G. D-Ring A connector incorporated into a full body harness as an attachment point for lanyard and energy absorber lifelines.

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2 D. Buddy System Is intended as an interim measure to provide a safe working environment when removing or opening a manhole, vault or pit covers. Requires a crew of no less than 2 individuals, of which 1 is responsible for initially opening a manhole, vault or pit cover and performing work around these open structures and the other to visually monitor the open structure and warn other employees when they are in danger of falling into the open structure. E. Competent Person A specially trained Safety and Health Staff Member, Division Supervisor or Site Leader, who is capable of identifying and anticipating hazards in the work area associated with the fall arrest system and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to solve problems with working at heights. F. Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) An area in which certain work may take place without the use of guardrails, personal fall arrest systems or safety nets. Access to the zone is controlled. G. D-Ring A connector incorporated into a full body harness as an attachment point for lanyard and energy absorber lifelines. H. Deceleration Device A mechanism such as a rope grab, retracting lifeline or shock absorbing lanyard that absorbs or dissipates energy during a fall arrest. I. Fall Prevention Any same level means used to reasonably prevent exposure to an elevated fall hazard. Floors, walls, guardrails and area isolation are means of fall prevention. J. Free Fall Distance The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point of the person s body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline and lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before their operation and before full arrest forces occur. K. Full Body Harness - An engineered design of straps which are secured about the person in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, with mean of attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system. L. Guardrail System - A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent persons from falling to lower levels. Design requirements must meet local engineering codes. M. Leading Edge - The edge of a floor, roof or formwork for a floor other walking/working surface (such as a deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking or formwork sections are placed, formed or constructed. N. May, Should or Can - Means the requirement, procedure, etc. is optional but recommended. Effective Date: Page 2 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

3 O. Mobile Elevated Work Platforms - Vehicle mounted aerial devices, elevating rolling work platform (manual or self-propelled), and boom-type elevating work platform. P. Owning Department - Department responsible for the inspection, maintenance and the safe operation of their fall protection equipment. Q. Personal Fall Arrest System - An approved system used to arrest a person in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchor point, anchorage devices, connectors, full body harness, and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. R. Personal Fall Prevention System An approved system of fall restraint used to prevent a person getting into a position where a fall may occur. It consists of an anchor point, anchorage devices, connectors, full body harness, and may include a lanyard. S. Positioning Device System - A full body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical service, such as a wall, and work with both hands free. T. Program Administrator Individual(s) tasked with the development, implementation and management of the Fall Protection Program. U. Qualified Person - Individual(s) with a recognized training or professional certificate and with extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field, who is capable of, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product. V. Safety Monitor - Designated competent person who monitors the safety of up to three other employees in a controlled access zone. W. Self-Retracting Lifeline/Lanyard - A deceleration device containing a drum-wound line that can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall. X. Site Leader - Competent person tasked with insuring that OCSD Fall Protection requirements are implemented and effectively executed at the work sites that they manage. Y. Shock Absorbing Lanyard - A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body harness to a lifeline or anchor point and has deceleration capabilities as part of the entire unit (i.e., rip-stitching, tearing or deforming lanyards). Z. Snap Hook - All snap hooks used are to be of the locking type with a self-closing, self-locking keeper that remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection. AA. Three-Point Contact A best practice while on a ladder to reduce fall potential by keeping two feet and one hand, or two hands and one foot in contact with the ladder at all times. Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 3 of 28 Effective Date:

4 BB. Unprotected Sides and Edges - any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, e.g., floor, roof, ramp or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches high. CC. Warning Line System - a visual or physical warning on a roof from the edge to warn personnel that they are approaching an unprotected opening, roof side or edge, and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrails, fall arrest, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area. DD. Work at Height - Work performed at a height equal to or greater than 1.8 meters or 4 feet and the possibility of a fall to a lower level exists. V. Policy Statement A. Responsibility 1. Program Administrator a. Will be a representative from the OCSD Safety and Health Division and will be responsible for the following procedural elements B. Risk Assessment 1) Responsible for the development and implementation of the OCSD Fall Protection Program and Site Specific Fall Protection Procedure. 2) Serve as the subject matter expert on Fall Protection. This duty will be performed by a Competent Person. 3) Measures and evaluate the effectiveness of the OCSD Fall Protection Program on an annual basis. 4) Approves the selection and use of Work Positioning and Fall Arrest Systems. 5) Identifies the level of risk management applied to specific fall hazards. 6) Develops program training and compile lists of authorized personnel who perform the duties of competent persons 7) Ensure program audit and review requirements are met and that appropriate follow-up takes place to correct deficiencies 8) Serves as a technical and regulatory resource to other divisions (eg. Operations and Maintenance) 1. Risk assessments shall be completed by a Competent person trained to identify and document work at height hazards to employees, or contractor/vendors Effective Date: Page 4 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

