1 Berkeley Law From the SelectedWorks of Robert Cooter June, 2005 Charity, Publicity and the Donation Registry Robert D. Cooter Brian J. Broughman Available at:
2 The Economists Voice Volume 2, Issue Article 4 Charity, Publicity, and the Donation Registry Robert Cooter Brian J. Broughman Summary Many Americans donate little or nothing to charity, but according to Robert Cooter and Brian Broughman, our social environment is the cause, not human nature. They propose a small policy change to increase transparency and elicit generosity inspired by experimental evidence about the nature of giving. KEYWORDS: charity, charities, donations, contributions, publicity, information, donation registry, social norms, social goods UCB University of California, Berkeley Copyright c 2005 by the authors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, bepress, which has been given certain exclusive rights by the author. The Economists Voice is produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press (bepress).
3 Cooter and Broughman: Charity, Publicity, and the Donation Registry 1 In 1997 Vice President Al Gore and his wife gave $353 to charity from income of $197,729, or 0.2 percent of income. The mean contribution in their income bracket is ten times higher or 2.0 percent. Commentators groaned that the Gores ought to set a better example. Americans need it. Recent polls show that approximately 30 percent of American households, including many with high incomes, donate nothing. Most people who do contribute give less than one percent of their annual income, despite religious and cultural traditions that require much more. These facts seem to confirm the standard economic assumption that people are narrowly self-interested. Experimental evidence, however, shows that people behave generously in the right circumstances. Instead of being inalterable traits, generosity and stinginess respond to the social environment. Unfortunately, our system of anonymous charity stifles generosity. After public criticism, the Gore family increased its charitable giving the next year from 0.2 to 6.8 percent of income. The fact that the Gores disclosed their charitable contributions, however, is unusual. Most people keep such information private. Although few Americans are under the level of public scrutiny that the Gores were, many Americans would be more generous if other people observed their level of giving. The state is well placed to give the missing information to the public. Taxpayers should be able to disclose information from their tax returns. Specifically, taxpayers should be able to direct the IRS to post to the Internet their ratio of charitable contributions to income. Disclosure on the donation registry would be voluntary as a matter of law, but subject to social pressure. If the state enables disclosure, social norms will do the rest and donations will increase dramatically. The Nonprofit Sector In 2003 nonprofits received over $240 billion in private donations, and over 18 billion hours of volunteer labor. Combining donations with sales of goods and government grants, nonprofit organizations account for nearly six percent of U.S. national income. The nonprofit sector provides a broad range of social goods, including poverty relief, education, medical services, scientific research, art, and religion. Produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005
4 2 The Economists' Voice Vol. 2 , No. 3, Article 4 In supplying social goods, charities have several advantages over the state. First, being voluntary, donations distort incentives less than taxes. Second, being focused, many donors monitor performance of charities, rewarding good performance and punishing bad performance. Third, the state s majoritarian politics fails to supply the mix of social goods required by a diverse population. According to Burton Weisbrod, an economist at Northwestern University, as the population of a democracy diversifies, charities should expand and fill gaps in the state s supply of social goods. Charity s Problem: Publicity Given its importance, economists should develop mechanisms to increase charitable giving. Instead of tax deductions, which are the typical prescription, economists should take inspiration from behavioral experiments that link charity to information. In a typical public goods experiment a group of four or more subjects receive tokens for money. A subject can either keep her entire allocation of tokens or contribute some to a public good that is shared with the other players. In the usual experimental design, the group s payoff is maximized when each subject contributes all her tokens to the public good, but contributing nothing and free riding maximizes the individual s payoff. A narrowly selfinterested player will keep all of her tokens, while an altruistic person will contribute to the public good. The results of these experiments reveal principles of charitable giving. First, when an individual s contribution is anonymous and unobservable by other participants or the experimenter, she will make a significantly smaller contribution than when others can observe her behavior. Anonymity stifles generosity, while publicity encourages it. Second, subjects contribute less when they are unable to communicate. Isaac and Walker gave subjects the opportunity to talk with each other before deciding how much to contribute. The other participants could not observe the actual investment by each subject. Still, conversation increased contributions. Communication reinforces a norm of cooperation. Third, contributions are higher if subjects can punish free riders. In a public goods experiment, Fehr and Gächter let players observe the contribution of each participant. Based on this observation, subjects could punish a participant by reducing her payoff. Doing so, however, costs the punisher and was not in her self-interest. Regardless, the mere threat of punishment increases contribution levels.
