NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL"

Transcription

1 NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Employer) and Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representative: Form of Appeal: WCB Claim No.: [X] Oral Hearing, December 13, 2011, Bridgewater, NS [X] Date of Decision: January 31, 2012 Decision: The appeal of the September 7, 2011 Board Hearing Officer decision is denied, according to the reasons of Appeal Commissioner David Pearson.

2 2 CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS: In February, 2008, the Worker hurt her back, right leg and right shoulder when she fell off steps at work while carrying a 50 pound bag of crumbs. The Worker filed a claim for compensation. The Board initially accepted that the Worker s back and right leg injuries were compensable, and provided benefits while the Worker recovered. It later accepted the right shoulder injury as compensable, after receiving additional evidence from Dr. Hewins. The Board determined that after treatment, the Worker had been left with a permanent medical impairment, which it rated at ten percent. The Board paid the Worker temporary benefits until November, The Worker was unable to return to her pre accident work as a result of her injuries, but the Board decided that the Worker was able to return to other work as a customer service clerk. The Board began paying the Worker an extended earnings replacement benefit and permanent impairment benefit in November 2009 when temporary benefits ended. During the course of treatment, the Worker required psychiatric treatment for issues related to events in her past. The Board initially provided compensation for treatment and medication, but later decided that the need for this treatment was not related to the Worker s compensable injury. In an April 19, 2011 decision, the Board denied further compensation in relation to the psychiatric issues. The Worker appealed that decision to a Hearing Officer, but her appeal was denied on September 7, The Worker appealed the Hearing Officer s decision to the Tribunal, The Tribunal appeal proceeded by oral hearing. The Worker was the sole statutory participant in attendance at the hearing. She testified on her own behalf. The Worker also filed a series of documents with her Notice of Appeal, which she wanted the Tribunal to focus on in consideration of her appeal. Those consisted of a September 29, 2011 letter from the Worker, with copies of several documents from the Worker s claim file. No other evidence or submissions were received from any participant. ISSUE AND OUTCOME: Is the Worker entitled to compensation for her psychiatric issues? This decision contains personal information and may be published. For this reason, I have not referred to the participants by name.

3 3 No, the Worker is not entitled to compensation for psychiatric treatment and related medications and expenses, as there is an insufficient causal relationship to the work injury to attract compensation. ANALYSIS: The Workers Compensation Act, S.N.S , c.10, as amended (the Act ) applies to this appeal. Section 187 of the Act requires me to give the Worker the benefit of the doubt, which means that if the disputed possibilities are evenly balanced on an issue of compensation, then the issue will be resolved in the Worker s favour. The Worker seeks entitlement to compensation for her psychiatric treatment, related medications and expenses. The Worker readily admits that her psychiatric issues were not caused by her workplace injuries. However, she says that she was able to block those issues out and move on, such that they did not cause her distress until after her compensable injury. Further, that the reason that those issues required treatment was because of factors related to the adjudication of her claim by the Board. The Worker has been diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder, related to personal events from her past. They emerged when they did because of feelings the Worker had after her injury that mirrored feelings she had in her past. Those feelings were of not being believed at a time of stress. The Worker was assessed for a Tier 2 multi disciplinary treatment program at CBI on May 14, The Worker reported a high level of anxiety regarding her future regarding a return to work and financial compensation. The Worker reported that she had been diagnosed with depression, and that her doctor had prescribed Effexor for those symptoms. It was felt that the Worker would not benefit from participation in the program considering her high pain focus and symptoms of depression. The Board arranged for the Worker to be seen by Dr. Gosse, a psychiatrist, for an independent psychiatric assessment. It was during this assessment, that the Worker disclosed feelings of not being believed about her pain levels by the Board, and of events in her distant past where she was also not believed. Dr. Gosse thought it was the similarity of feelings around not being believed that lead to the emergence of unresolved issues from the past. He recommended psychiatric counselling to address the unresolved issues as these were a barrier to rehabilitation.

