrras_12_3_14.pdf ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA Robert M. Brooks Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

More information

Chapter 23. Multilane Highways. 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 Multilane Highways. 23.2.1 Highway Classification

Chapter 23. Multilane Highways. 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 Multilane Highways. 23.2.1 Highway Classification Chapter 23 Multilane Highways 23.1 Introduction Increasing traffic flow has forced engineers to increase the number of lanes of highways in order to provide good manoeuvring facilities to the users. The

More information

Speed-Flow Models for Uninterrupted Traffic Facilities

Speed-Flow Models for Uninterrupted Traffic Facilities Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd TECHNICAL REPORT Speed-Flow Models for Uninterrupted Traffic Facilities Author: Rahmi Akçelik December 2003 Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd DISCLAIMER: The readers should apply

More information

Influence of Various Restrictions on Speed-Flow Models

Influence of Various Restrictions on Speed-Flow Models International Symposium on Fundamental Diagram - Greenshields 75 Influence of Various Restrictions on Speed-Flow Models Marian TRACZ, Stanisław GACA Krakow University of Technology, Poland mtracz@pk.edu.pl

More information

EVALUATION OF AHS EFFECT ON MEAN SPEED BY STATIC METHOD

EVALUATION OF AHS EFFECT ON MEAN SPEED BY STATIC METHOD EVALUATION OF AHS EFFECT ON MEAN SPEED BY STATIC METHOD Toshiyuki YOKOTA Senior Researcher, ITS Division, Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction 3050804 Asahi-1, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki,

More information

HIGHWAY DESIGN REPORT. Appendix 4. Proposed Design Principles for City Passings

HIGHWAY DESIGN REPORT. Appendix 4. Proposed Design Principles for City Passings HIGHWAY DESIGN REPORT Appendix 4 Proposed Design Principles for City Passings June 2000 Contents Page 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Purpose 2 1.2 Definition of city passing 2 1.3 Safety Problems 2 1.4 Planning

More information

DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF A NEW-GENERATION FUEL-EFFICIENCY SUPPORT TOOL. Mascha van der Voort and Martin van Maarseveen

DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF A NEW-GENERATION FUEL-EFFICIENCY SUPPORT TOOL. Mascha van der Voort and Martin van Maarseveen DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF A NEW-GENERATION FUEL-EFFICIENCY SUPPORT TOOL Mascha van der Voort and Martin van Maarseveen Department of Civil Engineering & Management University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500

More information

TECHNIQUES FOR MANUALLY ESTIMATING ROAD USER COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

TECHNIQUES FOR MANUALLY ESTIMATING ROAD USER COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS TECHNIQUES FOR MANUALLY ESTIMATING ROAD USER COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS by Ginger Daniels, P.E. Associate Research Engineer Texas Transportation Institute David R. Ellis, Ph.D. Associate

More information

Access Spacing and Accidents

Access Spacing and Accidents Access Spacing and Accidents A Conceptual Analysis HERBERT S. LEVINSON Transportation Consultant 40 Hemlock Road New Haven, CT 06515 ABSTRACT This paper develops a method for predicting the safety of arterial

More information

0.0 Curb Radii Guidelines Version 1.0.2

0.0 Curb Radii Guidelines Version 1.0.2 Background In early 2014, Transportation Services initiated a review of the Division's design guidelines and standards to move our organization in a direction consistent with the transportation departments

More information

Capacity and Level of Service

Capacity and Level of Service CHAPTER 10 Capacity and Level of Service Determination of the capacities of transportation systems and facilities is a major issue in the analysis of transportation flow. The capacity of a transportation

More information

Capacity Estimation of Urban roads under Mixed Traffic Condition

Capacity Estimation of Urban roads under Mixed Traffic Condition Capacity Estimation of Urban roads under Mixed Traffic Condition Pratik U.Mankar 1 ; Dr. B.V Khode 2 1M. Tech Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, G. H. Raisoni College of Engg, Nagpur mankar.pratik31@gmail.com