5 Cooter and Broughman: Charity, Publicity, and the Donation Registry 3 Applying these results, the social environment of the U.S is ideal to elicit stinginess. First, donations are often anonymously made from the privacy of one s home. Charities, who understand the importance of publicity, publish lists of donors by contribution level and use fundraising events to increase visibility. Yet these charities do not know a person s total giving to all charities. Except for some public officials like Al Gore, the level of total giving by each individual is unknown. Second, few Americans discuss their donations with each other. If people discussed their donations concretely, they would reach more agreement over whether, say, three percent is enough or too little. For a clear standard of civic obligation to emerge, discussions of charity must move from the abstract to the concrete. Third, because we cannot identify them, free riders escape social sanctions. This problem especially afflicts obligations that are disjunctive rather than conjunctive. To illustrate the difference, we are obligated to make a donation to A or B or C or. In contrast, the duty not to lie or cheat or steal applies to A and B and C and. Whether instances of the obligation are linked by or or and affects free-riding. Establishing violations of a conjunctive obligation requires a single observation. In contrast, detecting a violation of a disjunctive obligation requires aggregate information. To illustrate concretely, a university might disclose individual donations in its alumni magazine. We cannot conclude, however, that an unlisted alumnus is uncharitable, because he may have donated generously to another cause. For disjunctive obligations, preventing free-riding requires aggregate information, which in turn requires some centralization of information. Available data in the U.S. and other countries confirms the dismal predictions suggested by these facts about charitable contributions. Using IRS data, Figure 1 shows the average ratio of contributions to income for itemizing taxpayers. The average itemizer donated 3.2 percent of annual income. While extensive, the data in Figure 1 is biased, because approximately 65 percent of taxpayers do not itemize. Non-itemizers typically donate a smaller portion of their income, causing Figure 1 to overstate contributions. The average non-itemizer donated 1.5 percent of annual income. Average behavior is not typical behavior. As figure 2 demonstrates, the median contribution is less than one percent, and almost a third of the population gives nothing. Produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005
6 4 The Economists' Voice Vol. 2 , No. 3, Article 4 Figure 1: Contribution Ratios from 2001 Tax Returns 6.00% 5.00% Ratio of Contributions to Income 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% $32,500 $37,500 $42,500 $47,500 $52,500 $57,500 $67,500 $87,500 $150,000 $350,000 $750,000 $1,250,000 $1,750,000 $3,500,000 $7,500,000 Median Annual Income Figure 2: Distribution of Household Contribution Levels in Percent of All Households No Contribution Less than 1 percent percent percent percent 5 percent or more Percent of Annual Income Donated Source: Independent Sector, Giving and Volunteering in the United States, 1999 (Washington: Independent Sector, 1999), chap. 1, pp
7 Cooter and Broughman: Charity, Publicity, and the Donation Registry 5 According to Figure 1, low-income itemizers donate a significantly higher proportion of income than high-income itemizers, but this fact is misleading. Unlike high-income taxpayers, most low-income taxpayers do not itemize and those who do have exceptionally large contributions. This fact presumably explains away the regressivity in Figure 1. When non-itemizers are included, a flat contribution ratio of approximately two percent is a reasonable estimate for all but the wealthiest Americans. Very wealthy households, those with income over $10 million, contribute a significantly higher ratio. Surveys also show that religious people donate more money and time to charities than non-religious people. Some religious organizations