4 4 The Worker went on to receive psychological counselling in her home area with various individuals, including psychiatrists Dr. Bruce and Dr. Ramessar, as well as two different mental health nurses. The Worker also started taking medications Prestiq and Remeron to help deal with the psychiatric issues she was experiencing It is these medications which the Worker seeks coverage for, as they are quite expensive, and the Worker cannot otherwise afford them. The Board initially covered the cost of these medications, but coverage was discontinued a couple of times during the adjudication phases of her claim. Each time coverage was discontinued, the Worker indicated that her progress would suffer because she could not afford to maintain the medications, and it would take some time to re gain that progress once the Board resumed coverage. The psychiatric reports document generally improving symptoms over time with the use of these medications, coupled with counselling. The Worker said that progress was lost again after the Board terminated coverage. She was able to secure some medication samples from her doctor, but in the intervening period, her progress was lost again. Dr. Gosse saw the Worker on the Board s behalf on two more occasions, October 29, 2010 and February 2, At the October 2010 visit, the Worker disclosed more past events that had come to light since beginning psychiatric treatment. He diagnosed a post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), delayed onset. Dr. Gosse reiterated that the PTSD symptoms were not from the work injury, but to events from the Worker s past. Dr. Gosse noted that the workplace injury itself was not especially emotionally traumatic, and that the stress in dealing with the Workers Compensation Board was not excessive or unusual. He characterized the Worker s memories as,... a time bomb likely to become conscious at some point in her life and often this occurs in relation to some stress. The process of being in counselling/psycotherapy itself is likely bringing more fully into consciousness past events and traumas which would intensify her anxiety/posttraumatic symptoms. To causally connect it to the workplace injury, I think would be excessive. In his February 2011 report, Dr. Gosse reiterated his opinion from his last report as to the role of the Worker s involvement with the Board. He indicated that there were likely many factors that contributed to the re opening of the post traumatic stress symptoms, including active therapy, but that the workplace injury was not a cause. In this case, there is no direct connection between the work injury and the Worker s need for psychiatric treatment and need for related medication. It was not the work injury itself

5 5 that required the Worker seek psychiatric treatment in the same sense that it required the Worker to seek medical treatment for the back and/or shoulder injury. Rather, the causal link identified is the Worker s treatment at the hands of the Board combined with the Worker s personal characteristics and frailties. The Board appears to have decided the issue on the basis of whether the Worker sustained a stress injury. Dr. Gosse asked stress related questions in some of his reports, as to whether there was unusual or excessive stress that would have caused the need for treatment. In my view, viewing the issue as whether or not there was a stress injury is not a proper way of deciding the issue. We are not addressing whether there was a new compensable injury, but rather, whether the treatment and medication the Worker seeks for her psychiatric condition are causally related to her existing compensable injury. Dr. Gosse also raised another legal basis of addressing compensation; that was whether there was an aggravation of a pre existing condition. Again, in my view, that type of analysis is not the proper manner of addressing the question in this case. While the factors giving rise to the PTSD were in the past, there was no pre existing condition, per se, to aggravate. Also, it was not a work injury that was alleged to have aggravated a preexisting condition. In my view, the only proper way of looking at this issue is to look broadly at whether this should be the responsibility of the Worker s Compensation system, generally. It is trite to say that the Worker s Compensation system cannot and does not cover every loss occasioned by a work injury. Limits and exclusions abound in the legislation and in Board Policies. The application of common law causation principles in the workers compensation context came before the Supreme Court of Canada in Kovach v. British Columbia (Workers Compensation Board), 2000 SCC 3. In that decision, the Court agreed with the dissenting reasons of Donald, J.A. in the BC Court of Appeal decision below [Kovach v. Singh, 1998 CanLII 6423 (BCCA)]. Justice Donald had decided that the British Columbia WCB was not required to apply common law principles of causation such as novus actus interveniens, but indicated that no single theory of causation could be considered universally applicable and that it all depended on the policy goals of the workers compensation system. While the Board may not have been bound by such principles, the Court did not rule out the use of such principles in establishing causation in particular cases. In the present case, one needs to think about how direct a connection must be present in order to warrant a finding that there exists a causal connection to a workplace injury. That is, whether the treatment and medication sought in this case is too remote from the

6 6 workplace injury. In my view, the link between the treatment and medication sought in this case and the worker injury is too tenuous to attract entitlement to compensation. The benefits sought in this case bear only an incidental relationship to the injury in question. The most significant cause of the Worker s need for therapy and medication are related to issues personal to her. That is, it was the Worker s reaction to events that was the cause of psychiatric issues coming to the fore. As Dr. Gosse said, this was a time bomb waiting to come out. The trigger in this case was how the Worker was feeling about not being able to work and bring in money to the family, and her reaction to being in pain and in conflict with the Board. The adjudication of her claim followed a not atypical course, with decisions being made on the basis of available evidence. I do not see any behaviour on the Board s part that should attract the label of an accident, stress or otherwise, such that psychiatric treatment resulting from the Worker s reaction to those events would be compensable. While sympathetic to the Worker s plight in this case, I find that there is an insufficient nexus between the benefits sought in this case and the work injury. The Worker is not entitled to the compensation sought. CONCLUSION: The Worker s appeal is denied. She is not entitled to compensation for psychiatric treatment and related medications and expenses, as there is an insufficient causal relationship to the work injury to attract compensation. DATED AT HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA, THIS 31 ST DAY OF JANUARY, David Pearson Appeal Commissioner

7 7

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [*] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: Otis Canada Inc. (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia

More information

On April 6, 2004, a Board Hearing Officer confirmed the Case Manager s findings.

