1 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 LAW OFFICES OF RONALD A. MARRON, APLC RONALD A. MARRON (0) SKYE RESENDES () Arroyo Drive San Diego, CA 0 Phone: () -00 Fax: () - Counsel for Plaintiff and the Proposed Class MELANIE BARBER, on behalf of herself, all others similarly situated and the general public, v. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA Plaintiff, TARGET CORPORATION, a Minnesota Corporation, Defendant. Case No: CLASS ACTION COMPLAINT FOR VIOLATIONS OF: CALIFORNIA UNFAIR COMPETITION LAW; CALIFORNIA FALSE ADVERTISING LAW; CALIFORNIA CONSUMERS LEGAL REMEDIES ACT; DEMAND FOR JURY TRIAL
2 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 Plaintiff Melanie Barber, on behalf of herself, all others similarly situated, and the general public, by and through her undersigned counsel, hereby sues Defendant Target Corporation ( Defendant or Target ), and alleges the following upon her own knowledge, or where she lacks personal knowledge, upon information and belief and the investigation of her counsel. INTRODUCTION. Target markets and sells herbal supplements under the generic brand name Up & Up. Defendant s supplement product line includes Up &Up Gingko Biloba. ( the Product. ). Defendant falsely markets and sells the Up & Up Gingko Biloba Supplement as being able to provide memory support. According to the product s label it helps support memory, concentration, and circulation, enhancing blood flow to the arms, legs, and brain. Plaintiff Barber saw and relied on these labeling claims when purchasing the Up & Up Gingko Biloba product.. Target s advertising claims are false and misleading because Up & Up Gingko Biloba does not contain any Gingko Biloba and is actually adulterated with potentially harmful, undisclosed ingredients.. On February, 0, the Attorney General of the State of New York sent Target s President and CEO a cease and desist letter demanding that Target stop selling adulterated and mislabeled herbal supplements.. The New York Attorney General concluded that Target s Up & Up Gingko Biloba tested negative because No gingko biloba DNA was identified in the product. Target was then informed that the only DNA identified was allium (x), oryza (x) (commonly known as rice), [and] mung/french bean none of which are disclosed as ingredients on the product s label. Moreover, the Attorney General s investigation concluded that ten of the tests revealed no plant DNA whatsoever.
3 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. The New York Attorney General s findings confirmed what consumer advocacy groups have been saying for years about herbal supplements such as Up & Up major retailers like Target are not providing the public with authentic products without substitution, contamination, or fillers.. Even if the Up & Up supplements did actually contain Gingko biloba (they do not), the Products would still be falsely and deceptively labeled.. All available, reliable, scientific evidence demonstrates that Ginkgo biloba products have no efficacy at all, are ineffective in the improvement of cognitive health, and provide no benefits related to increasing the memory and healthy functioning of consumers brains. Numerous scientifically valid studies, performed by independent researchers and published in reputable medical journals have been conducted on the Ginkgo biloba products. These studies have universally demonstrated that the supplement has absolutely no scientific value in the improvement of brain function, treatment of memory problems or cognitive health.. Plaintiff brings this action challenging Target s claims relating to the Up & Up Gingko Biloba Supplement on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated. Plaintiff Barber is asserting claims under California s Unfair Competition Law, False Advertising Law, and Consumer Legal Remedies Act. 0. Plaintiff seeks an order compelling Target to () cease marketing the Products using the misleading tactics complained of herein, () conduct a corrective advertising campaign, () restore the amounts by which Defendant has been unjustly enriched, and to () destroy all misleading and deceptive materials. JURISDICTION & VENUE. The Court has original jurisdiction pursuant to U.S.C. (d)(), the Class Action Fairness Act, because the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $,000,000 exclusive of interest and costs and because more than two-thirds of the members of the class reside in states other than the state in which Defendant resides.
4 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. Personal jurisdiction is derived from the fact that Defendant conducts business within the State of California and within this judicial district.. Venue is proper in this Court pursuant to U.S.C. because many of the acts and transactions giving rise to this action occurred in this District. Moreover, Defendant resides in this district, is authorized to conduct business in this District, has intentionally availed itself of the laws and markets of this District through the promotion, marketing, distribution, and sale of the Products in this District; and is subject to personal jurisdiction in this District. PARTIES. Plaintiff Melanie Barber is a resident of Lake Forrest, California. Plaintiff Barber purchased Target s Up & Up Gingko Biloba in or around September of 0.. Defendant Target Corporation is a Minnesota corporation that maintains its principal place of business in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Defendant conducts continuous and systematic business in this judicial district as to essentially render it at home in this judicial district. Up & Up Gingko Biloba FACTUAL ALLEGATIONS. Target has distributed, marketed, and sold the Up & Up Gingko Biloba product on a nationwide basis, both online and at its retail store locations. Up & Up Gingko Biloba is available in a bottle of 0 capsules and retails for approximately $.00.. The label of the Up & Up Gingko Biloba supplement claims that product can be used for memory support and contains a standardized extract of 0 mg per capsule of Gingko Biloba. The label further states that it helps support, memory, concentration, and circulation enhancing blood flow to the arms, legs, and brain. These statements are false and misleading for the reasons described herein.