5 2. Risk assessments for non-routine or modified tasks, shall be completed prior to the task being undertaken. Competent persons shall determine when assessments require involvement from Qualified Persons, an example being engineered systems or components 3. Documented risk assessments shall be re-verified for accuracy at a minimum of every three years or immediately upon changes in use, application or design changes to existing applications 4. Assessments may be completed in-house or by a competent contractor or consultant a. Based on the assessment, the following shall be documented as applicable: 1) An inventory of all work at height tasks and risks identified 2) A Qualified Person shall determine that the structure(s) are safe to climb and fixed anchor points are safe. 3) Impact of adverse weather conditions such as wind and rain during elevated work 4) Rescue plan C. Division Supervisors or Site Leader 1. Division Supervisors or assigned Site Leader shall be competent person(s) trained to complete the following pre job task when their employees are performing work at heights a. Organize a pre-job risk assessment to ensure an effective use of fall protection equipment and method of rescue is determined for fall protection applications b. The assessment must be performed by a Competent Person. Assessments may include members from Operations and Maintenance, Collections, Construction Management, Safety and Health Division, Contractors and Consultants to develop an effective fall protection plan c. Ensure OCSD Fall Protection Program requirements are implemented and effectively executed at the work site(s) in which they manage. This includes selection, use, and inspection d. Retains full responsibility and accountability for implementation of the procedures documented in the job risk assessment e. Delegate work requiring the use of fall protection equipment only to persons authorized to perform work at height f. Suspend work at heights when inclement weather (examples being wind, rain, electrical storms.) may threaten worker safety g. Determine integrity of work surfaces prior to allowing work to commence h. Insures that adequate hardware and other resources exist for authorized persons to effectively prepare for and perform work Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 5 of 28 Effective Date:

6 i. Administer disciplinary action through appropriate OCSD management for non-compliance D. Employees 1. Must comply with requirements outlined in this Program 2. Will utilize available systems and equipment to protect themselves from worksite fall hazards when working at an unprotected elevation of four feet or more. This includes locations above grade, floor, or approved work surfaces such as platforms and work scaffolds with unprotected sides, or when working in an area where fall potential of greater than four feet exists. The four foot fall distance is measured from the feet of a person 3. Shall comply with all Fall Protection related rules, regulations, standards and procedures and report all Fall Protection related deficiencies or potential issues including accidents and near-misses to supervision immediately 4. Tie-off is required at all time when horizontal travel at elevation above six feet is required. Fall arrest system may involve a Y lanyard, double lanyard and horizontal cable system 5. Inspect personal fall prevention, personal arrest equipment and systems prior to each use 6. Shall not climb, stand, kneel, crawl, etc., on conduit, cable trays not designed to support a person s body weight 7. Climbing on vertical beams is not permitted 8. Access to fragile roofs is prohibited unless a walking surface of adequate strength has been provided 9. Minimize exposure to fall by accessing an elevated position as close as possible to the work area 10. Do not climb a ladder while another person is directly above or below. Only one person is permitted on a ladder 11. It is the responsibility of the user to maintain his/her personal fall arrest or fall prevention equipment 12. Select anchor points above shoulder height to reduce fall distance. Use a self-retracting lanyard to limit free fall when the only anchor point available exists below shoulder height 13. Ensure sharp edges are protected to avoid cutting lifelines, rope, cross arm straps or lanyards 14. Identify equipment that has been subjected to forces from a fall to supervision for removal from use according to the manufacturer s specifications Effective Date: Page 6 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

7 15. Prevent slips and trips by maintaining clear platform walkways 16. Destroy all damaged fall protection full body harnesses, lanyards and tether lines E. Contractor / Service Providers: General Requirements 1. Contractor /Service Providers agrees to conform to applicable OCSD policies, procedures and programs 2. Contractor /Service Providers must agree to conform to all applicable Federal and State Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations 3. Contractor /Service Providers shall meet with personnel from the OCSD S Safety and Health Division a minimum of 5 days before the start of the job 4. As part of the pre job/agreement meeting the OCSD Safety and Health Division shall complete a Job Site Safety Analysis (JSSA) that addresses where fall protection may be required and how fall protection is to be achieved 5. Contractor /Service Providers are responsible to inform all subcontractors of terms discussed at the pre job/agreement meeting 6. Contractor /Service Providers shall provide personal fall arrest equipment and systems to their employees 7. May be required to submit site specific fall protection and rescue plan, as well as training documentation for review by persons with authorized oversight 8. Assure the use of fall protection equipment consistent with the requirements outlined in this document and all other applicable regulations will be used by their employees F. Requirements 1. Acceptable Control Methods a. Where the risk of a fall from work at height is identified, risk assessment shall be documented for the intended task(s) and the following hierarchy of risk control measures must be applied to either eliminate the risk or reduce the risk of a fall to as low as reasonably practicable 1) Elimination - Eliminate the risk of a fall completely. Examples are to relocate the work to a safe working height, to the ground or existing solid construction with guardrail/walls 2) Passive Fall Protection - If it is not possible to eliminate the risk of a fall, reduce the risk by the use of passive fall protection equipment, examples being guard-railing, scissor lifts, elevated work platforms and scaffolds 3) Personal Fall Arrest System - If it is not possible to use the above options, the use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems to arrest a fall after it occurs shall be used. Body/Safety belts are not permitted for use as part of a Personal Fall Arrest System Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 7 of 28 Effective Date:

8 4) Work Positioning System - Work Positioning Systems is different from a Personal Fall Arrest Systems in that the length of the appropriate restraint lines / lanyards are shorter and rigged in such a way that will both restrict the range of movement of the user and prevent him or her from falling more than 2 feet. Employees operating a man-lift would use a positing device to prevent them from falling out of the basket when maneuvering an aerial lift over uneven surfaces, rough terrain or in the event where the boom arm failed due to a loss of hydraulic pressure. OCSD employees shall use a full body harness as part of a Work Positioning System or Personal Fall Arrest System; Body/Safety belts are prohibited 5) Administrative Controls - If none of the above measures are possible, or the risk of a fall still remains, the risk shall be reduced by the use of documented Administrative Controls that specify the procedures to be used to mitigate the risk, such as Control Access Zone, Warning Line System and designated Safety Monitor. The use of Control Zones shall be approved by Division Supervisory staff / Competent Person before they are implemented 2. Fall and Rescue Plan a. A Competent Person shall develop a rescue plan as part of the risk assessment and ensure that the rescue plan includes the following: 1) Job site and task specific rescue procedure for an employee in the event of a fall 2) Provide prompt medical care to an employee who has fallen b. The Rescue Plan must ensure that rescue can be commenced within 15 minutes. No work incorporating fall arrest may begin until an effective means of rescue has been determined. The following are examples of rescue that may be used: 1) Self-Rescue 2) Assisted Rescue (ie. Fire Department) 3) Self-Descent Device 4) High-Angle Rescue 5) Scissor or Man Lift rescue c. The Rescue Plan must ensure that any risk, including a non-fall risk associated with the carrying out of a rescue is eliminated 3. Maintenance and Inspection a. Personal Fall Arrest and Prevention Systems and associated devices/equipment shall be visually inspected prior to each use, and Effective Date: Page 8 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

9 periodically per manufacturers specifications, for excessive wear, damage and other sign of deterioration. b. The six month periodic inspection shall be documented c. Defective equipment shall be immediately removed from service and tagged, destroyed and discarded d. Personal Fall Arrest Systems that are involved in a fall arrest incident must be taken out of service immediately and handled according to the manufacturer s instructions. Retractable lifelines must be sent back to the manufacturer for repair and re-certification e. The service life of harnesses and lanyards is determined by the manufacturer and shall be discarded upon expiration. This information is found on a tag located on the device itself f. Harnesses, lanyards, and retractable lifelines must have a legible tag or data plate attached to the device or it must be taken out of service g. Fall protection equipment must be used in accordance with manufacturer instructions, including weight and size limitations, and must not be altered in any way without written manufacturer authorization h. Personnel who maintain and inspect Personal Fall Arrest Systems must receive formal training from a Competent Person i. Anchor points shall be certified by a Qualified Person 4. Training a. Personnel performing work at heights shall be trained in specific fall protection applications and equipment commensurate with their job. Training shall include the following: 1) Definitions 2) Explanation of Roles 3) Safe Work Practices 4) Use and application of Fall Protection Equipment 5) Requirements for Selection, Inspection and Maintenance 6) Association with Critical Life Safety Procedures 7) Employees shall demonstrate an understanding of the training and use of equipment applicable to their job. This may be accomplished through a documented exam or documented practical demonstration 5. Refresher Training a. Shall be provided when: 1) Changes in the workplace or new installations render previous training obsolete Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 9 of 28 Effective Date:

10 2) Changes in the types of Fall Protection equipment to be used render previous training obsolete 3) Workplace observations or incidents indicate that employees have not retained an understanding of the skills acquired through their initial training 4) Changes are made to the Fall Protection Program 6. Audit and Program Review G. Application a. The Fall Protection Program shall be reviewed and documented annually to determine effectiveness and identify improvement opportunities based on performance and feedback mechanisms b. Changes in the Fall Protection Program shall be communicated to all affected employees 1. Examples where Fall Protection is required include but are not limited to the following: a. Personnel lift, buckets, and scissor lifts b. Vertical manhole entries more than 5 feet in depth c. When work is conducted from a ladders and a three-point contact cannot be maintained d. Elevated Pipe racks accessed for routine equipment inspection shall have a platform and horizontal lifeline at a minimum e. Elevated work/walking surfaces where more than a 4 foot continuous drop and fall hazard exists f. Roofs not protected by guardrail systems g. Open access ways for hoist areas 2. Examples where fall protection is not required include but are not limited to the following: a. Scaffolds meeting OSHA requirements for completed scaffolds when personnel are working inside the guardrail system b. Roofs protected by a guardrail system c. Stairways with standard railings d. Caged ladders e. Portable scaffold ladders (only when used for access) f. Elevated walkways protected by guardrail systems 3. Fall Protection Systems / Engineered Systems a. Division Supervisors must ensure proper Fall Protection Systems and measures are in place at a worksite with identified elevated work surfaces and the hazard of falling Effective Date: Page 10 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

11 b. Engineered and permanently installed systems are to be considered the best practice or standard. Such permanent measures must be installed for all locations unless such an installation is not practical, feasible or creates a secondary hazard as a result of the installation. Walking/working surfaces must be designed and maintained to have the strength and structural integrity to support employees safety. c. Fall Protection is also required when employees have the potential to fall in hazardous equipment regardless of the distance of the fall d. Examples of fall hazards include but are not limited to unprotected sides, leading edges, wall holes, floor openings, hoist areas, ramps, walkways, ladders and excavations 4. Elevated Work Surfaces a. Standard guardrails shall be provided on all open sides of unenclosed elevated work locations, such as: roof openings, landings, balconies or porches, platforms, runways, ramps or working levels more than 30 inches above the floor, ground or other working areas b. Fall protection systems, or other measures will be required whenever employees who are exposed to fall hazards from work/walking surfaces which are four feet or more above the adjacent ground, floor or other work surface, or when elevated work involves a potential hazard for falling outside existing railing that surrounds the platform below c. Elevated platforms shall be maintained as to eliminate hazards from slips and trips d. Engineered systems such as guardrails and personal fall protection systems will be installed and conform to all governmental and state regulations and OCSD Standards 5. Guardrails a. Will meet the following requirements: 1) Guardrail height shall be 42 inches above the working level and will be constructed to meet local building and safety code requirements. Guardrails shall have a mid-rail and a toe-board that meet the minimum standards of all local regulations 2) Guardrails used around holes will be erected on all unprotected edges of the hole. If the hole is used for the passage of materials, no more than two sides may have removable guardrail sections 3) When the 200 pound test load is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail shall not deflect to a height less than 39 inches above the walking/working level. 4) Mid-rails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the mid-rail or other member Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 11 of 28 Effective Date:

12 5) Mid-rails shall be installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level. 6. Toe-Boards a. When used as falling object protection, shall be erected along the edge of the overhead walking/working surface for a distance sufficient to protect employees below b. Toe-boards shall be capable of withstanding, a force of 50 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toe-board without failure c. Toe-boards shall be 4 inches in vertical height from their top edge to the level of the walking/working surface. They shall have not more than ¼-inch clearance above the walking/working surface. They shall be solid or have openings not over 1 inch in greatest dimension 7. Floor Openings a) Floor openings/holes through which materials or tools may fall and create a hazard or through which parts of a person s body may contact dangerous moving parts, shall be completely covered except when in use b) Floor openings/holes through which materials or tools may fall and create a hazard or through which parts of a person s body may contact dangerous moving parts, shall be completely covered except when in use c) All hole covers shall meet the following requirements (1) Covers shall not project more than one inch above the floor level and all edges shall be chamfered to an angle with the horizontal of not over 30 degrees. All hinges, handle, bolts or other parts shall set flush with the floor or cover surfaces (2) Covers for floor holes will be capable of supporting at least twice the weight of employees, equipment and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any time without failure (3) Every floor hole into which persons cannot accidentally walk (on account of fixed machinery, equipment, or walls) shall be protected by a cover that leaves no openings more than 1 inch wide. The cover shall be securely held in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through (4) All covers will be secured to prevent accidental displacement by wind, equipment or employees (5) All covers will be colored or marked with the word HOLE or COVER to provide warning of the hazard (6) Manhole, covers located in roadways shall comply with local standard highway requirements if any; otherwise, they shall be designed to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds Effective Date: Page 12 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

