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2 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 1969 President HUDSON MOORE, JR. First Vice President ALLAN R. PHIPPS Treasurer JOHN A. FERGUSON, JR. Second Vice President CHARLES J. BEISE Secretary RICHARD M. DAVIS BOARD OF TRUSTEES His Honor WILLIAM H. McNICHOLS, JR. Mayor, City and County of Denver Charles J. Beise William W. Grant, III W. Scott Moore Richard M. Davis Joseph G. Hodges Gilbert J. Mueller Bruce E. Dines Frank J. Johns Aksel Nielsen Cris Dobbins Arthur E. Johnson C. Neil Norgren John Evans Coloman Jonas* Robert T. Person John A. Ferguson, Jr. Frank A. Kemp Allan R. Phipps John A. Ferguson, III Roger D. Knight, Jr. Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. Charles C. Gates, Jr. Walter K. Koch J. Kernan Weckbaugh John G. Gates* Hudson Moore, Jr. COMMITTEES Executive-Hudson Moore, Jr., Allan R. Phipps, Charles J. Beise, John A. Ferguson, Jr., Richard M. Davis, Cris Dobbins, Charles C. Gates, Jr., Joseph G. Hodges, Gilbert J. Mueller, Aksel Nielsen. Auditorium-Allan R. Phipps, Alfred M. Bailey, John A. Ferguson, Jr., W. Scott Moore, and Aksel Nielsen. Building-Aksel Nielsen, Richard M. Davis, Charles C. Gates, Jr., Joseph G. Hodges, Frank J. Johns, Arthur E. Johnson, Frank A. Kemp, C. Neil Norgren, and Allan R. Phipps. Field-Charles J. Beise, Alfred M. Bailey, John A. Ferguson, III, and J. Kernan Weckbaugh. Finance-John A. Ferguson, Jr., Richard M. Davis, Roger D. Knight, Jr., Gilbert J. Mueller, and Allan R. Phipps. Insurance-John A. Ferguson, Jr., Joseph G. Hodges, and Walter K. Koch. Membership-John Evans, Cris Dobbins, and Joseph G. Hodges. Nominating-Cris Dobbins, John A. Ferguson, Jr., and Joseph G. Hodges. Planetarium-Charles C. Gates, Jr., Bruce E. Dines, and Aksel Nielsen. Publications-John A. Ferguson, Jr., Alfred M. Bailey, Cris Dobbins, Walter K. Koch, Gilbert J. Mueller, and Robert T. Person. Publicity-Frank J. Johns, Alfred M. Bailey, William W. Grant, III, Roger D. Knight, Jr., and Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. * Deceased

3 MUSEUM STAFF Alfred M. Bailey Director of the Museum Roy E. Coy Assistant Director Julia Smead Rose Administrative Assistant Elizabeth L. D'Arcy Secretary to the Director Margaret G. Bradley Office Secretary Margaret Denny Office Secretary Susan G. Raymond Curator, Department of Anthropology Division of American Ethnology Mary W. A. Crane Honorary Curator Christine A. Bonney Assistant E. H. Brunquist Honorary Curator, Department of Botany Martha C. Nelson Curator, Department of Education Dorothy K. Smith Assistant Curator Calvin D. Berglund Museum Coordinator, Denver Public Schools Florian A. Cajori Honorary Curator, Department of Geology Jack A. Murphy Curator, Department of Geology Arminta P. Neal Curator, Department of Graphic Design Robert L. Akerley Assistant Curator Catherine R. Van Skiver Assistant Fred G. Brandenburg Curator, Library and Publications Lena M. Fischer Assistant Librarian E. E. Ahlberg Accountant Donald M. Lunetta * Curator, Planetarium Mark B. Peterson Curator, Planetarium Karen A. Noel Assistant Curator, Planetarium Albert T. Minne Planetarium Engineer David L. Hartman Planetarium Assistant Marilyn H. Childs Planetarium Assistant Charles T. Crockett Curator, Department of Paleontology Robert J. Niedrach Curator, Department of Zoology Norma Lovelace Assistant Henry C. Wichers Curator, Division of Mammals Jack D. Putnam Chief Preparator, Birds and Mammals Ray Carrasco Assistant Preparator Robert R. Wright Curator, Department of Photography William H. Traher Staff Artist Donald L. Malick Staff Artist Sharon Riddle Wolverton Staff Artist Elsie K. Capella Clerk Beth E. Clark In Charge, Kachina Shop Margaret J. Witherspoon Assistant BUILDING OPERA non Jack Conley Building Superintendent Steven Suvada Museum Serviceman Hilmar A. Lund Museum Serviceman Robert E. Kelly Museum Serviceman Ben Lewandowski Custodian, Phipps Auditorium Lyle L Caldwell Byron H. Cliff Joseph L. Daddow Alvin E. Elliott * Resigned August 1 ATTENDANTS Donald P. Enright Jennie H. S. Hauck Harold H_ Hague James E. Rodgers Earl G_ Smith Lee R. Southerland John A_ Waldrep George J. Williams