5 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. The Up & Up Gingko Biloba supplement does not actually contain any Gingko Biloba as indicated by recent scientific tests conducted by the New York Attorney General s Office.. Even if the Up & Up Gingko Biloba product did actually contain Gingko Biloba (it does not), Target s labeling claims are still false and misleading. 0. Three separate meta-studies on Gingko biloba published in 00, 00, and 0 evaluated all known published credible human scientific studies. The studies A meta-analysis contrasts and combines results from different studies in an attempt to identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement, and other relationships between the studies.
6 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 uniformly conclude Ginkgo biloba supplements have no positive effect on cognitive functions in healthy individuals. a. In 00, PH Canter and E. Ernst published Ginkgo biloba: a smart drug? A systematic review of controlled trials of the cognitive effects of ginkgo biloba extracts in healthy people in the University of Exeter Psychopharmacology Bulletin. The meta-study evaluates data in six computerized databases for placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of the effect of standardized Ginkgo biloba extracts on cognitive function in healthy subjects. The study concludes [t]he use of Ginkgo biloba as a smart drug cannot be recommended on the basis of the evidence available to date, and there is a particular need for further long-term trials with healthy subjects. b. In 00, PH Canter and E. Ernst published an update to their 00 study titled, Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. The 00 meta-study reviews available research added to the then-existing data set from the previous 00 meta-study. Canter and Ernst conclude; [t]he collated evidence from randomized clinical trials provides no convincing evidence that G. biloba extracts ingested either as a K. R. Laws et al., UK, Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta- analysis, Human Psychopharmacology, (0), available at PH Canter & E. Ernst, Ginkgo biloba: a smart drug? A systematic review of controlled trials of the cognitive effects of ginkgo biloba extracts in healthy people, Psychopharmacol Bulletin 0, (00), available at Id. PH Canter & E. Ernst, Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people, Human Psychopharmacology, (00), available at
7 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 single dose or over a longer period has a positive effect on any aspect of cognitive performance in healthy people under the age of 0 years. c. In 0, K. Laws, H. Sweetnam and T. Kondel published a meta-study titled Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis in the journal of Human Psychopharmacology at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. This meta-study, similar to the aforementioned meta-studies of 00 and 00, gathered data from all relevant credible studies on Ginkgo biloba s effect as a cognitive enhancer. Here, the authors emphasize, [g]iven that G. biloba is marketed worldwide as a memory enhancer or touted to at least maintain memory, it is crucial to establish the validity for such claims. This meta-study concludes [g]. biloba has no significant impact on memory, executive function or attention with all effect sizes nonsignificant and effectively at zero. Further, we found no evidence that G. biloba improves memory, executive or attention functioning in healthy individuals. 0. Overwhelmingly, the consensus of reliable scientific studies concludes Ginkgo biloba supplements do nothing to enhance memory or cognitive abilities in healthy adults. a. A 00 study conducted by P. Solomon, PhD and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association titled Ginkgo for Memory Enhancement, studied the effects of over-the- counter Ginkgo biloba products in 0 subjects in a six-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Solomon and co-researchers conclude [t]he results of this -week study Id. at. Laws, et al., supra note. Id. Id. 0 Id. P. R. Solomon et al., Ginkgo for Memory Enhancement JAMA, (00), available at
8 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 indicate that ginkgo did not facilitate performance on standard neuropsychological tests of learning, memory, attention and concentration or naming and verbal fluency in elderly adults without cognitive impairment. The authors found, [t]he ginkgo group also did not differ from the control group in terms of self-reported memory function or global rating by spouses, friends, and relatives. These data suggest that when taken following the manufacturer s instructions, ginkgo provides no measurable benefit in memory or related cognitive function to adults with healthy cogitative function. Solomon notes, [d]espite the manufacturer s claims of improved memory in healthy adults, we were unable to identify any well-controlled studies that document this claim. Solomon further concludes this study does not support the manufacture s claims of the benefits of ginkgo on learning and memory. b. In a 00 article on the Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Education Pharmacotherapy Update, titled Ginkgo Biloba and Memory, the Department of Pharmacy observe, [d]espite the lack of well-controlled studies to support the use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract for prevention and treatment of memory impairment, ginkgo products continue to be heavily marketed and widely used. The article concludes [t]he use of ginkgo biloba leaf extract for memory impairments marketed and targeted at the healthy adult that experiences forgetfulness. Currently, the claims that Ginkgo biloba has Id. Id. Id. Id. A. Popa, Pharmacology Update, Ginkgo Biloba and Memory, available at (last visited Jan., 0).
9 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 beneficial effects on learning and memory are not supported by the literature. c. In 00, the Journal of the American Medical Association published the largest study to date entitled Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. The year study included 0 participants aged - years. Researchers concluded that 0 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract did not result in less cognitive decline in older adults with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairment than in the placebo control group. d. In the 00 study Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia, researchers reviewed trials, nine of which were six months long (0 participants total). 0 In the more recent and more reliable trials, three out of four found no benefits for cognitive decline. Researchers concluded that while Ginkgo biloba might be safe to ingest,... evidence that [it] has predictable and clinically significant benefit for people with dementia or cognitive impairment is inconsistent and unreliable. e. In 0, Support Care Cancer journal published The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Researchers found that in Id. B.E. Snitz et al, Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial, 0 JAMA (00). Id. 0 Jacqueline Birks and John Grimley Evans, Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia, Cochrane Database Systematic Review, Jan., 00. Id. Id. Debra L. Barton et al., The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapyrelated cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, Support Care Cancer (0).
