1 FOOD 31 Food NPARR, 8(1), Processed cheese contamination by spore-forming bacteria: A review of sources, routes, fate during processing and control Background: Processed cheese is produced by blending natural cheese of different ages and degrees of maturity in the presence of emulsifying salts and other dairy and non dairy ingredients, followed by heating and continuous mixing to form a homogeneous product with an extended shelf life. However, due to the thermal processing applied and the extended shelf life, spore-forming bacteria may result in safety and stability issues. Scope and approach: The primary sources of contamination by spore-forming bacteria, routes of contamination and their fate throughout the processing and storage of processed cheese and analogues are reviewed. In addition, the main consequences of the survival and growth of these organisms in processed cheese are discussed. Lastly, aiming to ensure the quality and safety of processed cheese, strategies for controlling spore-forming bacteria from farm to processing and storage are highlighted. Key findings and conclusions: The main bacterial genera found in processed cheese are Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp., which is due to their wide presence in milk and the dairy farm environment as well as their abilities to form spores and withstand harsh processing conditions. Knowledge of the spore diversity in processed cheese and their responses to efforts used to increase the product's stability are critical for developing more stable formulations [Oliveira R.B.A., Margalho L.P., Nascimento J.S., Costa L.E.O., Portela J.B., Cruz A.G., Sant'Ana A.S*. (Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil), Trends in Food Science and Technology, 2016, 57, 11-19]. NPARR, 8(1), Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats [Jiang J., Xiong Y.L*. (School of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China), Meat Science, 2016, 120, ]. NPARR, 8(1), Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1% 22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid
2 32 NAT PROD RESOUR REPOS, VOL. 8 NO. 1, 2017 were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS + free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from ± 2.24 to ± 0.71 µmol g 1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to ± 1.76 µmol g 1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS + free-radicalscavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants [Shi Z., Yao Y., Zhu Y. and Ren G*. (Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China), Crop Journal, 2016, 4, ]. NPARR, 8(1), Effect of water migration on the thermal-vacuum packaged steamed buns under room temperature storage This study aims to characterize water distribution in thermal-vacuum packaged steamed buns and to investigate the role of water as a mean to control staling during room temperature storage. Therefore, we analyzed vacuum degree (VD), water mobility, and starch retrogradation by using NMR, DSC, X-ray diffraction in the present study. Negative correlation coefficients were observed between water addition (WA) and VD of the package during first 21 h. The VD raised during 1 h, then declined and finally reached stability at 6 h. The initial deep-bound water (DBW) content was also found to be opposite to WA, it ranged from 27.2% to 25.8% as WA increased from 40% to 44% at 0 day. DBW decreased during 42 days of storage, then leveled off. Interestingly, moisture migration from the moist crust and intermediate zone to the dry center. Results from DSC and X-ray indicate that 1) thermal-vacuum packaging significantly inhibited the starch retrogradation of steamed buns; 2) the retrogradation rate of steamed buns was affected by WA during dough-making. Therefore, not only did the thermal-vacuum packaging technology extend the shelf life of the steamed buns by at least 90 days at room temperature, but it also significantly reduced starch retrogradation [Sheng, X., Ma, Z., Li, X., Liu, L. and Hu, X*. ( College of Food Engineering and Nutrition Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China), Journal of Cereal Science, 2016, 72, ]. NPARR, 8(1), An evaluation of the effectiveness of fresh case technology to extend the storage life of whole-muscle pork and ground pork sausage The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole-muscle pork and ground pork sausage packaged using FreshCase technology. Pork chops and pork sausage were packaged using conventional vacuum packaging without nitrite in film (Control) or using FreshCase technology and were compared with respect to microbial counts, ph, instrumental color measurements, lipid oxidation level, and sensory properties. The storage life was 45 d for pork chops stored in FreshCase packages at 1 C and 19 d for ground pork sausage stored under the same condition. Results indicated that both pork chops and sausage stored in FreshCase packages retained redder color (P < 0.05) than those stored in Control packages. No differences (P > 0.05) existed between Control and FreshCase packaged samples for any off-odor detection for either pork chops or sausage. Moreover, levels of oxidative rancidity in all packages had low thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values. The results indicated that FreshCase technology can be used
3 FOOD 33 to extend storage life of pork products without having adverse effects on pork quality [Yang, X*., Woerner, D.R., McCullough, K.R., Hasty, J.D., Geornaras, I., Smith, G.C., Sofos, J.N. and Belk, K.E. (Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, 1171 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, United States), Journal of Animal Science, 2016, 94(11), ]. NPARR, 8(1), Determination of biogenic amines in Pu-erh tea with precolumn derivatization by high-performance liquid chromatography In recent years, Pu-erh tea is popular around the world particularly due to its special health benefits. However, biogenic amines and their safe concentration in Pu-erh tea have not been fully studied. Therefore, we selected 28 kinds of Pu-erh tea from Yunnan Province, China, to determine methylamine, ethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and spermidine contents. The analytical method involved an extraction with hydrogen chloride solution, precolumn derivatization of the amines with dansyl chloride, and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The relative correlation coefficient of this method was greater than 99%. Limits of detection were found between 0.2 and 1.1 µg/l. Recovery rates varied from 85 to 104%. Relative standard deviations were below 5%. Additionally, this study measured the concentrations of eight biogenic amines in Pu-erh tea using pure water extractions. The predominant amines in Pu-erh teas are methylamine, ethylamine, and tryptamine. The quantities of biogenic amines in the Pu-erh teas analyzed did not exceed established international safety limits for other food or beverages, and thus, Pu-erh teas appear to be safe to drink in this respect [Shen, N.