On April 6, 2004, a Board Hearing Officer confirmed the Case Manager s findings. 1 CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS: The Worker was employed in a coal mine operation from 1978 until 2001, primarily as a long wall electrician. He was also a member of the mine rescue team (a Drägerman

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representatives:

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participant entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representative:

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

Is the Worker entitled to medical aid in the form of blood pressure or cholesterol medication?

Is the Worker entitled to medical aid in the form of blood pressure or cholesterol medication? 1 CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS: The Worker suffered workplace back injuries in 1981, 1982 and 1984. A discectomy was performed in 1986, and a two-level fusion and nerve root decompression was performed

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: N/A (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

Program Policy Background Paper: Compensability of Workplace Stress

Program Policy Background Paper: Compensability of Workplace Stress Program Policy Background Paper: Compensability of Workplace Stress April 24, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER... 3 3. PROGRAM POLICY RATIONALE AND INTENT... 5 4. BACKGROUND...

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

WCB claims. WCB claim process. Worker suffers an injury/occupational disease. Report to first aid/supervisor.

WCB claims. WCB claim process. Worker suffers an injury/occupational disease. Report to first aid/supervisor. Section 4 WCB claims WCB claim process Worker suffers an injury/occupational disease. Worker reports to doctor. Physician s first report is sent to WCB. (Form 8). Report to first aid/supervisor. Injured

More information

REPORTER. Decision of the Appeal Division

REPORTER. Decision of the Appeal Division WORKERS COMPENSATION REPORTER Decision of the Appeal Division Number: 00-1682 Date: October 26, 2000 Panel: Marguerite Mousseau Subject: Whether Worker Suffered Psychological Impairment Constituting a

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Deceased Worker) Participant entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [*] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: J. W. Lindsay Enterprises Limited (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Employer) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Worker) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

REPORT ON CONSULTATIONS:

REPORT ON CONSULTATIONS: REPORT ON CONSULTATIONS: Amending the Workers Compensation Act to Provide Presumptive Coverage for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder JUNE 2015 A Report Prepared by the Workers Compensation Board on behalf

More information

Psychological Injuries - background

Psychological Injuries - background Psychological Injuries Policy Bully-Free Workplaces International Conference June 11-13, 2014 Psychological Injuries - background Injuries caused by exposure to workplace stress has received significant

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participant entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representative:

More information

UPDATE Stringer Brisbin Humphrey s Electronic Newsletter

UPDATE Stringer Brisbin Humphrey s Electronic Newsletter WSIB UPDATE Are the Floodgates Opening for WSIB Mental Stress Claims? The Latest Word from the Courts Ryan J. Conlin The issue of whether employees ought to be entitled to receive WSIB benefits for mental

More information

Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia. Issues Identification Paper Chronic Pain: Causal Connection to Original Compensable Injury

Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia. Issues Identification Paper Chronic Pain: Causal Connection to Original Compensable Injury Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia Issues Identification Paper Chronic Pain: Causal Connection to Original Compensable Injury Date: April 16, 2007 Table of Contents Introduction.2 Background.4 What

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [*] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: Sherman Wilson (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board)

More information

Expert Witness Services for Personal Injury Lawyers

Expert Witness Services for Personal Injury Lawyers Advanced Assessments Ltd Expert witnesses and Psychologists A Member of the Strategic Enterprise Group 180 Piccadilly, London, W1J 9HP T: 0845 130 5717 Expert Witness Services for Personal Injury Lawyers

More information

Minimize Your Risk: Mental Stress And The WSIB

Minimize Your Risk: Mental Stress And The WSIB Minimize Your Risk: Mental Stress And The WSIB By Joseph Cohen-Lyons and Samantha C. Seabrook Mental health in the workplace has been the focus of both employer and legislative interest in recent years.

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1119/09

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1119/09 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1119/09 BEFORE: T. Mitchinson: Vice-Chair HEARING: June 3, 2009 at Sudbury Oral DATE OF DECISION: June 8, 2009 NEUTRAL CITATION: 2009 ONWSIAT

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL. EMPLOYER CASE ID #[personal information] WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND WORKER DECISION #114

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL. EMPLOYER CASE ID #[personal information] WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND WORKER DECISION #114 WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL BETWEEN: EMPLOYER CASE ID #[personal information] AND: APPELLANT WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND RESPONDENT AND: WORKER EMPLOYEE DECISION #114 Appellant

More information

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 70/98. Delay (treatment); Kienbock's disease.