4 4 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY The Board of Trustees Denver Museum of Natural History City Park Denver, Colorado January 1, 1970 Gentlemen: The past year has been one of great activity by staff members of all departments. With the completion of the two new wings, space has been made available not only for displays but also for the extensive study collections of the Departments of Ethnology, Geology, and Paleontology. Plans were drawn for case construction in the Boettcher Foundation Wing, and five staff members spent more than four months in Botswana, collecting specimens for the Helen and Arthur E. Johnson African Hall, as is noted elsewhere in this report. During the year the Trustees lost two longtime associates who served on the board for many years, Coloman Jonas from 1940 and John G. Gates since Their contributions to the welfare and growth of the Museum through the years were many, and their advice and counsel will be sorely missed. Accounts of their many contributions to their community are noted briefly later in this report. Mrs. Julia Smead Rose, Secretary to the Director from April 1935 to May 1941, and Administrative Assistant from 1959 to date, during which time she was responsible for the accounting of expenditures of the Museum's expansion program, has resigned. In addition to many other duties, for the past ten years she booked the speakers for the Museum's successful membership lecture series held annually in Phipps Auditorium. After more than thirty-three years as Director of the Museum Dr. Alfred M. Bailey has tendered his resignation to take effect at year's end. It was accepted by the Board of Trustees with deep regret and the Trustees unanimously adopted the resolution printed on the opposite page. Dr. Bailey served this Museum over a period of forty years: from as Curator of Birds and Mammals and from 1936 through 1969 as Director. Mr. Roy E. Coy, Assistant Director of the Museum since January 1968, has been appointed Director by the Board of Trustees. Mr. Coy has had wide experience in the museum field, having been Director of the fine St. Joseph (Missouri) Museum for twenty-seven years. He received his B.A. from the University of Iowa, majoring in Geology and Museum Methods, and this past summer headed the Museum's most successful expedition to Botswana. Sincerely yours, Hudson Moore, Jr. President Board of Trustees

5 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 5 DENVER MUSEUM ojnatural HISTORY - CITY PARK ~ DENVER, COLORADO HUCSON MOORE, JI'II., PRIESIDENT ALLAH R. PHIP,"S, VICE PRESIDENT CHARLES J. BEISE, 2NO VICE PRESIDENT JOHN A. FERGUSON, JR., TRI1:... SURER RICHARD M. OAVIIS, SECRETARY ALFREC M. BAILEV, '''RECTOR TELEPHONE: 32.Z-1808 AREA CODE 303 RESOLUTION for DR. ALFRED M. BAILEY On the occasion of the retirement of DR. ALFRED M. BAILEY as Director of the DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, the Board of Trustees of the Museum here records, with affection and respect, its deep appreciation and gratitude for Dr. Bailey's thirty-three years of devoted service to this institution. Under Dr. Bailey's energetic leadership and direction, the Denver Museum of Natural History has enjoyed an unprecedented growth and development in its fine staff, in the quality and extent of its physical facilities and in its financial resources, which have made the Museum one of the principal cultural assets of Denver and the Rocky Mountain West, and have brought to the Museum a world-wide recognition for excellence. The achievements of Dr. Bailey over this long period of dedicated service to the Museum reflect great credit upon him and upon all who have been associated with him in the building of this great institution. Unanimously adopted by the Board of Trustees at Denver, Colorado, November 13, Secretary

6 6 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY COLOMAN JONAS Coloman Jonas, Trustee of the Museum since 1940, died on January 23rd of this year at the age of 89. Coloman arrived in Colorado Springs in 1905 from his home in Budapest, Hungary, and three years later he and his brother John founded their firm of Jonas Brothers - which was to become the outstanding taxidermy and furrier business in America, their contacts and clients coming from all countries of the world. It was truly a business of brothers, for five of the six joined in the enterprise. Louis, the youngest and only surviving brother, became an internationally known sculptor, his life-like figures of animals ranging from one-tenth-of-an-inch scale models to life-sized dinosaurs. His studio is in Hudson, New York, and two small habitat groups of African animals recently modelled to scale by Louis will serve as memorials to Coloman and to former Trustee, the late Carl A. Norgren, when installed in the African Hall now underway. In addition to being a Trustee of the Denver Museum of Natural History, Col om on was on the Board of Directors of the Denver Zoological Foundation, was a charter member of the Denver Kiwanis Club and the Shikar-Safari Club, and a member of many civic organizations. Coloman continued active as Chairman of the Board of Jonas Brothers until his death, the firm located at 1937 Broadway, Denver, now being in the capable hands of Coloman's son Joe Jonas. He is survived by two daughters, Mrs. Esther J. Fitzgerald, Orange, California, and Mrs. Helen Johnson, Denver; a son, Joe, Denver; a brother, Louis Paul, Hudson, New York; two sisters, Mrs. Gizella Benslyn, Penkridge, Staffordshire, England, and Ethel Jonas, Budapest, Hungary; by seven grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren.