-Y., Zheng, S.Y. and Wang, X.- Q*. (College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China), Food Analytical Methods, 2016, 1-9]. NPARR, 8(1), Sustainable valorisation of seafood by-products: Recovery of collagen and development of collagen-based novel functional food ingredients Aquatic, especially marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of bioactive compounds, which have considerable potential to supply novel ingredients towards the development of commercial functional food products. Seafood products are an important part of the diet in many nations. Moreover, as a source of protein, seafood plays a significant role as functional components that are essential to human health. In industry or local seafood shops, processing of seafood generates a huge quantity (50 80%) of nonedible by-products, which are discarded as waste or underutilised in several parts of the world. These seafood processing byproducts are rich sources of various novel and valuable biomolecules such as collagen and gelatin. In this review, scope of seafood byproducts has been explored to recover the realistic collagen. The sustainable valorisation of seafood by-products may lead towards the development of healthy and functional food ingredients/products. Furthermore, the significant challenges towards the development of collagenbased functional food ingredients are also discussed. Industrial relevance With the increasing amount of seafood processing byproducts worldwide, the recent trend towards the utilisation of collagen and their derived biomaterials to develop the various functional food and beverages is gaining momentum. Seafood processing by-products are a rich source of bioactive collagen molecules with potential nutraceutical/functional properties. Seafood processing industries are constantly trying to maximum utilisation of seafood by-products. This review article puts forward an alternative use of seafood processing by-products which may help to accelerate their business with significant benefits. The collagen-based novel functional food ingredient contains a nutritional benefit, such as essential and non-essential amino acid to
4 34 NAT PROD RESOUR REPOS, VOL. 8 NO. 1, 2017 improve the quality of different food products. It can also be used as natural antioxidants and texturing agents that will reduce the utilisation of chemical preservatives and may be able to fulfil the consumer demands for safe and green food products. In addition, the current status, challenges and the future directions in the development of seafood derived collagen peptides as functional ingredients is also discussed. This review suggests a biological solution for the disposal of the seafood processing by-products that creates an environmental pollution issues. This article reveals the opportunity to utilise the seafood by-products for the development of high value-added collagen-based functional food ingredients [Pal, G.K. and Suresh, P.V*. (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Meat and Marine Sciences Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru, India), Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 2016, 37(Part B), ]. NPARR, 8(1), Phenolic-enriched foods: Sources and processing for enhanced health Polyphenols are ubiquitous secondary products present in many plant foods. Their intake has been associated with health benefits ranging from reduced incidence of CVD, diabetes and cancers to improved neurodegenerative outcomes. Major dietary sources include beverages such as coffee, teas and foods such as chocolate. Fruits are also major sources and berries in particular are a palatable source of a diverse range of polyphenol components. There are a number of ways that polyphenol uptake could be increased and healthier polyphenol-rich foods could be produced with specific compositions to target-specific health effects. Firstly, we could exploit the genetic diversity of plants (with a focus on berries) to select varieties that have enhanced levels of specific polyphenols implicated in disease mitigation (e.g. anthocyanins, tannins or flavonols). Working with variation induced by environmental and agronomic factors, modern molecular breeding techniques could exploit natural variation and beneficially alter polyphenol content and composition, although this could be relatively long term. Alternatively, we could employ a synthetic biology approach and design new plants that overexpress certain genes or re-deploy more metabolic effort into specific polyphenols. However, such polyphenol-plus fruit could prove unpalatable as polyphenols contribute to sensorial properties (e.g. astringency of tannins). However, if the aim was to produce a polyphenol as a pharmaceutical then lifting biosynthetic pathways from plants and expressing them in microbial vectors may be a feasible option. Secondly, we could design processing methods to enhance the polyphenolic composition or content of foods. Fermentation of teas, cocoa beans and grapes, or roasting of cocoa and coffee beans has long been used and can massively influence polyphenol composition and potential bioactivity. Simple methods such as milling, heat treatment, pasteurisation or juicing (v. pureeing) can have notable effects on polyphenol profiles and novel extraction methods bring new opportunities. Encapsulation methods can protect specific polyphenols during digestion and increase their delivery in the gastrointestinal tract to targetspecific health effects. Lastly we could examine reformulation of products to alter polyphenol content or composition. Enhancing staple apple or citrus juices with berry juices could double polyphenol levels and provide specific polyphenol components. Reformulation of foods with polyphenol-rich factions recovered from wastes could increase polyphenol intake, alter product acceptability, improve shelf life and prevent food spoilage. Finally, co-formulation of foods can influence bioavailability and potential bioactivity of certain polyphenols. Within the constraints that certain polyphenols can interfere with drug effectiveness through altered metabolism, this provides another avenue to enhance polyphenol intake and potential effectiveness. In conclusion, these approaches could be developed separately or in combination to produce foods with enhanced levels of phenolic components that are effective against specific disease conditions [McDougall,