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 70/98. Delay (treatment); Kienbock's disease. SUMMARY DECISION NO. 70/98 Delay (treatment); Kienbock's disease. A construction worker injured his wrist while moving a plank on September 25, 1991. He continued working and did not seek medical treatment

More information

CONSEQUENTIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURIES IN MINNESOTA WORKERS COMPENSATION

CONSEQUENTIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURIES IN MINNESOTA WORKERS COMPENSATION CONSEQUENTIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURIES IN MINNESOTA WORKERS COMPENSATION By: Charles M. Cochrane, Cochrane Law Office, P.A., Roseville, Minnesota In my years of practice representing injured workers, there

More information

1 WCAT # 2007-134-AD CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS:

1 WCAT # 2007-134-AD CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS: 1 CLAIM HISTORY AND APPEAL PROCEEDINGS: This is an appeal from a January 9, 2007 Hearing Officer supplementary decision. The Hearing Officer determined that the Appellant (the surviving spouse of the Deceased

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2395/13

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2395/13 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2395/13 BEFORE: A.G. Baker: Vice-Chair HEARING: December 27, 2013 at Toronto Written DATE OF DECISION: May 9, 2014 NEUTRAL CITATION: 2014 ONWSIAT

More information

NO. COA08-1063 NORTH CAROLINA COURT OF APPEALS. Filed: 16 June 2009

NO. COA08-1063 NORTH CAROLINA COURT OF APPEALS. Filed: 16 June 2009 An unpublished opinion of the North Carolina Court of Appeals does not constitute controlling legal authority. Citation is disfavored, but may be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Rule 30(e)(3)

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL 2001 ONWSIAT 2499 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 398 01 [1] This appeal was heard in Toronto on February 16, 2001 by Tribunal Vice-Chair E.J. Sajtos. THE APPEAL PROCEEDINGS

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD APPEAL TRIBUNAL. [Personal information] CASE I.D. #[personal information]

WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD APPEAL TRIBUNAL. [Personal information] CASE I.D. #[personal information] WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD APPEAL TRIBUNAL BETWEEN: [personal information] CASE I.D. #[personal information] PLAINTIFF AND: WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND DEFENDANT DECISION #41 [Personal

More information

Guide for Filing WorkSafeBC Mental Disorder Claims

Guide for Filing WorkSafeBC Mental Disorder Claims Canadian Union of Public Employees Guide for Filing WorkSafeBC Mental Disorder Claims WCB Advocacy Department BC Regional Office Tom McKenna, National Representative, WCB Advocacy Nothing in this Guide

More information

Workers Compensation Amendment (Transitional) Regulation 2012

Workers Compensation Amendment (Transitional) Regulation 2012 New South Wales Workers Compensation Amendment (Transitional) Regulation 2012 under the Workers Compensation Act 1987 Her Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, has made the

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representative:

More information

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL KNOXVILLE, MAY 1999 SESSION

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL KNOXVILLE, MAY 1999 SESSION IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL KNOXVILLE, MAY 1999 SESSION FILED August 27, 1999 Cecil Crowson, Jr. Appellate Court Clerk ROBERT JONES CUMBERLAND CIRCUIT

More information

DECISION NO. 1708/10

DECISION NO. 1708/10 B. Kalvin WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1708/10 BEFORE: B. Kalvin : Vice-Chair HEARING: September 9, 2010 at Toronto Oral DATE OF DECISION: September 15, 2010 NEUTRAL CITATION:

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL. Participant entitled to Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board)

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL. Participant entitled to Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) WCAT # 2009-623-AD-RTH NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participant entitled to respond to the appeal: Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

Legal Services for Injured Workers. Workers Advisers Program

Legal Services for Injured Workers. Workers Advisers Program Legal Services for Injured Workers Workers Advisers Program Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Responsibilities of the WCB... 3 Responsibilities of the Worker... 4 Responsibilities of the Employer...

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 983/15

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 983/15 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 983/15 BEFORE: J. Goldman : Vice-Chair B. Davis : Member Representative of Employers C. Salama : Member Representative of Workers HEARING: May,

More information

Have you or someone you know suffered a personal injury? TIPS TO MAXIMIZE COMPENSATION

Have you or someone you know suffered a personal injury? TIPS TO MAXIMIZE COMPENSATION Have you or someone you know suffered a personal injury? TIPS TO MAXIMIZE COMPENSATION If you have suffered a personal injury it is important to consider all potential sources of compensation. A personal

More information

VENTURE MOULD & ENGINEERING AUSTRALIA PTY LTD --- Magistrate B.R. Wright. Melbourne REASONS FOR DECISION ---

VENTURE MOULD & ENGINEERING AUSTRALIA PTY LTD --- Magistrate B.R. Wright. Melbourne REASONS FOR DECISION --- !Und efined Boo kmark, I IN THE MAGISTRATES COURT OF VICTORIA AT MELBOURNE D11638505 MICHAEL MILOVANOVIC Plaintiff v VENTURE MOULD & ENGINEERING AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Defendant --- MAGISTRATE: Magistrate B.R.