like the Mormons create an ideal environment to trigger generosity and they induce many members to tithe (give 10%). The Solution: The Donation Registry To increase donations, we propose that nonprofit organizations work with the IRS to create a donation registry on the Internet. The registry would publish the ratio of a person s contributions to annual income, while keeping private the person s absolute contributions and income. Specifically, the IRS could add an optional box to the tax form authorizing disclosure. Disclosure would be voluntary. If the box is checked the IRS would automatically transmit to the donation registry the taxpayer s name and her ratio of deductible contributions to adjusted gross income for the year. A typical entry on the registry would look like this: Tax Year Name Contribution Ratio 2004 John Doe 5% Would anyone volunteer to be listed? No doubt, some people may be reluctant to disclose out of modesty or a desire for financial privacy. To overcome reluctance, charities should apply social pressure to public figures such as politicians, business leaders, sports heroes, and actors. Charities should emphasize that disclosure demonstrates civic responsibility and encourages others. Like Al Gore, public figures who do not disclose or give too little should be shamed. After public figures start to disclose, we envision a gradual spread to most taxpayers who itemize. Organizations should aim for participation by their members in the donation registry much like they currently aim for participation in the United Way. Produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005
8 6 The Economists' Voice Vol. 2 , No. 3, Article 4 Economic theory provides another reason why people would voluntarily list themselves. Those with high contributions will tend to list themselves, whereas those with low contributions will be reluctant to list themselves. Thus a failure to list oneself will allow others to guess that one has low contributions. This fact may unravel the group that refuses and cause almost everyone to list themselves. In fact, this experiment was recently conducted in our law school with regard to teaching ratings. Just as the theory predicts, all but one teacher chose to list his or her ratings. Behavioral studies find that contribution levels are twice as high when donations can be observed as compared to complete anonymity. The donation registry should significantly increase donations, possibly doubling them. Even a modest increase in the average donation will significantly increase funding for social goods. For example, if the mean contribution ratio were increased by half of one percent (from 2.1 to 2.6 percent) this would result in approximately $50 billion in additional revenue for charitable organizations. Refinements and Extensions Alternate methods could be used alongside the registry to encourage donations. For instance the IRS could send a challenge letter to each taxpayer who did not disclose over the registry. The challenge letter would compare the individual s donations to the contributions of others in the same income bracket. Our concept can also encompass volunteering. For example, the American Bar Association recommends that lawyers perform at least 50 hours of volunteer legal services for clients of limited financial means each year. A volunteer registry could publicize pro bono work by lawyers or by law firms. The pro bono registry would disclose which lawyers (and which firms) actually live up to the ABA standard, and would use publicity to encourage higher levels of volunteering. In fact, some states have adopted pro bono reporting requirements. In Florida, for instance, lawyers are required to report each year whether or not they have performed pro bono service or, alternatively, provided direct financial support to nonprofit legal service providers. According to Talbot D Alemberte, former president of the American Bar Association, Florida s reporting program has significantly increased volunteering and monetary contributions by its lawyers. Doctors, accountants, and many other groups could establish similar volunteer registries.