More information

Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Highway Division Ten Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116-3973. A Guide on Traffic Analysis Tools

Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Highway Division Ten Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116-3973. A Guide on Traffic Analysis Tools Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Highway Division Ten Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116-3973 A Guide on Traffic Tools Revised October 5, 2012 1. PURPOSE The Massachusetts Department of Transportation,

More information

Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet User Manual ROUNDABOUT GUIDANCE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet User Manual ROUNDABOUT GUIDANCE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet User Manual ROUNDABOUT GUIDANCE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Version 2.5 i Virginia Department of Transportation Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet

More information

ELMHURST SPEEDWAY A STUDY OF LAWBREAKING IN ELMHURST

ELMHURST SPEEDWAY A STUDY OF LAWBREAKING IN ELMHURST ELMHURST SPEEDWAY A STUDY OF LAWBREAKING IN ELMHURST INTRODUCTION TWENTY-THIRD AVENUE IS AN EAST-WEST FOUR-LANE ARTERIAL ROAD running through East Elmhurst, Queens. With two lanes of traffic in either

More information

SPEED CONTROL EFFECT STUDY ON OPTICAL ILLUSION DECELERATION MARKINGS

SPEED CONTROL EFFECT STUDY ON OPTICAL ILLUSION DECELERATION MARKINGS SPEED CONTROL EFFECT STUDY ON OPTICAL ILLUSION ABSTRACT DECELERATION MARKINGS Jingmei WU 1, Han HU 1, Jinhai LI 1 (1. Road Safety Research Center, Research Institute of Highway, M.O.T, Beijing, China;

More information

GEOMETRIC DESIGN CIVL 3161

GEOMETRIC DESIGN CIVL 3161 GEOMETRIC DESIGN CIVL 3161 Reading Assignment: p. 45-72 (4 th ed.) p.45-75 (previous ed.) in Mannering textbook. Geometric design of highway facilities deals with the proportion of physical elements of

More information

Design Vehicles and Turning Radii. Brazhuman corp TTE 4824 Dr. Scott Washburn

Design Vehicles and Turning Radii. Brazhuman corp TTE 4824 Dr. Scott Washburn Design Vehicles and Turning Radii Brazhuman corp TTE 4824 Dr. Scott Washburn Introduction Design vehicles are selected motor vehicles with the weight, dimensions, and operating characteristics used to

More information

Principles of Road and Traffic Engineering Designs for Mixed Traffic Flow with a Numerous Motorcycles

Principles of Road and Traffic Engineering Designs for Mixed Traffic Flow with a Numerous Motorcycles Principles of Road and Traffic Engineering Designs for Mixed Traffic Flow with a Numerous Motorcycles Dr. Ming-Heng Wang Assistant Professor, Department of Transportation Technology and Management, Kainan

More information

2013 QUALITY/ LEVEL OF SERVICE HANDBOOK

2013 QUALITY/ LEVEL OF SERVICE HANDBOOK 2013 QUALITY/ LEVEL OF SERVICE HANDBOOK STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Executive Summary... 1 2 Q/LOS Handbook Purpose and Scope... 3 2.1. Levels of Analysis...4

More information

TRACKING DRIVER EYE MOVEMENTS AT PERMISSIVE LEFT-TURNS

TRACKING DRIVER EYE MOVEMENTS AT PERMISSIVE LEFT-TURNS TRACKING DRIVER EYE MOVEMENTS AT PERMISSIVE LEFT-TURNS Michael A. Knodler Jr. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst Amherst, Massachusetts, USA E-mail: mknodler@ecs.umass.edu

More information

Transit Pass-Through Lanes at Freeway Interchanges: A Life-Cycle Evaluation Methodology

Transit Pass-Through Lanes at Freeway Interchanges: A Life-Cycle Evaluation Methodology Transit Pass-Through Lanes at Freeway Interchanges: A Life-Cycle Evaluation Methodology Michael Mandelzys and Bruce Hellinga University of Waterloo Abstract Transit pass-through lanes provide transit vehicle