13 H. Personal Fall Arrest Equipment 1) Division Supervisors or Site Leaders a) Must ensure that their employees are equipped with and use the proper fall protection systems identified for the elevated work area and those protective measures are being followed at a worksite b) Where engineered or permanent systems such as guard rails are not feasible, personal fall arrest equipment shall be utilized c) When personal fall prevention equipment is used, the anchor point shall be positioned to allow the user to make the connection before getting into a position from which a fall could occur 2) Personal Fall Arrest Systems a) Shall meet the following requirements: (1) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness (2) Must be rigged so that employees cannot free-fall more than 6 feet or contact any lower level (3) Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (shock-absorbing lanyards) (4) Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free-falling a distance of 6 feet or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less (5) Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading will be immediately removed from service and will not be used again for employee protection until inspected by a competent person and determined to be undamaged and suitable for re-use according to the manufacturers specifications. 3) Body Harnesses a) Must meet the following requirements: 4) Lanyards (1) Only ANSI-Approved full body harnesses shall be used for personal fall arrest systems. (Note) Body belts shall not be used for fall protection (2) The weight limit of the harness and other system components shall be known and not exceeded. (Weight limit shall be determined by including the person s weight and weight of any tools and materials being carried. (3) All full body harnesses must come equipped with both a back and front D-ring a) Must meet the following requirements: Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 13 of 28 Effective Date:

14 (1) Lanyards used for fall protection shall not exceed 6 feet in length and shall not exceed the distance from the anchor to the level below (2) When using a full body harness, lanyards and other components having different manufacturers, compatibility must be determined by a Competent Person (3) Lanyards shall be connected to secure anchor points in such a manner that will limit an employee free fall distance to 6 feet or less (4) Lanyards shall be protected from abrasions, cuts, or deterioration caused by ultra-violet light, dirt and chemicals (5) Synthetic Rope lanyards shall be rated to support at a minimum 900 pounds (6) Lanyards with a shock absorbing device shall be used with the lanyard to reduce fall arresting forces to pounds (7) Lanyards shall be free from knots (8) Lanyards shall not be tied back to themselves (9) Self-retracting lanyards shall be attached using shackles or carabineers. Rope shall not be used for this purpose 5) Snap Hooks a) Must meet the following requirements 6) Lifelines (1) Double locking type snap hooks will be used on personal fall arrest systems (2) Lanyard snap hook shall be connected to the anchor points D rings only (3) D-rings and snap hooks shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (4) Lanyard snap hooks shall not be wrapped around anchor points and connected back to the lanyard a) Must meet the following requirements: (1) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 lbs. applied to the device, with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position Effective Date: Page 14 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

15 7) Anchor Points a) Must meet the following requirements: (1) Shall be installed under the supervision of a qualified person. (2) Designed as part of a complete fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of two and shall be capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per employee attached. (3) The anchor point is to be inspected for physical damage by the user prior to each use and a documented inspection at a minimum frequency of 5 years and more frequently if environmental conditions warrant. (4) The correct placement of an anchor point is above shoulder height to reduce the fall distance. The anchor point should be located in a manner to minimize swinging and should not be affected by the environment or contamination (5) The following are pre-approved anchor points for lanyards. This is not an all-inclusive list. (6) Guard post and guardrails built with 6 or larger steel pipe or square tubing in sound condition. (7) All building columns. (8) All identified anchor points in personnel lift. b) The following are examples of what should NOT be used as anchor points unless approved by a Qualified Person. This is not an all-inclusive list. (1) Handrails (2) Ladders (3) C-Clamps (4) Electrical conduit or pipe runs (dependent on diameter or length of support member. (5) Guard post and guardrails build with less than 6 steel pipe or square tubing. I. Fall Protection Requirements 1. Permanent Platforms a. Walking/working surfaces 4 feet and above shall be guarded by standard railing and toe board. b. No fall arresting equipment is required when working on a platform with fall protection (handrails, mid-rails, and toe boards) designed to regulatory specification. c. When employees perform work outside of the guarded area, they shall have on a full body harness and lanyard. The lanyard must be secured to the back D ring of the harness and to a suitable anchor point. Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 15 of 28 Effective Date:

16 d. OSHA requires gates on ladders on work platforms. For this reason, all fixed ladders on work platforms should have gates at the top. Chains are not an acceptable substitute for ladder gates. Spring loaded double bar gates should be installed at the top of ladders on work platforms. 2. Fixed Ladders a. Do not carry tools or other material in hands or arms while ascending/descending ladders. b. If three points of contact cannot be maintained while performing a work task from a fixed/caged ladder, a personal fall arrest system shall be utilized. c. Fixed ladders that are 20 feet in height shall be affixed with a fall cage. d. OSHA requires gates on all fixed ladders attached to work platforms shall have spring loaded double bar gates installed at the top of ladders on work platforms. Single bar gates or chains are not an acceptable substitute for ladder gates 3. Portable Step Ladders: must meet the following requirements a. Stepladders shall not be used as straight ladders b. Select the tallest ladder that will fit in the space where the work is to be done c. The Ladder user must keep his or her belt buckle below the top step of the ladder and between the side rails. d. The top ladder step is not to be used as a step. e. Metal spreader bars shall be fully extended and the ladder used on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental displacement. f. Cross bracing on the rear section of step ladders is not to be used for climbing unless the ladders are designed and provided with steps for climbing on both the front and rear sections. g. When ascending or descending, the climber must face the ladder. h. Ladders are not to be moved or shifted while occupied. i. Ladders shall have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment. j. Ladders used in doorways, aisle ways or roadways shall be protected from incidental contact. k. Overextending or reaching where the belt buckle extends beyond the side rails is not allowed. l. A personal fall arrest system must be used on a portable stepladder when a three point contact cannot be maintained above six feet. 4. Portable Extension / Straight Ladders: Effective Date: Page 16 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