10 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page0 of 0 0 women, 0 mg a day for up to months did not provide any evidence that Ginkgo biloba can help prevent cognitive changes from chemotherapy. f. In 0, the authors of Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects studied participants who ingested 0 mg daily of Ginkgo biloba over a six-month period. The results indicated that there was no evidence that an average dose of Ginkgo biloba extract created any benefit in mild to moderate dementia.. To date, although there are some studies that purport to claim that the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba can provide cognitive health benefits, those studies suffer severe, unmitigated scientific deficiencies, including utilizing a scientifically unreliable sample size, not utilizing scientifically sound testing procedures, and suffering from publication bias, i.e. the funding, publication or sponsorship of the study was provided by a party who stood to benefit from a positive finding.. In addition to the lack of positive cognitive benefits, Ginkgo biloba may have negative carcinogenic effects. The National Toxicology Program ( NTP ) studied the effects of Ginkgo biloba on rats and mice in small and large doses. In the NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in F/N Rats and BCF/N Mice, researchers concluded that Ginkgo biloba extract causes cancers of the thyroid gland in male and female rats and male mice and cancers of the liver in male and female mice.. As a result of the serious implications of the NTP study, and the lack of scientific evidence supporting safe use and positive effects of Ginkgo biloba, the Center for Id. AG Franke et al., Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects, Suppl, Eur. Arch Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. -0 (0). Nat l Inst. Of Health, Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in F/N Rats and BCF/N Mice, NTP TR, Publication No. - 0, available at
11 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 Science in the Public Interest addressed the director of the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), emphasizing that claims regarding Ginkgo biloba's supposed health benefits, including those related to memory and cognitive function, are false and should be stopped and imploring him to issue a directive that Ginkgo is no longer Generally Recognized As Safe.. The widespread popularity of Ginkgo biloba is simply a testament to the power of marketing rather than to any measurable brain benefits.. Accordingly, Target s marketing is deceptive and misleading as the claims are specifically refuted by competent and reliable scientific evidence as set forth above. Target s Up & Up Gingko Biloba Is a Misbranded Dietary Supplement. Pursuant to Title of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 0. ( CFR 0.) all dietary supplement products shall list there ingredients by common or usual name in descending order of predominance by weight on either the principal display panel or information panel. The Up & Up Gingko Biloba product violates CFR 0. because it lists Gingko biloba as an ingredient in the product when there is actually no Gingko biloba in the product whatsoever. The Up & Up Gingko Biloba product further violates CFR 0. because it contains undisclosed ingredients such as allium, oryza, and mung/ French Bean.. California Health and Safety Code, Division 0, Part, contains the Sherman, Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Law ( Sherman Law, located at Cal. Heath & Safety Code 0-). The Sherman Law imposes identical requirements to the federal FDCA. 0. The Sherman Law is explicitly authorized by the FDCA. U.S.C. -. Kirk R. Daffner (ed.), Harvard Medical School, Improving Memory Understanding age- related memory loss (0)( Harvard Report ), at, available at (last visited Jan., 0). 0
12 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. Plaintiff and the members of the Class would not have purchased the Product if it were known to them that the Product is misbranded pursuant to FDA and California regulations. CLASS ACTION ALLEGATIONS. Plaintiff bring this action as a class action pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure. Plaintiff Barber seeks to represent the following class: All consumers within the State of California, and states with similar consumer protection laws, who purchased the Up & Up Gingko Biloba Product during the applicable statute of limitations period for their personal use, rather than for resale or distribution. Excluded from the California Class are Defendants current or former officers, directors, and employees; counsel for Plaintiff and Defendant; and the judicial officer to whom this lawsuit is assigned.. The members in the proposed classes are so numerous that individual joinder of all members is impracticable, and the disposition of the claims of all class members in a single action will provide substantial benefits to the parties and Court.. Questions of law and fact common to plaintiff and the class include: A. whether Defendant contributed to, committed, and/or is responsible for the conduct alleged herein; While discovery may alter the following, Plaintiff preliminarily avers that the other states with similar consumer fraud laws under the facts of this case include, but are not limited to: Arkansas (Ark. Code -- 0, et seq.); Colorado (Colo. Rev. Stat. --0, et seq.); Connecticut (Conn. Gen. Stat. -0, et seq.); Delaware (Del. Code tit.,, et seq.); District of Columbia (D.C. Code -0, et seq.); Florida (Fla. Stat. 0.0, et seq.); Georgia (Ga. Code Ann. 0--(a), et seq.); Hawaii (Haw. Rev. Stat. 0-, et seq.); Idaho (Idaho Code -0, et seq.); Illinois ( ICLS 0/, et seq.); Maine (Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 0-A, et seq.); Massachusetts (Mass. Gen. Laws Ch. A, et seq. ); Michigan (Mich. Comp. Laws.0, et seq.); Minnesota (Minn. Stat. F., et seq.); Missouri (Mo. Rev. Stat. 0.00, et seq.); Montana (Mont. Code. 0--0, et seq.); Nebraska (Neb. Rev. Stat. -0, et seq.); Nevada (Nev. Rev. Stat..0, et seq.); New Hampshire (N.H. Rev. Stat. -A:, et seq.); New Jersey (N.J. Stat. :-, et seq.); New Mexico (N.M. Stat. --, et seq.); New York (N.Y. Gen. Bus. Law,et seq. & 0 et seq.); North Dakota (N.D. Cent. Code --0, et seq.); Oklahoma (Okla. Stat. tit.,, et seq.); Oregon (Or. Rev. Stat..0, et seq.); Rhode Island (R.I. Gen. Laws -.-, et seq.); South Dakota (S.D. Code Laws --, et seq.); Virginia (VA Code.-, et seq.); Vermont (Vt. Stat. tit.,, et seq.); Washington (Wash. Rev. Code..00, et seq.); West Virginia (W. Va. Code A-- 0, et seq.); and Wisconsin (Wis. Stat. 00., et seq.).