More information

FD: FD: DT:D DN:301 STY: PANEL:Catton; Lankin; Jago DDATE: TYPE:A ACT: DECON: CCON: SCON: BDG: REGS: PDCON: DIST: KEYW:accident; disablement;

FD: FD: DT:D DN:301 STY: PANEL:Catton; Lankin; Jago DDATE: TYPE:A ACT: DECON: CCON: SCON: BDG: REGS: PDCON: DIST: KEYW:accident; disablement; FD: FD: DT:D DN:301 STY: PANEL:Catton; Lankin; Jago DDATE:250587 TYPE:A ACT: DECON: CCON: SCON: BDG: REGS: PDCON: DIST: KEYW:accident; disablement; significant contribution; aggravation; pre-existing condition

More information

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 143/97. Suitable employment.

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 143/97. Suitable employment. SUMMARY DECISION NO. 143/97 Suitable employment. The worker slipped and fell in January 1992, injuring her low back and hip. She was awarded a 28% NEL award for her low back condition. The worker appealed

More information

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL. AT KNOXVILLE (August 5, 1996 Session)

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL. AT KNOXVILLE (August 5, 1996 Session) IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TENNESSEE SPECIAL WORKERS' COMPENSATION APPEALS PANEL AT KNOXVILLE (August 5, 1996 Session FILED January 27, 1997 RONALD L. SHOOK, KNOX CIRCUIT Cecil Crowson, Jr. Appellate Court

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [*] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL DECISION Representatives:

More information

Workplace Health, Safety & Compensation Review Division

Workplace Health, Safety & Compensation Review Division Workplace Health, Safety & Compensation Review Division WHSCRD Case No: WHSCC Claim No: Decision Number: 15171 Gordon Murphy Review Commissioner The Review Proceedings 1. The hearing of the review application

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL 2004 ONWSIAT 737 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1960/03 [1] This written appeal was considered in Toronto on March 31, 2004, by Tribunal Vice-Chair E.J. Sajtos. THE APPEAL

More information

What Happens After I Report the Injury?

What Happens After I Report the Injury? Introduction The Iowa Workers Compensation Act provides the only legal remedy against their employer for workers who are injured on the job. Workers Compensation law can be very technical. The law is administered

More information

Revised May 2015. What Is Workers Compensation?

Revised May 2015. What Is Workers Compensation? This pamphlet provides an overview of the workers compensation system in the State of New Hampshire, including what is covered by workers compensation, what benefits are available, and what you should

More information

General Information on Representing Yourself in a Workers Compensation Case

General Information on Representing Yourself in a Workers Compensation Case General Information on Representing Yourself in a Workers Compensation Case Idaho Industrial Commission PO Box 83720 Boise, ID 83720-0041 Telephone: (208) 334-6000 Fax: (208) 332-7558 www.iic.idaho.gov

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL [PERSONAL INFORMATION] CASE ID #[PERSONAL INFORMATION] WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL [PERSONAL INFORMATION] CASE ID #[PERSONAL INFORMATION] WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL BETWEEN: [PERSONAL INFORMATION] CASE ID #[PERSONAL INFORMATION] APPELLANT AND: WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND RESPONDENT DECISION #194 Appellant

More information

United States Department of Labor Employees Compensation Appeals Board DECISION AND ORDER

United States Department of Labor Employees Compensation Appeals Board DECISION AND ORDER United States Department of Labor W.T., Appellant and U.S. POSTAL SERVICE, POST OFFICE, Birmingham, AL, Employer Appearances: Appellant, pro se Office of Solicitor, for the Director Docket No. 12-1743

More information

IN THE COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA

IN THE COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA Wilma Coddington, : : No. 1226 C.D. 2012 Petitioner : Submitted: November 16, 2012 v. : : Workers' Compensation Appeal : Board (Lynchholm Holsteins and : State

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL WORKER. and WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND DECISION

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL WORKER. and WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND DECISION E Case #[personal information] WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL BETWEEN: WORKER APPELLANT and WORKERS COMPENSATION BOARD OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND RESPONDENT DECISION This is an appeal from the decision

More information

Decision Number: WCAT-2015-02919

Decision Number: WCAT-2015-02919 WCAT Decision Number: WCAT-2015-02919 WCAT Decision Date: September 23, 2015 Panel: Joanne Kembel, Vice Chair Introduction [1] This is a referral to the chair of the (WCAT) under section 251 of the Workers