More information

PRIORITY SCHEDULING OF URBAN REHABILITATION STREETS TO MINIMIZE CONGESTION, DELAYS, AND ACCIDENTS

PRIORITY SCHEDULING OF URBAN REHABILITATION STREETS TO MINIMIZE CONGESTION, DELAYS, AND ACCIDENTS PRIORITY SCHEDULING OF URBAN REHABILITATION STREETS TO MINIMIZE CONGESTION, DELAYS, AND ACCIDENTS ABSTRACT Wesley C. Zech 1, and Satish Mohan 2 This paper describes the framework of a priority scheduling

More information

BEST PRACTICES FOR PLANNING AND DESIGN OF FREEWAY FACILITIES

BEST PRACTICES FOR PLANNING AND DESIGN OF FREEWAY FACILITIES 1 BEST PRACTICES FOR PLANNING AND DESIGN OF FREEWAY FACILITIES 1. PREAMBLE 1.1 Function of Freeways For purposes of this paper, freeways are defined as high capacity, high speed, multi-lane roadways with

More information

Monthly Bulletin of Preliminary Traffic Crash Data September 2015

Monthly Bulletin of Preliminary Traffic Crash Data September 2015 Monthly Bulletin of Preliminary Traffic Crash Data September Fatality rates for -month period ending September Number of fatalities Rate per, population¹ Rate per, vehicles² Rate per million vehicle kilometres

More information

Roads Task Force - Technical Note 10 What is the capacity of the road network for private motorised traffic and how has this changed over time?

Roads Task Force - Technical Note 10 What is the capacity of the road network for private motorised traffic and how has this changed over time? Roads Task Force - Technical Note 10 What is the capacity of the road network for private motorised traffic and how has this changed over time? Introduction This paper forms one of a series of thematic

More information

Traffic Indices for the use of the Belgian motorway network

Traffic Indices for the use of the Belgian motorway network TRANSPORT & MOBILITY LEUVEN TERVUURSEVEST 54 BUS 4 3000 LEUVEN BELGIUM http://www.tmleuven.be TEL +32 16 22.95.52 FAX +32 16 20.42.22 WORKING PAPER NR. 2003-01 Traffic Indices for the use of the Belgian

More information

Traffic flow Theory (Traffic Stream Characteristics)

Traffic flow Theory (Traffic Stream Characteristics) Traffic flow Theory (Traffic Stream Characteristics) Dr. Gang-Len Chang Professor and Director of Traffic Safety and Operations Lab. University of Maryland-College Park Traffic Flow Variables of Interest

More information

Minimum Merging Section Lengths for Triple Left-Turn Lanes with Downstream Lane Reductions

Minimum Merging Section Lengths for Triple Left-Turn Lanes with Downstream Lane Reductions Minimum Merging Section Lengths for Triple Left-Turn Lanes with Downstream Lane Reductions THIS PAPER, WHICH WON THE ITE STUDENT PAPER AWARD IN 2000, DISCUSSES TRIPLE LEFT TURNS, AN ALTERNATIVE TO HANDLING

More information

Characteristics of High Injury Severity Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia

Characteristics of High Injury Severity Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia Characteristics of High Injury Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia, J. R. R. Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 5005 email: jamie@casr.adelaide.edu.au

More information

Guidelines for visibility at driveways RTS 6

Guidelines for visibility at driveways RTS 6 Guidelines for visibility at driveways RTS 6 May 1993 Reprinted June 1998, July 2001 Land Transport Safety Authority PO Box 2840 Wellington Telephone 04 494 8600 Fascimile 04 494 8601 ISSN: 1170-5337 ISBN:

More information

Highway Capacity and Quality of Service

Highway Capacity and Quality of Service A3A10: Committee on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service Secretary: Richard G. Dowling, Dowling Associates Highway Capacity and Quality of Service WAYNE K. KITTELSON, Kittelson & Associates, Inc. This