13 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 B. Whether Defendant s conduct constitutes the violations of law alleged herein; C. Whether Defendant acted willfully, recklessly, negligently, or with gross negligence in the violations of law alleged herein; and D. Whether Class members are entitled to injunctive, and/or other equitable relief;. Plaintiff s claims are typical of class members claims in that they are based on the same underlying facts, events, and circumstances relating to Defendant s conduct.. Absent Defendant s deceptive claims, Plaintiff and the Class members would not have purchased the Products.. Plaintiff will fairly and adequately represent and protect the interests of the classes, have no interests incompatible with the interests of the classes, and have retained counsel competent and experienced in class action litigation.. The class is sufficiently numerous, as the class contains at least hundreds of thousands of members who purchased the Up & Up Gingko Product in multiple states across the United States.. Class treatment is superior to other options for resolution of the controversy because the relief sought for each class member is small such that, absent representative litigation, it would be infeasible for class members to redress the wrongs done to them. 0. Questions of law and fact common to the class predominate over any questions affecting only individual class members.. Defendant has acted on ground applicable to the Class, thereby making appropriate final injunctive and declaratory relief concerning the Class as a whole.. As a result of the foregoing, class treatment is appropriate under Fed. R. Civ. P. (a), (b)(), and (b)().
14 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION Violations of the Unfair Competition Law, Unlawful Prong Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code 00 et seq.. Plaintiff Barber realleges and incorporates the allegations elsewhere in the Complaint as set forth in full herein.. California Business and Professional Code 00 prohibits any unlawful, unfair or fraudulent business act or practice.. The acts, omissions, misrepresentations, practices, and non-disclosures of Defendant as alleged herein constitute unlawful business acts and practices in that Defendant s conduct violates the False Advertising Law, the Consumer Legal Remedies Act.. Defendant s conduct is further unlawful because it violates the FDCA and its implementing regulations in the following ways: a. Defendant s deceptive statements violate U.S.C. (a) and, which deem a food or drug (including nutritional supplements) misbranded when the label contains a statement that is false or misleading in any particular ; b. Defendant s deceptive statements violate C.F.R. 0.(b)()(i), which mandates substances in dietary supplements consumed must contribute and retain nutritive value, as defined under C.F.R. 0.(a)()() when consumed at levels necessary to justify a claim; c. Defendant s deceptive statements violate CFR 0. because the Product s ingredient list contain ingredients that are not actually found in the product. Moreover, the Product contains ingredients that are not disclosed on the ingredients list.. Defendant s conduct is further unlawful because it violates the California Sherman Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Law, see Cal. Health & Safety Code 0-00, which incorporates the provisions of the FDCA. See id
15 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. Defendant profited from its sales of the falsely, deceptively, or unlawfully advertised Product to unwary consumers.. In accordance with Bus. & Prof. Code 0, Plaintiff seeks an order enjoining Defendant from continuing to conduct business through unlawful, unfair, and/or fraudulent acts and practices, and to commence a corrective advertising campaign. SECOND CAUSE OF ACTION Violations of the Unfair Competition Law, Unfair and Fraudulent Prongs Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code 00 et seq. 0. Plaintiff Barber realleges and incorporates the allegations elsewhere in the Complaint as set forth in full herein.. California Business and Professional Code 00 prohibits any unlawful, unfair or fraudulent business act or practice.. The acts, omissions, misrepresentations, practices, and non-disclosures of Defendant as alleged herein also constitute unfair business acts and practices under the UCL in that Defendant s conduct is immoral, unscrupulous, and offends public policy by seeking to profit from male vulnerability to false or deceptive virility or aphrodisiac claims. Further, the gravity of Defendant s conduct outweighs any conceivable benefit of such conduct.. The acts, omissions, misrepresentations, practices, and non-disclosures of Defendant as alleged herein constitute fraudulent business acts and practices under the UCL in that Defendant s claims are false, misleading, and have a tendency to deceive the Class and the general public, as detailed herein.. Defendant profited from its sales of the fraudulently, falsely and deceptively advertised Product to unwary consumers.. In accordance with Bus. & Prof. Code 0, Plaintiff seeks an order enjoining Defendant from continuing to conduct business through unlawful, unfair, and/or fraudulent acts and practices, and to commence a corrective advertising campaign.