8 8 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY JOHN GIDEON GATES John G. Gates, Trustee of this Museum from 1954, Denver industrialist, philanthropist, and civic leader, died April 30, He was secretary-treasurer of the Gates Rubber Company which he and his late brother, Charles C. Gates, Sr., founded in 1911, the firm now being headed by Charles C. Gates, Jr. Born September 22, 1884, in Waterford, Michigan, Mr. Gates attended the University of Michigan, receiving a B. S. engineering mining from Michigan College of Mining and Technology of Houghton, Michigan, in Prior to obtaining his degree, he worked for two years in Nevada with his brother as a mining engineer. In 1911, Charles Gates bought the Colorado Tire and Leather Co., a Denver mail order firm specializing in leather covers used on automobile tires, and he was joined by John who became secretary-treasurer, a position he held throughout his life. The two brothers developed the vulcanized rubber and fabric V-belt to replace the inadequate rope belts used in the pulleys of automobile cooling systems. John Gates was active in community affairs; he was a member of the Denver Chamber of Commerce and served as vice-chairman of the Community Chest over a period of years and as president from 1932 to He was named chairman of the board of United Way, the first president of Junior Achievement, and was long active in the Colorado Manufacturers Association, later known as the Colorado Association of Commerce and Industry - which he served as president in He served as a director of the Mountain States Tel. and Tel. Co., was president of the Denver Lions Club and a member since 1913 of Union Lodge No.7, AF and AM, and also a member of Denver Chapter No.2 of Royal Arch Masons and Rocky Mountain Consistory. He received the Honorary degree of Doctor of Public Service from the University of Denver; recognition by the University of Colorado as the Outstanding Business Man of 1958; Man of the Year in 1963 by the American Medical Center; and the Brotherhood Award in 1964 by the National Conference of Christians and Jews. John Gates is survived by his widow and a nephew, Charles C. Gates, Jr. (a Trustee of this Museum), and four nieces, Mrs. James A. Woodruff and Mrs. Brown W. Cannon of Denver, Mrs. Alexander S. Atherton of Honolulu, and Mrs. Robert Hopper of Atherton, California.


10 10 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY HARVEY C. MARKMAN Harvey C. Markman, a staff member of the Museum from 1919 until his retirement in 1954, died March 11, Markman was born in Richmond, Indiana, August 17, 1881 and moved to Denver with his parents in As a lad he wandered along the banks of Cherry Creek, gaining first-hand knowledge of the animal and plant life of the area, and in the course of time he became acquainted with many of the naturalists and enrolled in the University of Colorado as a special student where, to quote him, he "crammed in all the biology courses which were offered to undergraduates, along with geology, philosophy, theory of education, and a few other subjects which appeared to be more or less pertinent to an understanding of nature." His first job was with the Colorado (now Mountain States) Telephone Co. Soon he became acquainted with Philip Reinheimer, skilled Museum preparator of fossil animals, an association which led to Markman's employment at the Museum in One of his first field trips was in 1920 with Reinheimer when they discovered the rich quarry of Oligocene mammals along Horsetail Creek in Weld County. The remarkable series of fossile secured from the deposit are now on display in the Fossil Mammal Hall of the Museum. Markman was a Charter and Honorary Life Member of the Colorado Mineral Society and an early member of the Society for Research on Meteorites. During the first years of service for tris Museum he was often in the field collecting geological and paleontological specimens and preparing them in the laboratory for display. One of the first actions of Director Bailey upon taking office in 1936 was to appoint Mr. Markman Curator of Geology and Paleontology, and during the next eighteen years until his retirement in 1954 because of ill health, he assembled an excellent series of study and exhibit collections of rocks, minerals and meteorites. A skilled writer, Harvey Markman was the author of two of the Museum's publications: Fossils and Fossil Mammals, well illustrated with photographs of specimens from the Museum exhibits. Surviving is a brother, Stanley Markman, of La Habra, California.