More information

BY-LAW NUMBER 284-94

BY-LAW NUMBER 284-94 BY-LAW NUMBER 284-94 A by-law to consolidate the by-laws that regulate traffic on roads under the jurisdiction of The Corporation of the City of Vaughan, and to repeal By-laws Numbered 281-90, 54-83, 299-86,

More information

MPC- 453 April 1, July 31, 2017

MPC- 453 April 1, July 31, 2017 MPC- 453 April 1, 2014- July 31, 2017 Project Title: Speed Selection Behavior during Winter Road Conditions University: University of Wyoming Principal Investigators: Rhonda Young Associate Professor Dept

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF POLICY ON CRASH RATE OF LONG COMBINATION VEHICLES

THE INFLUENCE OF POLICY ON CRASH RATE OF LONG COMBINATION VEHICLES THE INFLUENCE OF POLICY ON CRASH RATE OF LONG COMBINATION VEHICLES John Woodrooffe 1, Darryl Anderson 2 and Lloyd Ash 3 1 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. 2 Alberta Transportation.

More information

Chapter 4: Determining Placement of Crossing Guards

Chapter 4: Determining Placement of Crossing Guards Chapter 4: Determining Placement of Crossing Guards The proper placement of well-trained crossing guards is one of the most effective methods to improve student and crossing guard safety at crossings.

More information

Analysis of Accidents by Older Drivers in Japan

Analysis of Accidents by Older Drivers in Japan Analysis of Accidents by Older Drivers in Japan Kazumoto Morita 1, Michiaki Sekine 1 1 National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, Japan Abstract Since Japan is a rapidly aging society, ensuring

More information

Wisconsin Statewide Speed Management Guidelines June 2009

Wisconsin Statewide Speed Management Guidelines June 2009 Wisconsin Statewide Speed Management Guidelines Developed by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Bureau of Highway Operations, Traffic Engineering Section 4802 Sheboygan Ave., Room 501 P.O. Box

More information

URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PLANNING IN TEHRAN AND THE OUTCOME OF THE IMPLEMENTED BRT LINES

URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PLANNING IN TEHRAN AND THE OUTCOME OF THE IMPLEMENTED BRT LINES United Nations Forum on Climate Change Mitigation, Fuel Efficiency and Sustainable Urban Transport URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PLANNING IN TEHRAN AND THE OUTCOME OF THE IMPLEMENTED BRT LINES S. MEHDI TASHAKKORI

More information

2013 State of Colorado Distracted Driver Study

2013 State of Colorado Distracted Driver Study 2013 State of Colorado Distracted Driver Study Colorado Department of Transportation SEAT BE L STUDY T INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Institute of Transportation Management

More information

Goals & Objectives. Chapter 9. Transportation

Goals & Objectives. Chapter 9. Transportation Goals & Objectives Chapter 9 Transportation Transportation MISSION STATEMENT: TO PROVIDE A TRANSPORTATION NETWORK CAPABLE OF MOVING PEOPLE AND GOODS EFFICIENTLY AND SAFELY. T he transportation system

More information

Estimation of Travel Demand and Network Simulators to Evaluate Traffic Management Schemes in Disaster

Estimation of Travel Demand and Network Simulators to Evaluate Traffic Management Schemes in Disaster Estimation of Travel Demand and Network Simulators to Evaluate Traffic Management Schemes in Disaster Shinji Tanaka, Masao Kuwahara, Toshio Yoshii, Ryota Horiguchi and Hirokazu Akahane* Institute of Industrial

More information

Signs and signals. Signs. Regulatory signs

Signs and signals. Signs. Regulatory signs Signs and signals Signs Traffic signs and signals are an essential part of the road traffic system. Paying attention to traffic signs helps you move around safely and efficiently. There are three common

More information

John van Rijn INDEVELOPMENT ROAD CAPACITIES

John van Rijn INDEVELOPMENT ROAD CAPACITIES John van Rijn INDEVELOPMENT ROAD CAPACITIES ROAD CAPACITIES Any part of this publication may be fully reproduced or translated provided that the source and author are fully acknowledged. Edition 2004.