16 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. Plaintiff further seeks an order for the disgorgement and restitution of all profit earned from the sale of the Defendant s Products, which were acquired through acts of unlawful, unfair, and/or fraudulent competition by Defendant. THIRD CAUSE OF ACTION Violations of the False Advertising Law, Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code 00 et seq.. Plaintiff Barber realleges and incorporates the allegations elsewhere in the Complaint as set forth in full herein.. In violation of California Business and Professional Code 00 et seq., the advertisements, labeling, policies, acts, and practices described herein were designed to, and did, result in the purchase and use of Up & Up Gingko Biloba and St. John s Wort products.. Defendant knew and reasonably should have known that the labels on Defendant s Products were untrue and/or misleading. 0. Defendant profited from its sales of the falsely and deceptively advertised Product to unwary consumers.. As a result, Plaintiff Barber, the Class, and the general public are entitled to injunctive and equitable relief, restitution, and an order for the disgorgement of the funds by which Defendants were unjustly enriched. FOURTH CAUSE OF ACTION Violations of the Consumer Legal Remedies Act, Cal. Civ. Code 0, et seq.. Plaintiff Barber realleges and incorporates the allegations elsewhere in the Complaint as set forth in full herein.. The CLRA prohibits deceptive practices in connection with the conduct of a business that provides goods, property, or services primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.
17 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0. Defendant s false and misleading labeling and other policies, acts, and practices were designed to, and did, induce the purchase and use of Defendant s Product for personal, family, or household purposes by Plaintiff and class members, and violated and continue to violate the following sections of the CLRA: a. 0(a)(): representing that goods have characteristics, uses, or benefits which they do not have; b. 0(a)(): representing that goods are of a particular standard, quality, or grade if they are of another; c. 0(a)(): advertising goods with intent not to sell them as advertised; and d. 0(a)(): representing the subject of a transaction has been supplied in accordance with a previous representation when it has not.. Defendant profited from its sales of the falsely, deceptively and unlawfully advertised Product to unwary consumers.. As a result, Plaintiff and the Class have suffered irreparable harm.. Defendant s wrongful business practices regarding the Product constituted, and constitute, a continuing course of conduct in violation of the CLRA since Defendant is still representing that the Product has characteristics, uses, benefits, and abilities which are false and misleading, and have injured Plaintiff and the Class.. Plaintiff Barber and the class seek equitable relief for their CLRA claims and attorneys fees and costs as allowed by statute. PRAYER FOR RELIEF. Wherefore, Plaintiff, on behalf of themselves, all others similarly situated and the general public, pray for judgment against Defendant as to each and every cause of action, and the following remedies: A. An Order declaring this action to be a proper class action and appointing undersigned counsel as class counsel; B. An Order requiring Defendant to bear the cost of class notice;
18 Case:-cv-00-JSC Document Filed0/0/ Page of 0 0 C. An Order compelling Defendant to conduct a corrective advertising campaign and to re-label the product; D. For the UCL and FAL, an Order requiring Defendant to disgorge all monies, revenues, and profits obtained by means of any wrongful act or practice; E. An Order compelling Defendant to destroy all misleading and deceptive advertising materials and Product labels; F. For the UCL and FAL, an Order requiring Defendant to pay restitution to restore all funds acquired by means of any act or practice declared by this Court to be an unlawful, unfair, or fraudulent business act or practice, untrue or misleading advertising, plus pre-and post-judgment interest thereon; G. For attorneys fees and costs as allowed by statute; F. Any other and further relief that Court deems necessary, just, or proper. JURY DEMAND Plaintiff hereby demands a trial by jury on all issues so triable. Dated: February, 0 /s/ Ronald A. Marron LAW OFFICES OF RONALD A. MARRON RONALD A. MARRON Arroyo Drive San Diego, CA 0 Phone: () -00 Fax: () - Attorney for Plaintiff and the Proposed Class
ADULT PROTECTIVE SERVICES, INSTITUTIONAL ABUSE AND LONG TERM CARE OMBUDSMAN PROGRAM LAWS: CITATIONS, BY STATE (Laws current as of 12/31/06) Prepared by Lori Stiegel and Ellen Klem of the American Bar Association
Alabama any other person called upon to render aid to any child ALA. CODE 26-14-10 Alaska ALA. CODE 26-14-3(a) paid employees of domestic violence and sexual assault programs, and crisis intervention and
Alabama Ala. Code 5-25-5 Bond only required where licensee does not submit evidence of net worth. Loan originators may be covered by Alaska 25,000 Alaska Stat. 06.60.045 Arizona $10,000-$15,000 Ariz. Rev.