17 a. All mobile ladder stands and platforms must be in compliance with ANSI A and OSHA b. Setting up a ladder at a 4:1 slope is required (place the base a distance from the vertical wall equal to one-fourth the working length of the ladder). Place ladder on a firm level surface. c. Ladders shall have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical Equipment. d. The sections of extension ladders must be prevented from moving relative to each other. e. All extension/straight ladders over 6 feet must be secured to a fixed structure or anchor point (If securing is not feasible, someone other than the user must hold the ladder in place while it is being used). f. Overextending or reaching where the ladder user s belt buckle extends beyond the side rails is not allowed. g. When ascending or descending a ladder three points of contact must be maintained (i.e., at least one hand shall be free to grasp the ladder). h. Do not carry tools or other material in hands or arms while ascending/descending ladders. i. Ladders used in aisle ways or placed in doorways shall be protected from incidental contact. Doorways shall be secured in an open position, locked, attended or barricaded. j. Portable ladders used for access to an upper landing surface must be placed where the side rails extend at least three feet or three rungs above the upper landing surface to which the ladder is used to gain access. k. Working heights greater than 6 requires the use of a personal fall arrest system when a three-point contact cannot be maintained. This distance is measured from the person s feet to the surface below. l. The minimum step width is 16 inches. m. Occupied mobile ladder stands and platforms should not be moved. n. Additional height should not be gained by the addition of any type of extension or an object being placed on the unit. o. Materials and equipment is not to be stored on the steps or platforms p. Damaged or defective mobile ladder stands and platforms are not to be used and should be tagged out of service. q. Mobile ladder steps/ platforms are not to be loaded beyond rated load. r. Foreign materials, such as mud or grease, should be removed from a person s shoes prior to ascending or descending a ladder. s. Fall protection is not required if these provisions are met. 5. Ramps, Walkways and Sloped Surfaces a. Employees on ramps, runways, and other walkways shall be protected from falling 4 feet or more to lower levels by guardrail systems. Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 17 of 28 Effective Date:

18 b. Ramps or Sloped Surfaces with an incline greater than 40 inches in height will require an employee to use fall protection while on the ramp or sloped surface. 6. Leading Edge a. All OCSD employees working within 6 feet from a leading edge that could cause a fall of 4 feet or more (including diagonal falls of 40 degrees or more) shall be protected from falling by guardrails systems, personal fall arrest systems, body positioning device, warning line system including a Safety Monitor/ Attendant b. Personnel accessing the roof from the roof edge shall be required to use fall protection until they reach a distance of 6 feet away from the edge of the roof. c. Personnel working within the first 6 feet from the roof edge will be required to use personal fall arrest or fall restraint devices that will not allow them access to the roof edge. (SRL s) self-retractable lanyard cannot be used as part of a personal fall protection or fall restraint system, unless the full length of the lanyard is less than the distance to the roof edge. d. When a fall protection plan utilizes a warning line system in lieu of railing, fall arrest or fall restraint systems, warning lines constructed of ropes, wires or chain, and support stanchions shall be erected as follows: 1) Warning line shall be installed no less than 6 feet from the roof edge. 2) Warning Line shall be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point including sag is no less that 34 inches from the walking surface and its highest point is no more than 39 inches from the walking surface. 3) The warning line shall be flagged at not more than 6 foot intervals with high visibility material. 4) After being erected warning line stanchions shall be capable of resisting without tip over a force of at least 16 pounds. 5) Warning line shall have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds and after being attached to the stanchion, shall be capable of supporting 16 pounds without breaking. 6) No work or work-related activity is to take place in the area between the warning line and the edge. 7) The use of warning lines closer than 6 feet from the edge is not permitted as substitute for conventional fall protection for work other than roof construction/repair. 7. Standard Guardrails for Roofs Effective Date: Page 18 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