9 Cooter and Broughman: Charity, Publicity, and the Donation Registry 7 Conclusion Conservatives and liberals often share the belief that more social goods require higher taxes. They are wrong. More donations could finance more social goods without increasing taxes or expanding state bureaucracy. Economists should use experimental findings to design policies that elicit more donations to pay for more social goods. The first requirement is to publicize donations by individuals. For this purpose, the IRS should add a check box on income tax forms for the taxpayer to consent to publishing the ratio of contributions to adjusted gross income. The donation registry would make the contribution ratio of individuals observable to the public, provoke concrete discussion about charitable obligations, and facilitate social sanctions for shirkers. The aim is to develop a civic standard of responsible giving to supplement the religious standards of particular faiths. With a little state action, social norms will do the rest. Robert Cooter is the Herman F. Selvin Professor of Law, and Director of the Berkeley Center for Law, Business and the Economy at Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California Berkeley. He is a founder and past president of the American Law and Economics Association, and in 1999 was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Brian Broughman is a graduate student in the department of Jurisprudence and Social Policy at the University of California Berkeley. References and Further Reading Ayres, Ian and Barry Nalebuff, Charity Begins at Schedule A, New York Times, April 15, 2003, Op-Ed Section. Bohnet, Iris and Bruno Frey Social Distance and Other-Regarding Behavior in Dictator Games: Comment. American Economic Review. March, 89(1), pp CNN, A. P. (1998). Gores' Charitable Giving Raises Some Eyebrows. Cooter, Robert Normative Failure Theory of Law. Cornell Law Review. July, 82, pp Produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005
10 8 The Economists' Voice Vol. 2 , No. 3, Article 4 Edlin, Aaron 2005, The Choose-Your-Charity Tax: A Way to Incentivize Charitable Giving, The Economists' Voice: Vol. 2: No. 3, Article 3. Fehr, Ernst and Simon Gächter Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments. American Economic Review. September, 90(4), pp Hoffman, Elizabeth, Kevin McCabe and Vernon Smith Social Distance and Other-Regarding Behavior in Dictator Games. American Economic Review. June, 86(3), pp Isaac, R. Mark and James Walker Communication and Free-Riding Behavior: The Voluntary Contribution Mechanism. Economic Inquiry. October, 26(4), pp Okten, Cagla and Burton Weisbrod Determinants of Donations in Private Nonprofit Markets. Journal of Political Economics. 75, pp Weisbrod, Burton The Nonprofit Economy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Maurer School of Law: Indiana University Digital Repository @ Maurer Law Articles by Maurer Faculty Faculty Scholarship 2010 Charity and Information: Correcting the Failure of a Disjunctive Social Norm
STUDENT MODULE 14.1 CHARITABLE GIVING PAGE 1 Standard 14: The student will explain the costs and benefits of charitable giving. Charitable Contributions Hey, Bert. Did you know the band is planning a big
Lesson Description The lead article in the spring 2010 issue of Inside the Vault discusses the redistribution of wealth through taxation. In this lesson, students use different household scenarios to examine
Classroom Games Voluntary Provision of a Public Good Charles A. Holt and Susan K. Laury * Abstract: This paper describes a simple public goods game, implemented with playing cards in a classroom setup.
Ethical Leadership By Jane A. Van Buren, Noonmark Nonprofit Services This brief paper explores the meaning of ethical leadership on a practical level in nonprofit organizations. We will also discuss the
Guide to Transparency in Public Finances Looking Beyond the Core Budget 2. Tax Expenditures www.openbudgetindex.org Introduction For more than a decade, civil society organizations around the world, as
The Economists Voice Volume 1, Issue 2 2004 Article 1 Experimental Political Betting Markets and the 2004 Election Justin Wolfers Eric Zitzewitz Wharton. U.Penn Stanford GSB Copyright c 2004 by the authors.