More information

Relationship Between Lane Width and Speed. Review of Relevant Literature

Relationship Between Lane Width and Speed. Review of Relevant Literature Relationship Between Lane Width and Speed Review of Relevant Literature Prepared for the Columbia Pike Street Space Planning Task Force by the Parsons Transportation Group September 2003 Summary Many factors

More information

Cell Phone Use and Traffic Characteristics

Cell Phone Use and Traffic Characteristics National Technical University of Athens School of Civil Engineering Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering Cell Phone Use and Traffic Characteristics George Yannis, Associate Professor Eleonora

More information

1What purpose do guard

1What purpose do guard g u a r d F c a b A l e Q f re q u e n t l y a s k e d q u e s t i o n s 1What purpose do guard cables serve? Cross-Median Fatalities The purpose of high-tension guard cable is to prevent vehicles that,

More information

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes Published by: Australian Transport Safety Bureau Postal

More information

DOT HS 809 360 October 2001

DOT HS 809 360 October 2001 U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration DOT HS 809 360 October 2001 Technical Report This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information

More information

The Need for Traffic Incident Management

The Need for Traffic Incident Management The Need for Traffic Incident Management With traffic incidents responsible for approximately 50-60% of the congestion delays motorists encounter on the nation s roadways every day, increased roadway capacity

More information

Author: Hamid A.E. Al-Jameel (Research Institute: Engineering Research Centre)

Author: Hamid A.E. Al-Jameel (Research Institute: Engineering Research Centre) SPARC 2010 Evaluation of Car-following Models Using Field Data Author: Hamid A.E. Al-Jameel (Research Institute: Engineering Research Centre) Abstract Traffic congestion problems have been recognised as

More information

Appendix C White Paper to Support Bicycle Facility Design Toolkit on Lane Width Design Modifications DRAFT

Appendix C White Paper to Support Bicycle Facility Design Toolkit on Lane Width Design Modifications DRAFT Appendix C White Paper to Support Bicycle Facility Design Toolkit on Lane Width Design Modiications MEMORANDUM Date: December 31, 2012 Project #: 11080.03 To: Washington County From: Hermanus Steyn, Pr.

More information

EST Achievements, Progress and Future Strategies

EST Achievements, Progress and Future Strategies MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT - MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT VIET NAM EST Achievements, Progress and Future Strategies Dr. Nguyen Van Tai, ISPONRE, MoNRE,, Viet Nam IV EST Forum, Seoul, February

More information

Word Count: Body Text = 5,500 + 2,000 (4 Figures, 4 Tables) = 7,500 words

Word Count: Body Text = 5,500 + 2,000 (4 Figures, 4 Tables) = 7,500 words PRIORITIZING ACCESS MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION By: Grant G. Schultz, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE Assistant Professor Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Brigham Young University 368 Clyde Building Provo,

More information

6. TRAFFIC ON THE HIGHWAY SHARING THE ROAD

6. TRAFFIC ON THE HIGHWAY SHARING THE ROAD 6. TRAFFIC ON THE HIGHWAY SHARING THE ROAD When driving remember that there are many different users of our streets and highways. It is everyone s responsibility to watch out for and adjust to the presence

More information

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF ECO-DRIVING ON FUEL CONSUMPTION BASED ON DRIVING SIMULATOR EXPERIMENTS

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF ECO-DRIVING ON FUEL CONSUMPTION BASED ON DRIVING SIMULATOR EXPERIMENTS QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF ECO-DRIVING ON FUEL CONSUMPTION BASED ON DRIVING SIMULATOR EXPERIMENTS Toshihiro HIRAOKA*1, Yasuhiro TERAKADO*2, Shuichi MATSUMOTO*3, and Shigeyuki YAMABE*4 *1: Graduate School

More information

VILLAGE OF WESTERN SPRINGS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN

VILLAGE OF WESTERN SPRINGS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN VILLAGE OF WESTERN SPRINGS The Village of Western Springs Neighborhood Traffic Management Program (NTMP) assists residents in enhancing the safety and livability of their neighborhoods. A NTMP is a set

More information

Chapter 9 Turning. A. Complete each of the following sentences by writing the correct word or phrase in the space provided.