This chart accompanies Protection From Creditors for Retirement Plan Assets, in the January 2014 issue of The Tax Adviser. State-by-state analysis of IRAs as exempt property State State Statute IRA Alabama
MEDICAL MALPRACTICE STATE STATUTORY REFERENCE GUIDE 41 MEDICAL MALPRACTICE STATE STATUTORY REFERENCE GUIDE The following references to statutes relevant to medical malpractice cases are intended exclusively
False Claims Act Regulations by State Under the False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. 3729-3733, those who knowingly submit, or cause another person or entity to submit, false claims for payment of The purpose of
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 LAW OFFICES OF RONALD A. MARRON RONALD A. MARRON (SBN 10) firstname.lastname@example.org ALEXIS WOOD (SBN 000) email@example.com KAS GALLUCCI (SBN 0) firstname.lastname@example.org
Exhibit B State-By-State Data Security Overview Michele A. Whitham Partner, Founding Co-Chair Security & Privacy Practice Group Foley Hoag LLP 155 Seaport Boulevard Boston, MA 02210 State Statute Citation
NONJUDICIAL TRANSFER OF TRUST SITUS CHART 1 This chart provides a survey of the State statutory provisions for all States and the District of Columbia relating to the nonjudicial transfer of the principal
State STATE BY STATE ANTI-INDEMNITY STATUTES Sole Negligence Sole or Partial Negligence Closes A.I. Loophole Comments Alabama Alaska Alaska Stat. 45.45.900. Except for hazardous substances. Arizona (Private
0-State Analysis School Attendance Age Limits 700 Broadway, Suite 810 Denver, CO 80203-32 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332 Introduction School Attendance Age Limits By Marga Mikulecky April 2013 This 0-State
1 misleading labeling and marketing of merchandise it sells at its company-owned Levi s Outlet stores ( Levi s Outlet ).. During the Class Period (defined below), Levi s misrepresented the existence, nature
Case 1:15-cv-05107 Document 1 Filed 06/30/15 Page 1 of 21 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK -----------------------------------------------------------------------x PEGGY CABRERA,
Video Voyeurism Laws Federal Law Video Voyeurism Prevention Act of 2004, 18 U.S.C.A. 1801. Jurisdiction limited to maritime and territorial jurisdiction, or federal property including but not limited to
Case 1:15-cv-23425-MGC Document 1 Entered on FLSD Docket 09/10/2015 Page 1 of 11 LESLIE REILLY, an individual, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated, v. Plaintiff, CHIPOTLE MEXICAN GRILL,
Summary of statutory or regulatory provision by entity. Alabama As long as may be necessary to treat the patient and for medical legal purposes. Ala. Admin. Code r. 545-X-4-.08 (2007). (1) 5 years. Ala.
Case :-cv-000-jah -CAB Document Filed 0// Page of 0 Joshua B. Swigart, Esq. (SBN: ) email@example.com Robert L. Hyde, Esq. (SBN: ) firstname.lastname@example.org Hyde & Swigart Camino Del Rio South,
Case:-cv-0-DMR Document Filed0// Page of MICHAEL G. RHODES () (email@example.com) California Street, th Floor San Francisco, CA Telephone: Facsimile: BRENDAN J. HUGHES (pro hac vice to be filed) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
State Definition Citation Text ALABAMA MORTGAGE BROKERS LICENSING ACT Mortgage broker means any person who directly or indirectly solicits, Ala. Code 5 25 2(9) processes, places, or negotiates mortgage
Model Regulation Service April 2005 Corporate Owned Life Insurance (COLI) is life insurance a corporate employer buys covering one or more employees. With COLI, the employer is generally the applicant,
Life Without Parole (JLWOP) February 2010 STATE LWOP Law JLWOP 1 ALABAMA YES 62 0 court Ala. Stat. 13A-6-2 ALASKA No LWOP parole always possible No -- -- - Max. age of 18 yrs. old Alaska Stat. 11.41.100
CAREGIVER DEFINITIONS: PROVISIONS AND CITATIONS IN ADULT PROTECTIVE SERVICES LAWS, BY STATE (Laws current as of 12/31/06) Prepared by Lori Stiegel and Ellen Klem of the American Bar Association Commission
Model Regulation Service - January 1993 These Guidelines have been prepared for use by state insurance department personnel who may be presented with questions or concerns regarding charitable gifts of
Default Definitions of Person in State Statutes State Alabama ALA. CODE 1-1-1 (2014) 1-1-1. Definitions. The following words, whenever they appear in this code, shall have the signification attached to
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al., v. Plaintiffs, HSBC NORTH AMERICA HOLDINGS INC., et al., Defendants. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Civil
JAMES C. STURDEVANT (SBN 94551 JESPER I. RASMUSSEN (SBN 121001 THE STURDEVANT LAW FIRM A Professional Corporation 475 Sansome Street, Suite 1750 San Francisco, California 94111 Telephone: (415 477-2410
Massachusetts Adopts Strict Security Regulations Governing Personal Information LISA M. ROPPLE, KEVIN V. JONES, AND CHRISTINE M. SANTARIGA Establishing itself as a leader in the data security area, Massachusetts
SURVEY OF THE CURRENT INSURANCE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR AFFINITY MARKETIG ARRANGEMENTS (FORC Journal: Vol. 23 Edition 4 - Winter 2012) Kevin G. Fitzgerald, Esq. (414) 297-5841 N. Wesley Strickland (850)
Chart Overview of Nurse Practitioner Scopes of Practice in the United States Sharon Christian, JD, Catherine Dower, JD, Edward O Neil, PhD, MPA, FAAN Center for the Health Professions University of California,
November 9, 2006 Deficit Reduction Act Employee Information Requirements The Deficit Reduction Act ( DRA ) requires states participating in the Medicaid program to amend their State Plans to mandate that
LABORATORY CORPORATION OF AMERICA HOLDINGS BUSINESS PRACTICES MANUAL Subject: Compliance With False Claims Acts Section: 27.0 Under Federal and State Laws Update: January 2015 Replaces: January 2013 Initiated
MEMORANDUM DATE: August 26, 2008 RE: Express Consent Requirement for Delivery of Recorded Messages The following sets forth the individual state and federal requirements regarding express consent for the