11 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 11 MAR Y CHILTON GRAY Mary Chilton Gray, who was an artist on the Museum staff from 1943 to 1962, died on November 9, 1969 after a long illness. She came to the Museum as a portrait painter and local colorist, having had a studio in Taos, New Mexico, for more than a decade, but her Museum work took her far from her specialty. Her versatility met the challenge, resulting in a significant contribution to five of the Museum's exhibit halls. She painted the murals on the four walls of the Fossil Mammal Hall above the exhibits of fossil skeletons. By combining sound scientific research with creative imagination her murals, some as much as forty feet in length, depict a multitude of prehistoric animals as they appeared in real life; their educational value was enhanced by using horses and camels to illustrate evolution in size from the Eocene Age to the Pleistocene, and forms of the rhinoceros for changes of size from the Oligocene to the Pliocene. On either side of the doorway into the Dinosaur Hall Miss Gray painted two huge floor-to-ceiling murals of dinosaurs in their natural habitat. She contributed two backgrounds for the ecological habitats of game mammals in the Charles Boettcher Colorado Hall: the scene of the Spanish Peaks for the Western White-tailed Deer Group and the prairie and buttes of the northeast corner of the state in Weld County for the American Antelope Group. She created two ten-fa at-square pictorial maps to introduce the Old World Hall, in preparation, and the Hall of Prehistoric People of the Americas. For this latter hall the painting of twenty-two murals above the four alcoves of exhibit cases was projected, and Miss Gray was able to complete twenty before ill health forced her to stop work. The scenes depicted range from Folsom Man through the Inca and Mayan civilizations to prehistoric Indians of the U.S. in both the East and West. Her fine color sense, her choice of design panels, the dramatic interest of the human scenes depicted have greatly enhanced the beauty of the Hall. The Museum staff is deeply appreciative of Miss Gray's contribution of many years. Her paintings on display will be of educational value to Denver citizens, young and old, for generations to come. li I fi!

12 PHIPPS AUDITORIUM ELIZABETH L. D'ARCY, Coordinator MARGARET DENNY, Memberships The series of illustrated lectures is the thirty-first to be held in Phipps Auditorium. All programs are being presented in person by world travelers, naturalists, and photographers. Although remuneration of speakers has increased by ten per cent, memberships remain the same: Regular Membership for two seats $18.00; Special Membership for two seats $30.00 (privilege of attending any of the three different hours the programs are presented); Contributing Membership for two seats $30.00 ($12.00 above regular membership a charitable contribution). All seats are reserved for members until five minutes before each performance at 2:00 and 4:30 P.M. Sunday, 7:30 P.M. Monday; thereafter the general public is welcome to fill the seats of absent members to the capacity of the auditorium. The programs are as follows: Nov. 2-3 Nov Arizona through the Seasons Alfred M. Bailey Thailand Kenneth Armstrong Nov Red Cbina Jens Bjerre Nov Incomparable Greece John D. Craig Nov. 30/Dec. 1 Wings to Puerto Rico James Metcalf Dec. 7-8 Scotland and Wales Ed Lark Dec Jan. 4-5 Czechoslovakia and the Ukraine Clay Francisco Warsaw Today Spence Crilly Jan Portraits of Hawaii Curtis Nagel Jan Japan-as Japan sees it Ken Wolfgang Jan Feb. 1-2 The Canadian West Don Cooper Railroads are Fun Thayer Soule Feb. 8-9 Feb Fiji, Western Samoa, and Tonga Nicol Smith Ceylon Ralph Gerstle Feb Mar. 1-2 Turkey - Yesterday's Tomorrow Neil Douglas Exploring India Fran William Hall Mar. 8-9 Mar The Glories of New Zealand Kenneth Richter A Journey tl1rough Spain Theodore Bumiller Mar Mar Mexico south into Guatemala Philip Walker Germany - Old and New Ray Green The Museum is sponsoring for the twenty-seventh season the Audubon Wildlife Series, free to the public. The illustrated r.rograms given by outstanding naturalists and photographers at 7: 30 P.M., customarily on Friday evenings so that families may conveniently attend, are as follows: Friday, Sept. 26 The Real Yellowstone Fran William Hall Thursday, Dec. 18 Our Unique Water Wilderness - The Everglades William A. Anderson Friday, Jan. 16 Manitoba Memories Roy E. Coy Friday, Feb. 6 Journey in Time (Grand Canyon) Robert W. Davison Friday, March 6 The Alpine Tundra H. Charles Laun Friday, March 20 Ecuador's Enchanted Isles Alfred M. Bailey Attendance during the year at the Museum sponsored travel lecture Series averaged 2500 each week (50000) with an additional 700 for each of the six Wildlife Programs for a total attendance of 54_200 men, women, and children for the season.