More information

Current Workers Compensation Law Compared to the 2013 Workers Compensation Reform Act

Current Workers Compensation Law Compared to the 2013 Workers Compensation Reform Act Current Workers Compensation Law Compared to the 2013 Workers Compensation Reform Act Area Addressed Current Law Reform Act Workers Compensation Division The Division of Workers Compensation operates under

More information

A GUIDE TO THE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE ILLINOIS WORKERS COMPENSATION ACT

A GUIDE TO THE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE ILLINOIS WORKERS COMPENSATION ACT A GUIDE TO THE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE ILLINOIS WORKERS COMPENSATION ACT INTRODUCTION The information contained in this booklet is an overview of benefits provided by the Illinois Workers Compensation

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Appellant: [X] (Worker) Participants entitled to respond to this appeal: [X] (Employer) and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (Board) APPEAL

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION IN NOVA SCOTIA REFERENCE GUIDE

WORKERS COMPENSATION IN NOVA SCOTIA REFERENCE GUIDE WORKERS COMPENSATION IN NOVA SCOTIA REFERENCE GUIDE August 2012 WORKERS COMPENSATION IN NOVA SCOTIA REFERENCE GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION SUBJECT PAGE Introduction....... 4 1 Scope and application

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2444/06

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2444/06 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 2444/06 BEFORE: M. Crystal: Vice-Chair HEARING: December 4, 2006 at Toronto Written case DATE OF DECISION: December 5, 2006 NEUTRAL CITATION:

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1025/94 This appeal was heard in Toronto on December 5, 1994, by a Tribunal Panel consisting of: R.E. Hartman : Vice-Chair, G.M. Nipshagen: Member representative

More information

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1387/99. Pensions (lump sum) (calculation) (discount rate).

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1387/99. Pensions (lump sum) (calculation) (discount rate). SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1387/99 Pensions (lump sum) (calculation) (discount rate). The worker suffered a back injury in 1989 for which he was granted a 10% pension in 1990. The worker requested payment as

More information

ILARS POLICY Funding of applications by injured workers to pursue claims for compensation

ILARS POLICY Funding of applications by injured workers to pursue claims for compensation ILARS POLICY Funding of applications by injured workers to pursue claims for compensation Introduction This WIRO Policy sets out the circumstances in which the Independent Legal Assistance and Review Service

More information

CITATION: State of Queensland AND Q-COMP (WC/2012/197) - Decision QUEENSLAND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS COMMISSION

CITATION: State of Queensland AND Q-COMP (WC/2012/197) - Decision <http://www.qirc.qld.gov.au> QUEENSLAND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS COMMISSION CITATION: State of Queensland AND Q-COMP (WC/2012/197) - Decision QUEENSLAND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS COMMISSION Workers' Compensation and Rehabilitation Act 2003 - s. 556 - additional

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION AND REHABILITATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WORKERS COMPENSATION AND REHABILITATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WORKERS COMPENSATION AND REHABILITATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS The Work Health & Safety Unit has responsibility for the management of workers compensation claims and the rehabilitation of injured employees.

More information

MWR Solicitors A legal guide HEALTH & SAFETY: Workplace stress. Lawyers for life

MWR Solicitors A legal guide HEALTH & SAFETY: Workplace stress. Lawyers for life MWR Solicitors A legal guide HEALTH & SAFETY: Workplace stress Lawyers for life CONTENTS What Is Stress 4 Background 4 Legal Position 4 Duty of Care 4 Forseeability 5 Breach of Duty 6 Causation 7 Loss

More information

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL

NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL NOVA SCOTIA WORKERS COMPENSATION APPEALS TRIBUNAL Applicant: [*] Respondents: [*] et al and The Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia SECTION 29 APPLICATION - PRELIMINARY DECISION Representatives:

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL 2001 ONWSIAT 1893 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 193/00 [1] This appeal was heard in Toronto on September 22, 2000, by Tribunal Vice-Chair N. McCombie. THE APPEAL PROCEEDINGS

More information

WCAT Decision Number: WCAT-2010-01291

WCAT Decision Number: WCAT-2010-01291 Noteworthy Decision Summary Decision: WCAT-2010-01291 Panel: T. White Decision Date: May 10, 2010 Section 55 of the Workers Compensation Act Policy item #93.22 of the Rehabilitation Services and Claims

More information

BEFORE THE APPEALS BOARD FOR THE KANSAS DIVISION OF WORKERS COMPENSATION

BEFORE THE APPEALS BOARD FOR THE KANSAS DIVISION OF WORKERS COMPENSATION BEFORE THE APPEALS BOARD FOR THE KANSAS DIVISION OF WORKERS COMPENSATION SARAH DREILING ) Claimant ) VS. ) ) Docket No. 65,956 HAYS MEDICAL CENTER ) Respondent ) AND ) ) ROYAL & SUNALLIANCE ) Insurance

More information

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1162/97. Aggravation (preexisting condition) (osteoarthritis) (knee).

SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1162/97. Aggravation (preexisting condition) (osteoarthritis) (knee). SUMMARY DECISION NO. 1162/97 Aggravation (preexisting condition) (osteoarthritis) (knee). The worker suffered left knee injuries in 1976, 1980 and 1987. The worker appealed a decision of the Appeals Officer

More information

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL

WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL 2005 ONWSIAT 469 WORKPLACE SAFETY AND INSURANCE APPEALS TRIBUNAL DECISION NO. 1300/04 [1] This appeal was considered in Toronto on August 3, 2004, by Tribunal Vice-Chair M. Crystal. THE APPEAL PROCEEDINGS

More information

POLICY: 04-05 PART I Chapter: BENEFITS Subject: RETURN-TO-WORK SERVICES Authorization: BoD Resolution 2001/07/38 August 21, 2001

POLICY: 04-05 PART I Chapter: BENEFITS Subject: RETURN-TO-WORK SERVICES Authorization: BoD Resolution 2001/07/38 August 21, 2001 REFERENCE: Workers Compensation Act, RSA 2000, Sections 1(1)(f), 54, 56, 63, 89, and 137.1 POLICY: When a work-related injury results in compensable work restrictions that impair a worker s employability

More information

All Stressed Out! Schedule 2 Employers Group Annual Conference. Presented by Stephen C. Roberts McTague Law Firm LLP October 8, 2013

All Stressed Out! Schedule 2 Employers Group Annual Conference. Presented by Stephen C. Roberts McTague Law Firm LLP October 8, 2013 All Stressed Out! Schedule 2 Employers Group Annual Conference Presented by Stephen C. Roberts McTague Law Firm LLP October 8, 2013 How Stress and Mental Health Issues Affect the Workforce Every day, 500,000

More information

APPEAL NO. 100822 FILED AUGUST 23, 2010

APPEAL NO. 100822 FILED AUGUST 23, 2010 APPEAL NO. 100822 FILED AUGUST 23, 2010 This appeal arises pursuant to the Texas Workers Compensation Act, TEX. LAB. CODE ANN. 401.001 et seq. (1989 Act). A contested case hearing (CCH) was held on June

More information

IN THE NEBRASKA COURT OF APPEALS MEMORANDUM OPINION AND JUDGMENT ON APPEAL

IN THE NEBRASKA COURT OF APPEALS MEMORANDUM OPINION AND JUDGMENT ON APPEAL IN THE NEBRASKA COURT OF APPEALS MEMORANDUM OPINION AND JUDGMENT ON APPEAL SARAVIA V. HORMEL FOODS NOTICE: THIS OPINION IS NOT DESIGNATED FOR PERMANENT PUBLICATION AND MAY NOT BE CITED EXCEPT AS PROVIDED

More information

Workers' Compensation Act, 1981 (as amended), Sections 1(1)(d), 49,51,57, and 83

Workers' Compensation Act, 1981 (as amended), Sections 1(1)(d), 49,51,57, and 83 04-05 PART I REFERENCE : Workers' Compensation Act, 1981 (as amended), Sections 1(1)(d), 49,51,57, and 83 When a work-related injury results in compensable work restrictions that impair a worker's employability

More information

WORKCOVER DIVISION Case No.C12401789 --- S GARNETT MELBOURNE REASONS FOR DECISION ---

WORKCOVER DIVISION Case No.C12401789 --- S GARNETT MELBOURNE REASONS FOR DECISION --- !Undefined Bookmark, I IN THE MAGISTRATES COURT OF VICTORIA AT MELBOURNE WORKCOVER DIVISION Case No.C12401789 ZIVKA SAPAZOVSKI Plaintiff v ONE FORCE GROUP AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Defendant --- MAGISTRATE: S

More information

EMERGING ISSUES IN DISABILITY MANAGEMENT - DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE (PREPARED FOR THE 2013 CANADIAN HEALTH AND WELLNESS INNOVATION CONFERENCE)

EMERGING ISSUES IN DISABILITY MANAGEMENT - DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE (PREPARED FOR THE 2013 CANADIAN HEALTH AND WELLNESS INNOVATION CONFERENCE) EMERGING ISSUES IN DISABILITY MANAGEMENT - DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE (PREPARED FOR THE 2013 CANADIAN HEALTH AND WELLNESS INNOVATION CONFERENCE) Article written by John Elwick and Manjit Grewal DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE

More information

SCHEDULE A Practice Guidelines for Psychologists

SCHEDULE A Practice Guidelines for Psychologists SCHEDULE A Practice Guidelines for Psychologists 1. Introduction The intent of this document is to set out the WCB service provider guidelines for Psychologists providing the following services to WCB

More information

Injury Claim Policy in Plain Language. Don Seidlitz Team Leader, Case Management

Injury Claim Policy in Plain Language. Don Seidlitz Team Leader, Case Management Injury Claim Policy in Plain Language Don Seidlitz Team Leader, Case Management Our Authority - Jurisdiction Section 20 The board has exclusive jurisdiction to examine, hear and determine: (a) whether

More information

Facts & Tips about Long-term Disability (LTD)

Facts & Tips about Long-term Disability (LTD) Facts & Tips about Long-term Disability (LTD) Revised June 2008 Please keep this document handy for reference It offers general information about LTD benefits under an insurance policy or contract. It

More information

PERS Disability Benefits

PERS Disability Benefits PERS Disability Benefits (for Tiers I, III, and III) Division of Retirement and Benefits PO Box 110203 Juneau, AK 99811-0203 (907) 465-4460 (800) 821-2251 Welcome to the Division of Retirement and Benefits

More information

John Coronis v. Granger Northern Inc. (April 27, 2010) STATE OF VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

John Coronis v. Granger Northern Inc. (April 27, 2010) STATE OF VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF LABOR John Coronis v. Granger Northern Inc. (April 27, 2010) STATE OF VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF LABOR John Coronis Opinion No. 16-10WC v. By: Sal Spinosa, Esq. Hearing Officer Granger Northern, Inc. ATTORNEYS: For:

More information

NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY. Decision: WCAT-2015-00506 Decision Date: February 16, 2015 Panel: Debbie Sigurdson, Caroline Berkey, Terri White

NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY. Decision: WCAT-2015-00506 Decision Date: February 16, 2015 Panel: Debbie Sigurdson, Caroline Berkey, Terri White NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY Decision: WCAT-2015-00506 Decision Date: February 16, 2015 Panel: Debbie Sigurdson, Caroline Berkey, Terri White Section 5.1 of the Workers Compensation Act Section 4(1) of

More information

annual report 2012 Fair Practices office An independent office working to promote fair practices at the Workers Compensation Board of Saskatchewan

annual report 2012 Fair Practices office An independent office working to promote fair practices at the Workers Compensation Board of Saskatchewan annual report 2012 Fair Practices office An independent office working to promote fair practices at the Workers Compensation Board of Saskatchewan Table of contents MESSAGE FROM THE FAIR PRACTICES OFFICER

More information

WORKERS COMPENSATION IN RHODE ISLAND A SUMMARY OF THE LAW

WORKERS COMPENSATION IN RHODE ISLAND A SUMMARY OF THE LAW WORKERS COMPENSATION IN RHODE ISLAND A SUMMARY OF THE LAW PREPARED BY ATTORNEY GARY J. LEVINE 369 SOUTH MAIN STREET PROVIDENCE, RI 09203 401-521-3100 www.workerscompri.com TABLE OF CONTENTS INJURIES COVERED

More information

Concerning the Cap on Pain and Suffering Awards for Minor Injuries

Concerning the Cap on Pain and Suffering Awards for Minor Injuries Discussion Paper Concerning the Cap on Pain and Suffering Awards for Minor Injuries Office of the Superintendent of Insurance January, 2010 Introduction The Province of Nova Scotia regulates automobile

More information

NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY. Decision: WCAT-2004-02435-RB Panel: Beatrice Anderson Decision Date: May 10, 2004

NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY. Decision: WCAT-2004-02435-RB Panel: Beatrice Anderson Decision Date: May 10, 2004 NOTEWORTHY DECISION SUMMARY Decision: WCAT-2004-02435-RB Panel: Beatrice Anderson Decision Date: May 10, 2004 Referrals to Board of Issue for Determination - Completion of Appeals after Referral - Section

More information

PROVING THE STRESS CLAIM. by Gordon Reiselt. mailto:gr@kbh-lawfirm.com

PROVING THE STRESS CLAIM. by Gordon Reiselt. mailto:gr@kbh-lawfirm.com PROVING THE STRESS CLAIM by Gordon Reiselt mailto:gr@kbh-lawfirm.com Stress claims under the Federal Employees Compensation Act are difficult to prove. Claimants who are placed in a position to file such

More information

Information for Workers. Information for Workers

Information for Workers. Information for Workers Information for Workers Information for Workers Revised March 2015 Contents Overview... 2 Workplace Injuries... 2 Worker Responsibilities... 2 Employer Responsibilities... 4 WCB Responsibilities... 4 Returning

More information