Postsecondary Tuition and Fees Introduction Tuition-Setting Authority for Public Colleges and Universities By Kyle Zinth and Matthew Smith October 2012 Who sets tuition? Regardless of the state in question,
National Conference of State Legislatures Discrimination Laws Regarding Off-Duty Conduct Updated October 18, 2010 The issue of employees' rights to engage in certain off-duty activities and in the competing
LEGAL BARRIERS FOR PEOPLE IN RECOVERY FROM DRUG AND ALCOHOL ADDICTION: LICENSES AND CREDENTIALS There are many legal obstacles facing people who have overcome addiction and are in good recovery. This memorandum
Agency Name: Address: Contact Name: Phone: Fax: Email: Product Liability Application All questions must be answered in full. Application must be signed and dated by the applicant. Applicant s Name Agent
STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA DURHAM COUNTY IN THE GENERAL COURT OF JUSTICE SUPERIOR COURT DIVISION Case Number XXX A.C.G., J.G.M., on behalf of themselves and ) all others similarly situated, ) Plaintiffs )
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF GEORGIA ATLANTA DIVISION ) FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, ) ) Plaintiff, ) ) v. ) ) Civil No. CONTROLSCAN, INC., ) a corporation, ) ) Defendant. ) ) COMPLAINT
DISTRICT COURT, CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER, COLORADO 1437 Bannock Street, Room 256 Denver, Colorado 80202 STATE OF COLORADO ex rel. John W. Suthers, Attorney General, Plaintiff, v. Jennifer Proffitt-Payne,
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF ALABAMA FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Plaintiff, Civil Action No. v. WEBVIPER, LLC; d/b/a Yellow Web Services; and TIGERHAWK, LLC; d/b/a Yellow
District Court, Denver County, Colorado 1437 Bannock Street Denver, Colorado 80202 GUILLERMO ARTEAGA-GOMEZ, Individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, DATE FILED: January 22, 2015 6:02
- "'. --, -.:li ') " :::; ),-~ --' DA VlD SHONKA Acting General Counsel 2 BARBARA Y.K. CHUN, Cal. BarNo. 0 3 JOHN D. JACOBS, Cal. Bar No. 1344 Federal Trade Commission 4 Wilshire Blvd., Ste. 00 Los Angeles,
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Stephen L. Weber, Esq. (AZ SBN 01) Michael J. White, Esq. (AZ SBN 01) James W. Fleming, Esq. (AZ SBN 0) KASDAN SIMONDS WEBER & VAUGHAN LLP 00 N. Central Ave., Suite 0 Phoenix, AZ 0 E-Mail:
EDMUND G. BROWN JR. Attorney General of California FRANCES T. GRUNDER Senior Assistant Attorney General CATHERINE Z. YSRAEL Supervising Deputy Attorney General State Bar No. 1 1 West A Street, Suite 10
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK KELVIN BLEDSOE, Plaintiff, v. SAAQIN, INC., No. COMPLAINT FOR VIOLATION OF FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT JURY TRIAL DEMANDED Defendant. Plaintiff Kelvin
Case 1:10-cv-00168-JBS -KMW Document 1 Filed 01/12/10 Page 1 of 21 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY SMART VENT INC., : : Plaintiff, : CIVIL ACTION NO.: : : : USA FLOODAIR VENTS,
DISTRICT COURT, DENVER CITY AND COUNTY, COLORADO 1437 Bannock Street Denver, Colorado 80202 STATE OF COLORADO, ex rel. JOHN W. SUTHERS, ATTORNEY GENERAL, Plaintiff, v. LEGAL AID d/b/a LEGAL AID US, a Colorado
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS ) SHARON PETTWAY, and ) MARSHA HUBBARD ) ) individually and on behalf of all ) others similarly situated, ) ) Civil Action No. ) 03-10932-RCL Plaintiffs,
Table of Contents Model Regulation Service October 2005 GROUP LIFE INSURANCE DEFINITION AND GROUP LIFE INSURANCE STANDARD PROVISIONS MODEL ACT Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section
ALABAMA ARE, R412 ALASKA Alaska Stat.12.45.045 ARIZONA A.R.S. 13-1421 ARKANSAS 16-42-101 CALIFORNIA Evid Code 782; 1103 COLORADO C.R.S. 18-3-407 A.C.A. any evidence relating to the past sexual behavior
Case: 1:15-cv-05781 Document #: 1 Filed: 06/30/15 Page 1 of 21 PageID #:1 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION ) FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, and ) ) STATE OF
BILL LOCKYER, Attorney General of the State of California HERSCHEL T. ELKINS Senior Assistant Attorney General ALBERT NORMAN SHELDEN Supervising Deputy Attorney General HOWARD WAYNE (State Bar No. ) Deputy
Case: 1:15-cv-10963 Document #: 1 Filed: 12/07/15 Page 1 of 15 PageID #:1 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Plaintiff, v. Case No. 15-cv-10963 COMPLAINT
Model Regulation Service April 1996 COLLISION DAMAGE WAIVER MODEL ACT Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section 1. Title of Chapter Scope Purpose
Case :-cv-00 Document Filed 0/0/ Page of Page ID #: 0 Robert S. Green (SBN ) James Robert Noblin (SBN ) GREEN & NOBLIN, P.C. -and- Telephone: Email: William B. Federman FEDERMAN & SHERWOOD Telephone: Email:
DATA BREACH CHARTS (Current as of December 31, 2015) The charts below provide summary information about data breach notification statutes across the country. California adopted the first data breach notification
Model Regulation Service April 1995 LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE POLICY LANGUAGE SIMPLIFICATION MODEL ACT Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT Omar Morrison, Carli Galasso, and Manuel Toppins, individually and on behalf of other similarly situated Assistant Store Managers, V. Plaintiffs, Ocean
APPENDIX A IN THE UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS In re: MICHELE GRAHAM, Case No.: 02-43262 (Chapter 7 Debtor. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Plaintiff, v. Adversary Proceeding
Attachment F State Agencies Addendum for State-Specific Requirements General These states have statutes which may supersede the franchise agreement in your relationship with Us including the areas of termination
Case :-cv-0000 Document Filed 0/0/ Page of Page ID #: 0 James H. Holl, III,, CA Bar # email@example.com Thomas J. Kelly, pro hac vice pending firstname.lastname@example.org U.S. COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION st Street,
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF GEORGIA ATLANTA DIVISION WAYNE WILLIAMS, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, v. Plaintiff, PROTECT SECURITY, LLC. Defendant.