THE IRS AND YOU! Unrelated Business Income Tax Recordkeeping of contributions Cash & non-cash items Quid Pro Quo disclosures Public Inspection Requirements America is the land of opportunity. Everybody
Nonprofit Transparency What Your Organization Must Do to Satisfy the IRS The Internal Revenue Code provides that a tax-exempt organization must make available to the public certain information about the
Shallow Review of Legacy Fundraising Overview Legacy fundraising (LF) is encouraging donors to put your charity in their wills. In practice this can be: Having a will-writing guide that you can send to
Office of the President Introduction Comments to the House Ways and Means Committee Tax Reform Working Group on Charitable/Exempt Organizations On behalf of the higher education associations listed below,
MONEY FOR GOOD UK PROFILES OF SEVEN DONOR SEGMENTS In March 013, we launched the Money for Good UK research which explores the habits, attitudes and motivations of the UK s donors, and identified seven
Setting up an American 501 (c)(3) Non-profit Organisation www.chapel-york.com Why Fundraise from America? Americans inside & outside the USA expect to be asked to donate to charity. US Grant making Foundations
731 Market Street, Suite 200, San Francisco, CA 94103 firstname.lastname@example.org 415.722.4703 Reprinted from Blue Avocado magazine for nonprofits Nonprofit Tax Quiz By Kim Klein & Jan Masaoka September 2011
Important Information about Family Credits in Scrip Programs It has been brought to our attention over the past few months that there are some rumors going around concerning tax-exempt nonprofit organizations
1 Data Protection in the Charity & Voluntary Sector Guidelines April 2011.Version 5.0 Office of the Data Protection Commissioner 2 CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 3 1. Key Recommendations 4 2. Donor Databases
Charitable Solicitation: The Legal Issues Around Asking and Thanking Donors January 23, 2013 Robyn Miller, Staff Attorney Pro Bono Partnership of Atlanta 1 Mission of Pro Bono Partnership of Atlanta: To
The Economists Voice Volume 2, Issue 4 2005 Article 4 Should the Government Rebuild New Orleans, Or Just Give Residents Checks? Edward L. Glaeser Summary Should government rebuild New Orleans? Edward Glaeser
Russell Ackoff Doctoral Student Fellowship for Research on Human Decision Processes and Risk Management 2015 Application Peer Effects on Charitable Giving: How Can Social Ties Increase Charitable Giving
NEBRASKA NONPROFITS: Essential & Vibrant Economic Impact Report 2012 An overview of the role and depth of the Nebraska Nonprofit Sector, published by the Nonprofit Association of the Midlands When it comes
Donor Stewardship Overview HOW DOES THIS APPROACH WORK? WHAT IS THE THEORY BEHIND IT? The idea behind donor stewardship is building a relationship with people who have already given to or through Charity
An Analysis of Canadian Philanthropic Support for International Development and Relief Don Embuldeniya David Lasby Larry McKeown An Analysis of Canadian Philanthropic Support for International Development
FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION COMMUNITY FOOTBALL TAX RELIEF FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS TO CASC S This note is principally directed at helping clubs which are registered as CASC s obtain tax relief on junior subscriptions.
INTERACTION OF AUTOMATIC IRAS AND THE RETIREMENT SAVINGS CONTRIBUTIONS CREDIT (SAVER S CREDIT) A Report Prepared for AARP By: Optimal Benefit Strategies, LLC Judy Xanthopoulos, PhD Mary M. Schmitt, Esq.
Oregon Pike PO Box 669 Brownstown Pennsylvania 17508 Phone: 717.859.1158 or 717.627.1250 Fax: 717.859.4884 Web: www.hersheyadvisors.com March 2014 Welcome to this month's edition of the Tax and Business
Non-Profit Status and Incorporation LSU Alumni of San Diego, Inc. 1 For several years now, auditors and tax advisors have recommended that LSU Alumni Chapters apply for an EIN, attain non-profit status,
Inland Revenue Department Hong Kong DEPARTMENTAL INTERPRETATION AND PRACTICE NOTES NO. 37 (REVISED) CONCESSIONARY DEDUCTIONS : SECTION 26C APPROVED CHARITABLE DONATIONS These notes are issued for the information