13 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 13 WEST AUDITORIUM The completion of the west auditorium, seating two hundred and fifty people, has added greatly to the facilities of the Museum. With Phipps Auditorium seating 962, a new banquet hall on the third floor of the Northwest Wing with a capacity of , the new small auditorium with its ground floor entrance on the west (next to front entrance to the Museum), a study room in the "Bird Hall", and additional study areas adjacent to the Charles C. Gates Planetarium, the Museum is in a position to give service to many organizations. As an example, the Olympic Committee, interested in bringing the Winter Olympic games to Denver in 1976, held a banquet in the lobby of the Planetarium, honoring overseas guests, and the staff of the Parks and Recreation Department held its annual Christmas party in the new banquet hall. STAFF CHANGES Several staff changes occurred during the year. Susan G. Raymond has been appointed Curator of Anthropology, Jack A. Murphy, Curator of Geology, Martha C. Nelson, Curator of the Department of Education, with Dorothy K. Smith, Assistant Curator, Robert Akerley was promoted to Assistant Curator of the Department of Graphic Design and Catherine R. Van Skiver as an assistant. Mark B. Peterson, formerly Assistant Curator in the Charles C. Gates Planetarium, replaced Curator Donald M. Lunetta who resigned in August, and Karen Noel returned to the Museum as Assistant Curator. The Department of Paleontology was reactivated with the appointment of Charles T. Crockett as Curator, and Roy E. Coy, who has served as Assistant Director for the past two years, was named Director by the Board of Trustees to take effect January 1, 1970 upon the retirement of Director Alfred M. Bailey. Julia Smead Rose resigned at year's end after fifteen years of service ( ; ). She was one of three who were members of the staff at the time of Director Bailey's appointment in 1936, the others being Dr. Robert J. Niedrach and Fred G. Brandenburg. Julia Smead became Secretary to the Director of the Denver Museum of Natural History in April 1935, resigning in May 194 J, to go with the U.S. Army Engineers in the Caribbean area, serving in the Engineering Division in San Juan. Puerto Rico, in French Guiana, and in Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.!., for a period of three and a half years. In August, 1959, after an absence of eighteen years, which included marriage and children, Julia Smead Rose returned to the Denver Museum as Administrative Assistant. She was responsible for maintaining financial records on the three-million-dollar expansion program of the last four years, as well as continuing her other duties, such as scheduling speakers for the Museum's winter lecture series; keeping track of the capital appropriations from the City and County of Denver for building improvements and equipment; submitting special reports on funds invested, historical data required, computing and submitting various tax returns and reports. She served the Museum well during the strategic years of growth.

14 14 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY SOME THOUGHTS ON RETIREMENT ALFRED M. BAILEY, Director L.o.oking back thr.ough the years as a naturalist, starting as a y.oungster m.ore than six decades ag.o, with fifty-f.our c.ontinu.ous years.of museum w.ork behind me, p.ossibly I may be excused f.or presenting the f.oll.owing brief resume.of my activities. I realize how f.ortunate I have been t.o c.ontinue a lifetime.of empl.oyment far l.onger than is usual in educati.on fields. I recall nights the Iowa River in 1910 with Halley's C.omet bright in the darkness overhead during high sch.ool days, and as an ardent y.oung taxidermist my friendship with Dr. Homer R. Dill, the Director of the fine University.of Iowa Museum. It was natural that I sh.ould study museum meth.ods under his directi.on when I attended c.ollege, and he sent me during my year.on my first extensive field trip - a U. S. Bi.ol.ogical Survey expediti.on t.o little Laysan Island, eight hundred miles n.orthwest.of H.on.olulu in the Leeward Chain.of the Hawaiian Islands - t.o aid in the eliminati.on.of rabbits which were destroying the vegetation. The leader.of the party.of f.our was C.omm.od.ore G. R. Salisbury and I was the camp c.o.ok - and I venture that in the hist.ory.of camp c.o.oks I am wh.o had a C.omm.od.ore.of the U. S. Navy t.o split kindling w.o.od f.or him each morning. Three m.onths were spent.on that is.olated little island, tw.o miles wide, where I became acquainted with the thousands.of seabirds - induding tw.o species.of albatr.osses, and the five species.of endemic birds f.or which the island was n.oted: flightless rails, red h.oneyeaters, millerbirds, finches, and teal. I c.ollected some.of the unique birds - three species n.ow extinct - and fifty years later d.onated specimens t.o this Museum which are n.ow installed in the beautiful Laysan Island display. On graduating c.ollege in 1916, I displayed a remarkable str.oke.of genius in c.onvincing Muriel Eggenberg - in my estimati.on the prettiest girl.on the campus - t.o share her life with me. That she als.o was interested in museum and field :w.ork is just further proof.of my f.oresight. We lived in New Orleans for three years, my first p.ositi.on being Curat.or.of Birds and Mammals in the L.ouisiana State Museum ; we lived in Juneau, Alaska f.or tw.o years where I was the first representative of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ( ); and f.or six years based in Denver ( ) as Curat.or.of Birds and Mammals with this Museum, which included sixteen m.onths.of field work in Arctic Alaska before the day.of radi.o and airplane in that part.of the w.orld, making a 750-mile d.ogsled j.ourney from n.orthernm.ost Alaska t.o westernmost, and w.orking in the spring with Eskimos on Bering Strait and eastern Siberia. Seven large groups.of birds and mammals c.ollected on the expedition are on display. For a year I was a staff member.of the Field Museum, taking a n.otable 2000-mile muleback j.ourney through Abyssinia ( ), and on my return spent the next ten years in Chicag.o as Director of the Chicago Academy of Sciences ( ).