PPD Benefits by State Michigan State University, 2008 A Caution about These Summaries We will list below summaries of how permanent partial benefits are paid in each state. We caution that these are intended
DISTRICT COURT, ARAPAHOE COUNTY, COLORADO 7325 S. Potomac Street Centennial, Colorado 80112 STATE OF COLORADO, ex rel. JOHN W. SUTHERS, ATTORNEY GENERAL, EFILED Document CO Arapahoe County District Court
Case:-cv-0-JST Document Filed// Page of 0 Clayeo C. Arnold, California SBN 00 email@example.com Christine M. Doyle, California SBN 0 firstname.lastname@example.org CLAYEO C. ARNOLD, A PROFESSIONAL LAW CORPORATION
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLORADO Civil Action No. INFANT SWIMMING RESEARCH, INC., v. Plaintiff, FAEGRE & BENSON, LLP, MARK FISCHER, JUDY HEUMANN, NORMAN HEUMANN, BOULDER
DEBRA WONG YANG United States Attorney GARY PLESSMAN Assistant United States Attorney Chief, Civil Fraud Section California State Bar No. 1 Room 1, Federal Building 00 North Los Angeles Street Los Angeles,
IWLA - STATEMENT OF FACTS The International Warehouse Logistics Associations ("IWLA") is a warehousing and logistics industry association representing more than 400 members that are thirdparty logistics
Model Regulation Service June 2004 MODEL REGULATION TO REQUIRE REPORTING OF STATISTICAL DATA Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section 8. Section
Case 2:06-cv-15766-JF-SDP Document 69 Filed 02/25/2008 Page 1 of 15 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Plaintiff, v. MAZZONI
Case:-cv-000-RS Document Filed0// Page of 0 0 Sean Reis (SBN 00 email@example.com EDELSON MCGUIRE, LLP 00 Tomas Street, Suite 00 Rancho Santa Margarita, California Telephone: ( - Facsimile: ( - Michael
Case 2:10-cv-03242-SSV-DEK Document 27 Filed 12/07/10 Page 1 of 17 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA KATHLEEN A. BRANDNER, individually, and CLASS ACTION COMPLAINT on behalf of
Named Applicant: Date: ACE American Insurance Company ACE Advantage ACE American Insurance Company National Association of REALTORS Professional Liability Name of insurance company to which Application
Textbook Adoption Education Commission of the States 700 Broadway, Suite 1200 Den ver, CO 80203-3460 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332 www.ecs.org State Textbook Adoption By Kyle Zinth January 2005 Introduction
4:10-cv-00701-TLW Date Filed 03/18/10 Entry Number 1 Page 1 of 12 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF SOUTH CAROLINA FLORENCE DIVISION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, Plaintiff,
... ~- - -... UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, v. Plaintitl: COMPLAINT FOR PERMANENT INJUNCTION AND OTHER EQUITABLE RELIEF Mikael Marczak, a/k/a
Case 1:07-cv-00558-RPM Document 1 Filed 03/20/2007 Page 1 of 13 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLORADO FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Plaintiff, Case No. v. DEBT SET, INC., a Colorado corporation;
Case 6:14-cv-00008-JA-DAB Document 53 Filed 02/25/14 Page 1 of 23 PageID 1974 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF FLORIDA ORLANDO DIVISION FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, and STATE OF FLORIDA,
ALAN G. LANCE ATIORNEY GENERAL STATE OF IDAHO MARY E. HUGHES Deputy Attorney General State of Idaho Department of Finance P.O. Box 83720 Boise, Idaho 83720-0031 Telephone: (208) 332-8092 Facsimile: (208)
Case :-cv-00-lrh -WGC Document Filed 0// Page of 0 Stanley W. Parry Esq. Nevada Bar No. Jon T. Pearson, Esq. Nevada Bar No. 0 BALLARD SPAHR LLP 00 North City Parkway, Suite 0 Las Vegas, NV 0 Telephone:
Cancellation/Nonrenewal Surplus Lines Exemptions * Indicates updates in laws or regulations for the state Contact: Tina Crum, firstname.lastname@example.org, 847-553-3804 Disclaimer: This document was prepared by