Vol. 8., No. 3 - Summer 2001 Changing Donation Patterns: A Warning for Charitable Organizations Michael Hall - Vice-President, Research Michelle Goulbourne - Research Associate Larry McKeown - Senior Research
MYTHS ABOUT COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENTS 1. MYTH: An endowment is a single fund that a school may spend at its discretion. FACT: A typical endowment consists of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of individual
1 Squadron Fundraising Guide Basic information to help squadrons with a fund development program Prepared by: Unknown Updated by: Marie Vogt Chief of Development CAP National Headquarters, March 2009 2
Volunteer Management Capacity in America s Charities and Congregations A BRIEFING REPORT February 2004 The Urban Institute Citation: Urban Institute. 2004. Volunteer Management Capacity in America s Charities
1 Fundraising Strategies of Nonprofit Organizations: Measuring ROI and Success in a Time of Economic Crisis Leslie Jablonski The School of Hospitality Business Michigan State University ABSTRACT Fundraising
Understanding the Capacity of Social Services Organizations A Synthesis of Findings from the National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations and the National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and
White Paper Using Statistical Modeling to Increase Donations Executive Summary Nonprofits increasingly rely on statistical modeling to help them target their best prospects and strengthen their fundraising
Prospectus The Demographics Of American Charitable Donors Results Of 35,619 In-Person Interviews Households: Those Who Give; Those Who Don t Correlations: Donation Amounts Based On Financial & Non-Financial
Simplify and Focus the Education Tax Incentives June, 2006 Susan Dynarski, Harvard University & National Bureau of Economic Research Judith Scott Clayton, Harvard University A college education is a good
What Must a Tax-Exempt Organization Do To Acknowledge Donations? An important feature of being a tax-exempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code is the ability to accept tax-deductible
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The majority of Virginians believe you should obey the law without question but also suggest that right and wrong are ultimately determined by the individual. Nearly three out of five
BEST PRACTICES A BOARD GLOSSARY This glossary is supplied to provide a common reference for terms and concepts used in the area of board development. Accountability A a board s sense of responsibility,
POLICIES & PROCEDURES Fundraising Events Policy Policy No.: 850-20 Effective: 2/05/14 POLICY: All fundraising events or large group appeals (letters, phone banks, emails, etc.) conducted for the benefit
REPORT OF FINDINGS OF A SURVEY OF MINNESOTANS CHARITABLE GIVING HABITS AND PERCEPTIONS OF CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS BACKGROUND Charitable organizations depend on the financial support of donors to pursue
Young people and giving A written submission to Growing Giving Sarah Brown University of Sheffield Sarah Smith University of Bristol Karl Taylor University of Sheffield Introduction In response to evidence
Used with permission of the authors U RELATED BUSI ESS I COME, CORPORATE SPO SORSHIPS, A D AFFI ITY PROGRAMS Presented by Ben Tesdahl Powers, Pyles, Sutter & Verville, P.C. 1501 M Street,.W., 7 th Floor
March 5, 2001 Women and Children Last: The Bush Tax Cut Plan The President has proposed a tax cut plan that fails to offer any benefits to the lowestincome families, most of whom are headed by women and
Wages in and Hospitals and Universities by Karen P. Shahpoori and James Smith Bureau of Labor Statistics Originally Posted: June 29, 2005 Do for-profit establishments pay higher wages than nonprofit establishments?
ANNUAL REPORT IN SAN DIEGO JUNE 2015 Caster Family Center for Nonprofit and Philanthropic Research 2 STATE OF NONPROFITS & PHILANTHROPY 2015 ANNUAL REPORT San Diego Nonprofits: What is the Economic Impact?