15 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 15 In 1936 I returned to Denver as Director of the Denver Museum of Natural History, continuing in that capacity for thirtyfour years until retirement at the end of It was my privilege to become Director during a time of transition from old methods when displays were dependent upon light through windows to the new when all exhibits were illuminated by electricity. The windows were closed, electric lighting was made available, and all old habitat groups were reinstalled in new cases with curved and domed backgrounds. Many new halls were added during the ensuing years - the first installation being the ecological groups in the Walter C. Mead Hall, followed by the displays in the Joseph Standley Hall of large mammals and birds collected on my sixteen-month expedition to Arctic Alaska. Four additions were made to the building during my tenure: beautiful Phipps Auditorium in 1940; a west central structure in 1954, and just completed in 1968, the Boettcher Foundation Wing and the Northwest Wing, the construction through the years being financed by generous grants from Denver Foundations and private citizens, and help from City appropriations. The fine Charles C. Gates Planetarium has been installed on the ground floor of the Boettcher Foundation Wing, and case construction for the Helen and Arthur E. Johnson African Hall on the top floor is under contract. Field work being the life blood of natural history museums, staff members of the Denver Museum have collected specimens on six continents and on islands of the Pacific - groups being secured in areas not worked by other Museums. Notable are the displays from Australia, Subantarctic New Zealand, and South America, and as a result of field work during the past summer in Botswana specimens have been collected for a fine African Hall. It seemed a fitting climax to my field work through the years to have traveled this past summer with Trustee Charles Beise to Salisbury, Rhodesia, to meet our friend Reay H. N. Smithers, Director of the three fine Rhodesian Museums. He gave us a 2500-mile conducted tour, via four-wheel-drive trucks with three African helpers, across western Rhodesia to visit Victoria Falls and then to join the Museum's field party along the Savuti River in northwestern Botswana where we saw a cross section of the interesting game animals and birds of the area. As I crawled out of my sleeping bag the last morning of the trip - on the edge of the Kalahari Desert - I realized it was probably the last time I would do extensive field work. Few Museum Directors have been so fortunate as to work with a staff and with a Board of Trustees unexcelled elsewhere, and I wish to express my appreciation to all my associates of the years past and my personal friends of the City Administration. I! i' I. j ;r

16 16 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY SUSAN GRANT RAYMOND, Curator Division of American Ethnology MARY W. A. CRANE, Honorary Curator CHRISTINE A. BONNEY, Assistant The Department of Anthropology was established in mid-1969 and one of its main activities has been resumption of work on the Ancient Cultures of the Old World Hall. Work had been temporarily postponed in order to devote full time to the installation of the Introauctory Exhibit of the Mary W. A. and Francis V. Crane American Indian Collection (see Graphic Design report for full details). Upon opening of the latter and formation of the Anthropology Department, Mrs. Raymond assumed responsibility for label wriling and further planning of exhibits for Ancient Cultures Hall. Considerable time has been spent on this project which will be completed in the coming year. The staff is indebted to Mr. Reed Neal of Rochester, N. Y. for contributing radiographs to be used in the physical evolution case, and to Sergeant James Grady of Lowry Air Force Base for the loan of his Paleolithic artifacts. Mrs. Thomas Starzl and Mrs. Bruce Maupin have continued their research on the Classical World. Mrs. Raymond made several slide presentations and talks to groups that included the Cherokee Trails Chapter of the Wyoming Archaeological Society, The Kent School, Senior Girl Scout Troop No. 1040, and several sections of Cherry Creek Jr. High School social studies classes. As many people visit or write the Museum seeking information or identification of specimens, considerable time was spent satisfying their queries. Collections and records were made available to qualified students. Andrian Anderson and Linda Novak, graduate anthropology students from the University of Colorado, used the Department's resources for projects on Early Man. Mrs. Christine Bonney, formerly with the Crane.Foundation at Marathon, Florida, has accessioned the materials received from Mrs. Crane during the year and has worked diligently on the card catalogue and needed paperwork. Progress has been made toward completion of the study area designed for the Crane Collection. Robert Akerley, assisted by Cathi Van Skiver and Joe Craighead, built shelves on the second tier of the study room; peg-board panels were designed and built for storage of the masks, after cleaning and wrapping in plastic by the volunteer help of Mrs. Diane Vigil. Mr. Conley and assistants built and delivered nine cabinets of the thirty planned for storage materials, and surplus metal card file cabinets were received from the Denver Police Department which will be useful in providing storage for small objects of the Crane Collection, the unpacking of J ndian items remaining in cartons being contingent upon completion of storage facilities. Baskets in the Crane Collection have received the expert attention of Mrs. Laurence Herold. well known for her work on