Chapter 9 Turning. A. Complete each of the following sentences by writing the correct word or phrase in the space provided. Chapter 9 Turning 9-1 TURNING BASICS A. Complete each of the following sentences by writing the correct word or phrase in the space provided. 1. A turn is one in which you may turn only when you have a

More information

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

More information

Estimate of the Noise Pollution and the Amount of Air Pollutants with Simulation of Road Traffic Volume

Estimate of the Noise Pollution and the Amount of Air Pollutants with Simulation of Road Traffic Volume European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 204; www.european-science.com Vol.3, No.3 Special Issue on Environmental, Agricultural, and Energy Science ISSN 805-3602 Estimate of the Noise Pollution

More information

A Comparative Study of Speed Humps, Speed Slots and Speed Cushions

A Comparative Study of Speed Humps, Speed Slots and Speed Cushions A Comparative Study of Speed Humps, Speed Slots and Speed Cushions LaToya Johnson and A.J. Nedzesky Abstract. The primary objective of this study was to compare speed humps with two newer traffic calming

More information

Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns

Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns August 2006 Report Summary 06/05 Introduction This document is a summary of a larger research report prepared by the Monash University Accident Research

More information

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists. 2009 Data

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists. 2009 Data TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2009 Data Bicyclists and Other Cyclists For the purpose of this Traffic Safety Fact Sheet, bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles,

More information

A statistical comparison between severe accidents and PDO accidents in Riyadh A.S. Al-Ghamdi College of Engineering, King Sand University,

A statistical comparison between severe accidents and PDO accidents in Riyadh A.S. Al-Ghamdi College of Engineering, King Sand University, A statistical comparison between severe accidents and PDO accidents in Riyadh A.S. Al-Ghamdi College of Engineering, King Sand University, Email: asghamdi@ksu.edu. sa Abstract Riyadh, capital of the Kingdom

More information

Safe Driver Training

Safe Driver Training Module 1: Introduction response. 1. Which crash type accounts for the largest percentage of crashes? a. Single vehicle crash b. Collision with another vehicle c. Pedestrian crash 2. Which crash type accounts

More information

100 Design Controls and Exceptions

100 Design Controls and Exceptions Table of Contents 100 Introduction... 1 101 Functional Classification... 1 101.1 General... 1 101.2 Urban & Rural... 1 101.3 Classification Used In ODOT Design Criteria... 1 102 Traffic Data... 2 102.1

More information

DOT HS 812 018 April 2014

DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2012, 726 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 49,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist

More information

Martin Schmied, Head of Transport and Environment Division The European Handbook of Emission Factor for Road Transport (HBEFA)

Martin Schmied, Head of Transport and Environment Division The European Handbook of Emission Factor for Road Transport (HBEFA) Martin Schmied, Head of Transport and Environment Division The European Handbook of Emission Factor for Road Transport (HBEFA) Leipzig, 19 th ofmay 2014 Agenda 1. HBEFA: Brief introduction 2. Traffic situation

More information

Relation of Speed and Speed Limits to Crashes

Relation of Speed and Speed Limits to Crashes Relation of Speed and Speed Limits to Crashes National Forum on Speeding Washington, D.C., June 15, 2005 Susan Ferguson, Ph.D. Overview Relation of speeds to crashes Relation of speed to crash severity

More information

Duplication for publication or sale is strictly prohibited without prior written permission of the Transportation Research Board.

Duplication for publication or sale is strictly prohibited without prior written permission of the Transportation Research Board. Paper No. 01-2757 Duplication for publication or sale is strictly prohibited without prior written permission of the Transportation Research Board. Title: Measuring and Analyzing Vehicle Position and Speed

More information

NCDOT Level of Service Software Program for Highway Capacity Manual Planning Applications

NCDOT Level of Service Software Program for Highway Capacity Manual Planning Applications Final Report NCDOT Level of Service Software Program for Highway Capacity Manual Planning Applications Research Conducted for The North Carolina Department of Transportation By: Shannon J. Fain, P.E.,

More information

BlipTrack. Case Studies. ANPR vs. Bluetooth. This case describes how data from ANPR cameras match corresponding Bluetooth sensor data.