19 a. When railing is used as the fall prevention system, it shall be placed at each roof edge access point and extend 6 feet in both directions along the roof edge. b. Personnel who need to travel beyond the protection of the railing and into the 6 foot danger zone to perform maintenance, service work, visual inspection or any other reason, shall use a personal fall arrest or fall restraint system with a standard 6 foot lanyard attached to an approved tie-off / anchor point. (Note) If a fall restraint system is used the lanyard shall be at a length that will prevent the user from gaining access to the roof edge. c. When it is not feasible due to design or location to install railing, approved tieoff / anchor points shall be provided at each point where an employee must enter into a the 6 ft. danger zone to performing maintenance work on equipment. 8. Roof Safety Rules a. A job safety review shall be conducted for all roof work. b. No employee shall go on the District Roofs in the following conditions: Lightning, Heavy Rain, and High Winds or in conditions of Dense Fog. c. No one shall be sent to roofs after dark except for emergency repairs or planned work where all appropriate safety precautions have been taken in advance (i.e. portable lighting). Use of a personal flashlight is acceptable as a back-up only. d. Provisions need to be made in order to protect people below from falling object hazards. e. Routine walkways should be identified on the roofs. f. Skylights shall be guarded. In the event guards are removed for any reason unguarded skylights shall be treated as a Leading Edge and require fall protections when approaching them within 6 feet. 9. Excavations a. Excavations 6 feet or more in depth shall be protected from falling by wooden sawhorse style barriers, K rails or fences. The authorized individual shall determine the degree of hazard and implement an effective method of control consistent with the site s Excavation Procedure. b. The edge of a pit, well, shaft, and similar excavation 6 feet or more in depth shall be protected by wooden sawhorse style barriers, fences or covers. c. Personnel shall travel directly to the point of entry of the excavation. d. The Risk Management Division, Contractor and or Service Provider who created the hole or opening are responsible for implementing the preventative measure. 10. Wells / Service Pits / Shafts / Manholes / Sumps a. Each employee at the edge of a service pit, shaft, manhole, sump 6 feet or more in depth shall be protected from falling by guardrails systems, fences, rigid barricades, or covers. Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 19 of 28 Effective Date:

20 b. Unused portions of service pits not in actual use shall be either covered or protected by guardrails, this may be accomplished by movable post or stanchions and other guardrails which will provide equivalent protection. c. When performing work activities in close proximity of an open manhole or vault, the opening shall be guarded with a temporary cover, barricade or removal guardrail system. d. During the performance of any task where a manhole, vault will be open without a temporary cover, barricade or protective hand-railing. An OCSD crew member will be assigned the responsibility of a Safety Monitor, whose sole duty is to warn co-workers and bystanders when they exceed the 6 foot safety perimeter around the hole or opening. e. Buddy System is a measure used to provide a safe working environment when performing minor task around open manholes, vaults, sumps and pits. The buddy system requires two employees of which one has the responsibility to monitor the employee performing the task around the manhole, vault, pit or sump. Any time that a manhole, vault, sump and or pit cover is removed the buddy system will be in effect until one of the other monitoring and or protective measures noted in this section has been implemented. f. All floor holes and floor openings located in shut down or abandoned structures must be covered or guarded 11. Temporary Opening Fall Protection Plan for Manholes a. A temporary opening fall protection plan shall be employed when manhole cover(s) needs to be removed to accommodate periodic monitoring / observation throughout the execution of a maintenance task. b. A temporary opening fall protection plan relies on using the buddy system when removing manhole cover(s). Immediately following the removal of the cover(s), the open manhole shall be protected by installing and securing a temporary manhole cover, barricade or posting a safety monitor near the open manhole. c. The buddy system shall also be used when removing temporary manhole fall protection and replacing manhole covers. d. A temporary opening fall protection plan will not be required if the job task takes less than one minute to complete. If this job task takes longer than one minute the open manhole shall be protected by installing and securing a temporary manhole cover, barricade or posting safety monitor near the manhole. e. Open manhole can be left unattended within the work zone, if they are protected by a secured temporary manhole cover. 12. Confined Space Entries a. Confined Spaces that are 5 feet or more in depth shall require the use of a mechanical retrieval device for both fall arrest and rescue. Effective Date: Page 20 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