5 FOOD 35 G.J*. (Environmental and Biochemical Sciences Group, Enhancing Crop Productivity and Utilisation Theme, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, Scotland), Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2016, 1-9]. NPARR, 8(1), Phytase production and development of an ideal dephytinization process for amelioration of food nutrition using microbial phytases Development of an ideal process for reduction of food phytates using microbial phytases is a demanding task by all food and feed industries all over the world. Phytase production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis JJBS250 isolated from soil sample was optimized in submerged fermentation using statistical tools. Among all the culture variables tested, sucrose, sodium phytate and Tween-80 were identified as the most significant variables using the Placket-Burman design. Further optimization of these variables resulted in a fold improvement in phytase production (7170 U/L) as compared to unoptimized medium. Supplementation of microbial phytases (fungal and bacterial) resulted in improved bioavailability of nutritional components with the concomitant liberation of inorganic phosphorus, reducing sugar, soluble protein and amino acids, thus mitigating anti-nutritional properties of phytic acid [Jinender, J*.and Bijender, S.(Department of School Education, GHS Binjhol, Panipat), Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, DOI: /s z]. NPARR, 8(1), A systematic review on phenolic compounds in Passiflora plants: Exploring biodiversity for food, nutrition, and popular medicine Passiflora plants are strategic in the context of biodiversity for food and nutrition. We applied the procedures of a systematic review protocol to study the state of the art on identification of phenolic compounds from Passiflora plants. An automated literature search was conducted using six databases and a combination of seven keywords. All the analytical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods were included. The studies were classified according to their method of identification, phenolic classes, and method of extraction. In total, 8,592 abstracts were found, from which 122 studies were selected for complete reading and 82 were selected for further analysis. Techniques of extraction, evaluated parts of the plant and methods of identification were systematized. Studies with leaves were most conspicuous (54.4%), 34 species of Passiflora were evaluated and orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin were commonly found structures. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode array detector was the technique most applied, with which the same structures were identified all through the studies, although other unknown structures were detected, but not elucidated. The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry, which are more sensitive techniques, needs to be intensified, to identify other unconventional compounds detected in Passiflora, to enhance the comprehension of the bioactive compounds in these plants [Izabel, L G*., Marcela de, S B. C., Mariana, V. O. C.; Ana Maria, C., Lívia, L. O. P. (Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil), Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: / ]. NPARR, 8(1), Dietary patterns of early childhood and maternal socioeconomic status in a unique prospective sample from a randomized controlled trial of Prenatal DHA Supplementation Background: Dietary habits established in early childhood and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) are important, complex, interrelated factors that influence a child's growth and development. The aim of this study was to define the major dietary patterns in a cohort of young US children, construct a maternal SES index, and evaluate their associations. Methods: The diets of 190 children from a randomized, controlled trial
6 36 NAT PROD RESOUR REPOS, VOL. 8 NO. 1, 2017 of prenatal supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were recorded at 6-mo intervals from years by 24-h dietary recall. Hierarchical cluster analysis of age-adjusted, average daily intake of 24 food and beverage groups was used to categorize diet. Unrotated factor analysis generated an SES score from maternal race, ethnicity, age, education, and neighborhood income. Results: We identified two major dietary patterns: "Prudent" and "Western." The 85 (45%) children with a Prudent diet consumed more whole grains, fruit, yogurt and low-fat milk, green and non-starchy vegetables, and nuts and seeds. Conversely, those with a Western diet had greater intake of red meat, discretionary fat and condiments, sweet beverages, refined grains, French fries and potato chips, eggs, starchy vegetables, processed meats, chicken and seafood, and whole-fat milk. Compared to a Western diet, a Prudent diet was associated with one standard deviation higher maternal SES (95% CI: 0.80 to 1.30). Conclusions: We found two major dietary patterns of young US children and defined a single, continuous axis of maternal SES that differed strongly between groups. This is an important first step to investigate how child diet, SES, and prenatal DHA supplementation interact to influence health outcomes [Hidaka, B.H., Kerling, E.H., Thodosoff, J.M., Sullivan, D.K., Colombo, J., Carlson, S.E*. (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, MS 4013, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS, United States), BMC Pediatrics, 2016, 16(1),191].