BlipTrack. Case Studies. ANPR vs. Bluetooth. This case describes how data from ANPR cameras match corresponding Bluetooth sensor data. ANPR vs. Bluetooth This case describes how data from ANPR cameras match corresponding Bluetooth sensor data. The map shows an arterial road in the city of Aalborg with a total of 4 lanes, 2 in each direction.

More information

3 basic driving skills

3 basic driving skills 3 basic driving skills This chapter includes information on basic skills, driving in traffic and vehicle and personal safety. What you ll learn After studying this chapter you ll be able to: describe various

More information

Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections

Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections Yinhai Wang (corresponding author) Department of Civil Engineering University of Washington Box 352700,

More information

INVESTIGATION OF ASIM 29X, CANOGA, RTMS, SAS-1, SMARTSENSOR, TIRTL & OTHER SENSORS FOR AUTOMATIC VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION

INVESTIGATION OF ASIM 29X, CANOGA, RTMS, SAS-1, SMARTSENSOR, TIRTL & OTHER SENSORS FOR AUTOMATIC VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION INVESTIGATION OF ASIM 29X, CANOGA, RTMS, SAS-1, SMARTSENSOR, TIRTL & OTHER SENSORS FOR AUTOMATIC VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION RESEARCH NEED This research will add to the national and local state-of-the-art on

More information

Delineation. Section 4 Longitudinal markings

Delineation. Section 4 Longitudinal markings Delineation Section 4 Longitudinal markings The delineation guidelines have been developed to assist in designing and maintaining a quality delineation system. The guidelines are to comprise 19 sections

More information

PART I TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS

PART I TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS PART I TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS A. MOTOR VEHICLE STATUTES N.J.S.A. 39:3-4 Driving or parking unregistered motor vehicle 39:3-9a Failure to notify change in name $22 39:3-9a Failure to endorse license $42 39:3-10

More information

In addition to looking for applications that can be profitably examined algebraically,

In addition to looking for applications that can be profitably examined algebraically, The mathematics of stopping your car Eric Wood National Institute of Education, Singapore In addition to looking for applications that can be profitably examined algebraically, numerically

More information

ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY

ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY UMTRI-2011-34 AUGUST 2011 ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY MICHAEL SIVAK BRANDON SCHOETTLE ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND

More information

Traffic Accidents Trends and Characteristics in Jordan

Traffic Accidents Trends and Characteristics in Jordan International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol:13 No:5 9 Traffic Accidents Trends and Characteristics in Jordan Bashar AL-Omari 1, Khalid Ghuzlan 2*, Hala Hasan 3 1 Associate

More information

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA,

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, Vilnius 215 STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, 211 214 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 9 GENERAL INFORMATION... 1 1. VEHICLE FLEET... 11 1.1. Number of vehicles, 1995 214...

More information

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ACCIDENT RATE AND TRAFFIC VOLUME

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ACCIDENT RATE AND TRAFFIC VOLUME INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ACCIDENT RATE AND TRAFFIC VOLUME Algis Pakalnis, Deputy Director, Mindaugas Dimaitis, Head of Road Division, Andrius Gužys, Road Division Group Leader, Transport and Road Research

More information

Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work

Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work Student notes (sample) www.britsafe.org Membership Training Qualifications Audit and Consultancy Audit and Policy Consultancy and Opinion Policy Awards and Opinion

More information

CHAPTER 2B. REGULATORY SIGNS

CHAPTER 2B. REGULATORY SIGNS December 2000 Page 2B-1 CHAPTER 2B. REGULATORY SIGNS Section 2B.01 Application of Regulatory Signs Regulatory signs shall be used to inform road users of selected traffic laws or regulations and indicate

More information

Intersection Geometry. Designing for Pedestrian Safety Intersection Geometry

Intersection Geometry. Designing for Pedestrian Safety Intersection Geometry Intersection Geometry Learning Outcomes At the end of this module, you will be able to: 1. Explain why tight/right angle intersections are best 2. Describe why pedestrians need access to all corners 3.