Online Resources for Nonprofits Compiled by The Community Tax Law Project January 2010 Note: An asterisk (*) next to an entry indicates the organization has offices located in the Greater Richmond, Virginia
December 2009 Financial Planning Insights James L. Joslin, CFP Lee C. McGowan, CFP Key Tax Planning Strategies for 2010 & Beyond How can one soften the blow should tax rates be increased? That is the question
The President s Agenda for Tax Relief These are the basic ideas that guide my tax policy: lower income taxes for all, with the greatest help for those most in need. Everyone who pays income taxes benefits
A NATIONWIDE PUBLIC INTEREST RELIGIOUS CIVIL LIBERTIES LAW FIRM 1055 Maitland Center Cmns. Second Floor Maitland, Florida 32751 Tel: 800 671 1776 Fax: 407 875 0770 www.lc.org 1015 Fifteenth St. N.W. Suite
Social Influences and the Designation of Charitable Contributions: Evidence from the Workplace Katherine Grace Carman Harvard University November, 2004 This paper investigates factors that influence an
treating your donation as if made in the previous tax year December 2013 Stewardship Briefing Paper Stewardship, 1 Lamb s Passage, London EC1Y 8AB t: 020 8502 5600 e: email@example.com w: stewardship.org.uk
Page 1 of 7 Senior LinkAge Line /RxConnect and State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP) Combined Client Agreement, Authorization for Release of Personal Health Information & Notice of Privacy Practices
Chapter 9 - Prosocial Behavior Objectives 1) An exploration of the bases of prosocial behaviour 2) An examination of the effects of personality, gender, religion, culture, and other variables on prosocial
SEC FLASH REPORT SEC Issues Rules for Implementing the Whistleblower Provisions of Section 21F of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 May 25, 2011 Today, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) voted
How to Avoid Ten IRS Land Mines for Nonprofit Charities The drive to increase revenue leads many nonprofit organizations to start up business activities. Easy profits are expected, but tax traps waiting
A Legal Checklist for Not-for-Profit Organizations This 10-point checklist is written to help busy charitable organizations stay on top of today s regulatory compliance requirements. For further information,
May 20, 2013 FAQs on 501(c)(4) Social Welfare Organizations What are 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations? Section 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations are tax-exempt organizations that have as their
CENTER ON NONPROFITS AND PHILANTHROPY The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2014 Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering Brice S. McKeever and Sarah L. Pettijohn October 2014 This brief highlights trends in
ATTORNEY GENERAL S SUMMARY OF CHARITABLE SOLICITATIONS BY COMMERCIAL FUND-RAISERS SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT: DONATIONS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY (THRIFT STORES, VEHICLE DONATION PROGRAMS, ETC.) (Government Code 12599)
Data Protection Good Practice Note This explanatory document explains what charities and voluntary organisations need to do to comply with the Data Protection Act 1988 as amended by the Data Protection
Family Matters: Pennsylvania s 100% Marginal Income Tax Rate Gary L. Welton Ph.D. According to the National Taxpayers Union, the U.S. Tax Code includes 3,951,104 words. It is more than twice the length
Council for Aid to Education 215 Lexington Avenue, 16 th Floor Contact: Ann E. Kaplan New York, NY 10016 212-217-0875 www.cae.org firstname.lastname@example.org FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Wednesday, January 27, 2016 12:00
Guiding Principles for the DC Central Kitchen and the Campus Kitchens Project Board of Directors These Guiding Principles outline the role of the Board of Directors for the DC Central Kitchen (DCCK) and
24 Why Do People Give? LISE VESTERLUND The vast majority of Americans make charitable contributions. In 2000, 90 percent of U.S. households donated on average $1,623 to nonprofit organizations. 1 Why do
Last Updated: April 2013 MISSOURI FUNDRAISING REGISTRATION AND REGULATION Armstrong Teasdale LLP Sherry Doctorian and Mark Stahlhuth Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Missouri Charitable Organization and
KEY FINDINGS The 2014 U.S. Trust Study of High Net Worth Philanthropy Conducted in partnership with the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy The 2014 U.S. Trust Study of High Net Worth
Excerpted from FastTrac NewVenture When identifying an appropriate legal form of business, most often entrepreneurs consider these factors control, taxes, liability, transferability of ownership, longevity
Bargain Sale to Charity Disposing of Real Estate Assets Through Waste to Charity. Make some money while making a Difference! (Save On Taxes, too...) Page 2: What IS a Bargain Sale to Charity? Page 3: Bargain
CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS SUBSTANTIATION AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS This document explains the federal tax law for organizations such as charities and churches that receive tax deductible charitable contributions
Responsibility & Liability of Nonprofit Board Members A free resource provided by the Virginia Society of Certified Public Accountants Responsibility and Liability of Nonprofit Board Members A free resource
Economic psychology: from tax compliance and evading to psychological contract Velli Parts, MSc Concepts tax avoidance - an attempt to reduce tax payments by legal means (e.g. by exploiting taxloopholes)
What Online Giving Can Do For Your Church Copyright 2012 ACS Technologies Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any part of this publication by mechanical or electronic means, including facsimile