17 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 17 American Indian basketry. She has been sorting baskets to facilitate their storage, checking identifications, and contributing data on pieces previously of questionable status. By identifying bird feathers on rare Porno feather baskets, Dr. Niedrach has assisted Mrs. Herold in her analysis. Mrs. Bruce Dines, also a volunteer, has been coordinating specimen slides with the appropriate catalogue cards in the Collection; she also applied her time and talents to writing labels for the Pre-Columbian case in the Introductory Exhibit. Volunteer Christine Robinson has been cleaning Plains Indian saddles and intends to study them for a school research project. The staff is indebted to the Thomas M. and Sarah J. Workman family for the generous donation of fifty Eskimo items, some of which they personally collected on St. Lawrence Island. Included are toys, clothing, jewelry, carved ivory, and hunting equipment - all of which will greatly enhance the scope of the Museum's material on Eskimo culture. Mrs. Florence Neece of Empire, Colorado, and her daughter Mrs. Walter Maulis of Denver have given the Museum historic Indian materials originally collected by Mrs. Lula Middleton who, in 1954, presented the Museum with a fine collection of seventytwo baskets. The gift of Mrs. Neece and Mrs. Maulis is intended to supplement the Lula Middleton contribution. The members of the staff are most appreciative of Mr. Walter E. Klein's gift of a Navajo doll from Shiprock, New Mexico, which has been credited to Elizabeth Baldwin Klein. Thanks are due to Joseph B. Garthan for his gift of artifacts from Pennsylvania, to Charles T. Crockett for an Eskimo bone knife, to Mr. and Mrs. Jack Pierson of Louisiana for a Mexican doll, and to Mrs. Alma Thomas for a number of historic Plains Indian horse accessories. An anonymous missionary gave the Museum some material from Mozambique, Mrs. Katherine Stine donated pre-columbian figurines and other pottery items collected by her late son, and Mr. Fred A. Rosenstock gave the Museum a Bodmer reproduction of "The Big Soldier". Mr. Sigmund Herzstein donated several projectile points as well as a bison scapula with a point imbedded in it. Mr. Clinton B. Thomas has given the Museum some Brazilian material which includes a most interesting manioc squeezer. Through the interest of Colonel E. M. Altfather, Colonel Carroll DeForest Buck has donated twenty-two Philippine textiles which he collected in the islands in the early 1900's. Also from the Philippines, a Bontoc Jgarot helmet has been given by Mrs. John R. Stryker. In the early 1800's, John Hester (a tea merchant) collected ethnological materials from New Zealand and gave them to his niece. Marguerite Hester, who presented them to her cousin, Mrs. Ardath Leuty, a Museum staff member, who in turn donated the materials to the department. Mrs. J. S. Y. Ivins of Grassy Key, Florida, presented the Museum with fifteen American Indian artifacts in memory of her late husband, Judge James Sterling Yard Ivins. These items, formerly on loan to the Crane Collection while it comprised the