More information

Relationship of Lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials

Relationship of Lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials Relationship of Lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials Ingrid B. Potts Principal Traffic Engineer Midwest Research Institute 425 Volker Boulevard Kansas City, MO 64110-2299 Tel: (816) 360-5284

More information

TURNS. Many motor vehicle crashes are caused by improper turns. In general, take the following steps to ensure safe turning:

TURNS. Many motor vehicle crashes are caused by improper turns. In general, take the following steps to ensure safe turning: TURNS Many motor vehicle crashes are caused by improper turns. In general, take the following steps to ensure safe turning: 1. Plan for the turn. Do not turn suddenly. 2. Signal your turn at least 100

More information

Road Signs Recognition Quiz

Road Signs Recognition Quiz Road Signs Recognition Quiz Place your answer for each of the signs/pavement markings on the answer sheet. Ready to Roll? Here Comes Sign # 1... #1 A No right turn B Right turn only C Warning, no turn

More information

Users Perceptive Evaluation of Bus Arrival Time Deviations in Stochastic Networks

Users Perceptive Evaluation of Bus Arrival Time Deviations in Stochastic Networks Users Perceptive Evaluation of Bus Arrival Time Deviations in Stochastic Networks Users Perceptive Evaluation of Bus Arrival Time Deviations in Stochastic Networks Nikolaos G. Daskalakis, Anthony Stathopoulos

More information

IMPLEMENTATION BRIEF The Last Frontier: Complete Streets in Alaska

IMPLEMENTATION BRIEF The Last Frontier: Complete Streets in Alaska This multi-use sidepath on College Rd. in Fairbanks, AK, is maintained and used for transportation year-round. Photo courtesy of Donna Gardino, FMATS. IMPLEMENTATION BRIEF The Last Frontier: Complete Streets

More information

Transport demands in suburbanized locations

Transport demands in suburbanized locations Agronomy Research 12(2), 351 358, 2014 Transport demands in suburbanized locations M. Lukeš *, M. Kotek and M. Růžička Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 21 Prague 6

More information

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References 1.1Background Vehicles in Canada are required to comply with emission standards for a defined full useful

More information

Towards Safe and Efficient Driving through Vehicle Automation: The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative

Towards Safe and Efficient Driving through Vehicle Automation: The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative Towards Safe and Efficient Driving through Vehicle Automation: The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative Raymond Hoogendoorn, Bart van Arem, Riender Happee, Manuel Mazo Espinoza and Dimitrios Kotiadis 30

More information

87-A DISTRICT DIVISION MOST COMMON TRAFFIC CIVIL INFRACTION VIOLATIONS

87-A DISTRICT DIVISION MOST COMMON TRAFFIC CIVIL INFRACTION VIOLATIONS 87-A DISTRICT DIVISION MOST COMMON TRAFFIC CIVIL INFRACTION VIOLATIONS Revised as of 04/2016 Misdemeanor violations may require a hearing date at which time fine and costs will be assessed. Section Code

More information

Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle

Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle DOT HS 809 979 January 2006 Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle By Rajesh Subramanian * Summary The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has routinely

More information

Delineation. Section 6 - Transverse markings

Delineation. Section 6 - Transverse markings Delineation Section 6 - Transverse markings The delineation guidelines have been developed to assist in designing and maintaining a quality delineation system. The guidelines are to comprise 19 sections

More information

Vehicle safety: A move towards zero fatalities

Vehicle safety: A move towards zero fatalities 3rd. Asia Automobile Institute Summit Vehicle safety: A move towards zero fatalities Presented by: Mr.Nithipol Ekboonyarit Mr.Sakesilp Banpasuka : Specialist of Auto. Part Development (TAI) : Specialist

More information