21 1) Exception - The required use of a mechanical retrieval device can be circumvented, if the Entry Supervisor can justify that its use poses a greater hazard to the entrant(s) b. The Confined Space Entry Supervisor shall be responsible for developing an alternate method for fall protection and rescue as well as provide the required fall protection, rescue equipment and personnel if a mechanical retrieval device is not used. 13. Above Ground Tanks a. Permanent (bolted in place) above ground tanks located within the OCSD process areas, shall be equipped with engineered fixed ladders and guardrail system designed to protecting employees from falling when accessing the top of the tank. b. OCSD employees will not be allowed to access the roof of a tank that has no engineered guard railing or protected walkways. Unless they can perform the work without leaving the protective platform of a Personnel Lift or Scaffolds not supported by the tank top. c. Walking directly on tank tops requires a Qualified Person to certify that the tank top is structurally capable of supporting the weight of personnel and equipment d. Tank access ladders shall be equipped with extension rails that extend 3 feet above the top of the tank e. Tank access ladders shall be affixed with fall cages if the area hazard assessments note that in the event of a fall off the ladder the user will strike or fall on to pumps, piping, valves and or supports f. Tank top fixed guard rail system shall be equipped with a self-closing entry gate, removable chains with latch hooks are not acceptable protection for guard railing entry points 14. Personnel Lifts a. Personnel lifts shall only be used on stable ground where there is no risk of overturning b. Personnel lifts shall be protected from inadvertent movement during work at height c. The number of employees in the personnel lift shall not exceed the safe working load d. Each employee working from an aerial lift with an articulating boom (JLG Lifts and bucket trucks shall be protected from falling by a personal fall arrest/prevention system attached to anchor point designed to meet regulatory requirements. 15. Scissor-Lifts and other Vertical Equipment a. Fall protection equipment is generally not required when personnel perform work inside of the railing of a vertical lift or platform; However the OCSD Safety and Health Division Fall Protection Program requires fall protection (i.e. Harness and tie off) to be used by OCSD employees when operating Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 21 of 28 Effective Date:

22 scissor lifts or other vertical platforms. OCSD Safety and Health Division Fall Protection Program requirements shall follow the lift or platform manufacturer s instructions. Fall arrest forces shall be determined to avoid tip-over of lift or platform. b. OCSD employees shall use scissor lifts and other vertical platforms according to manufacturer s instructions to ensure stability. Weight limitations shall be known and not be exceeded. 16. Personnel Basket suspended from a Crane a. Each employee working from a personnel basket that is suspended from a crane shall be protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system b. The use of a crane to hoist employees on to personnel platform is prohibited 17. Scaffolding a. Scaffolds are to be built and used in accordance with OSHA Standard 1926 Subpart L Scaffolds b. Designated competent persons shall have specific responsibilities c. A method is to be used identify scaffolding that is incomplete or unsafe and not to be accessed by anyone other than the builders or dismantlers. 18. General Rules for Scaffolds a. No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered except under the supervision of competent persons b. A pre-use inspection must be performed by a competent person prior to each shift s use c. Be sure the scaffold is made of stress-grade (scaffold) lumber or strong metal. Match the scaffold to the job. d. Scaffold planking shall be secured in place or overlapping a minimum of 12 inches and extend over the end supports a minimum of six inches and no more than twelve inches. e. Scaffolds shall be able to hold four times its maximum intended load. f. A climbing ladder, stairway, or equivalent safe means shall be provided for access and egress. g. Work level height shall not exceed four times the width of the smallest side, unless specified more strictly by the manufacturer, or properly secured under the direction of a competent person. h. Work level platform shall be full width of the scaffold (not less than 20 inches). i. Check that the footings are sound and ridged. j. Be sure the scaffold has guardrail systems where the work level height is 4 feet or height. Effective Date: Page 22 of 28 Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626

23 k. Keep scaffold loads to a minimum. l. Do not clutter scaffold with excess tools, materials, and debris. m. Keep the area around and under the scaffold clear. n. Limit outdoor use in bad weather. o. Avoid banging into scaffold. p. Be sure workers on the ground are alerted to those on the scaffold. q. Toe boards are required when working 10 feet or higher or where there are people below. r. Proper safeguards shall be in place to prevent the scaffolding from being struck by mobile equipment. VI. Recordkeeping All records created or generated in the course of this procedure shall be legible and stored in a way that they are readily retrievable in facilities or electronic document/content management systems that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage, deterioration, or loss. Records may be in the form of any type of media, such as hard copy or electronic media. The OCSD Records Retention Schedule is the official procedure governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of District records. Document owners should use these schedules to determine the item and series that best fit their records. Document owners are responsible for insuring that documents are properly marked, indexed, and filed for their projects or area of responsibility. VII. VIII. IX. Exceptions/Conditions/Provisions References A. California Code of Regulations Title 8 B. Section 1670 Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Personal Fall Restraint C. Systems and Positioning Devices D. Section Fall Protection Plan E. Section Controlled Access Zones and Safety Monitoring Systems F. Section 1678 Extension Ladders G. Section 1730 Roof Hazards H. Section 3209 Standard Guardrails I. Section 3210 Guardrails at Elevated Locations J. Section 3212 Floor Openings, Floor Holes and Roofs K. Section 3213 Service Pits L. Section 3214 Stair Rails and Handrails M. Section 3217 Openings N. Section 2648 Operating Instructions Aerial Devices Revision History Version Date By Reason X. Attachments A. Attachment A Guidelines for Allowable Fall Protection Anchor Points Policy Number: ADM-SOP-626 Page 23 of 28 Effective Date:

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