18 18 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Southeast Museum of the American Indian, mainly include historic Sioux materials such as a buckskin dress with beaded yoke, a boy's suit, beaded moccasins and leggings. Other historic materials as well as two prehistoric Peruvian pots were given by Mrs. Ivins. For the Crane Foundation's gift of 1969, the Trustees of the Museum are profoundly grateful. This gift includes numerous American Indian articles of wide variety and high quality: South American pottery and clothing, Mexican and Central American artifacts, photographs, and documents, as well as many Eskimo and Northwest Coast materials and a large number of California baskets. Southwestern pottery, clothing, Navajo rugs, Kachinas, and baskets are part of this very generous gift. From the Southeast, baskets, a blowgun, Caddo and Caloosa articles have been included, and from the Northeast - baskets, gambling items and bags. A large number of other artifacts, a painting of "Red Cloud", and a New Guinea shield have also been given. The staff is eager to begin work on the permanent Mary W. A. and Francis V. Crane Hall where a larger number of these items, so significant to American past and present, will be available to the public and to students. It is impossible for the staff of the Museum, in fact for the people of Denver. to thank adequately the Crane Foundation and Mrs. Mary W. A. Crane for so vastly expanding the cultural resources of this area. DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY E. H. BRUNQUIST, Honorary Curator High priority has been given to visits to plains, foothills and mountains for plant identification and for discussion of basic features of plant evolution. physiology and ecology. Such trips are publicized and open to the public; they have been frequently conducted on alternate Wednesdays, beginning in April. Roadside botanizing has been the rule, with occasional longer walks. Staff memb~rs of the Denver Botanic Gardens have shared in the responsibility and sponsorship of this program. The Museum acknowledges responsibility for adding its bit to arousing widespread public appreciation of the fact that organism and environment are inseparable, so that prevention of air and water pollutions is cailed for as a matter of self-interest as well as one of good sportsmanship. The Curator has continued to be available for advice regarding Museum exhibits which include plants. He has also made contributions to plant-life programs of schools in counties adjacent to Denver. and is available for talks and demonstrations for lowvision or blind youngsters. The Department of Botany continues the prncess of building up a colored-slide library of wild and cultivated plants; contributions are solicited.

19 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 19 DEPAR TMENT OF GEOLOGY FLORIAN A. CAJORI, Honorary Curator JACK A. MURPHY, Curator During the past twelve months the staff of the Geology Department completed renovating the mineral exhibits in the first alcove of the mineral hall. This project, under the direction of Dr. Florian Cajori, included cleaning, re-labeling, and exhibiting some 500 fine mineral specimens. The curators are grateful to Miss Armint a Neal and Mr. Robert Akerley of the Graphic Design Department for re-modeling the seven wall cases in the hall, and other assistance given, and thanks to Mrs. Catherine Van Skiver for excellent work preparing the labels for the specimens. The mineral exhibits had not received a complete cleaning and relabeling since the hall was first opened in Previously the wall exhibits, which are arranged in order according to Dana's System of Mineral Classification, contained one continuous panel with no physical break between mineral classes. Now each case has several freshly painted panels that better display the fine large specimens and differentiate the mineral classes. Besides the renovation of the wall exhibits much time has been spent re-arranging and cleaning the Systematic Mineral Study Series which comprises forty floor display cases. They have been cleaned and re-iabeled, new backgrounds have been added to display the minerals better, and many new specimens have been added. Previously the Economic Minerals Series filled sixteen floor cases, and Dr. Cajori and Mr. Murphy removed duplicate materials, gaining eight cases to expand the systematic study collection and to add special exhibits. Two of these special exhibits are educational in nature and apply to field tests and streak and luster of minerals. Two others are of particular interest to visitors, one showing beautiful copper carbonate, azurite and malachite specimens from Bisbee, Arizona, which were donated by William Church in 1912; the other exhibiting recently acquired specimens, mainly those donated or purchased in Donations to the Museum are listed at the end of this Annual Report. The renovation of the mineral exhibits has made a great improvement in the appearance of the mineral hall, which includes not only the common minerals of general interest to the visitor, but also varieties within a species showing differences due to locality. New specimens are added when available to present the best and most interesting mineral specimens. In the future Messrs. Cajori and Murphy plan a major program of completely redesigning and building new exhibits with a continuous educational theme and to add many interpretive displays on the various aspects of mineralogy and geology. Much of the work in the Geology Department is carried on behind the scenes and is not realized by visitors. It is an essential part of the departmental program, including such activities as constant attention to the mineral reference collection and the geology

20 20 DENVER MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY library, the identification, classification, and cataloging of specimens that are being removed from storage plus newly acquired specimens. As always the curators are available to answer questions and identify specimens for visitors. Thanks to Dr. Cajori's constant attention to the details, the department has achieved more progress in the past year than previously had been anticipated. Especially important has been the complete inventory of all minerals and the start of a new card index reference system. The curators are grateful for the volunteer assistance of Mrs. Andrew Anderson who has helped in the past few months with the mineral inventory, cleaning of the gem stone exhibit, and the cataloging of the Education Department's rock and mineral collection. Mrs. Anderson will be working in the future typing the mineral index cards. In June of 1969 Dr. Cajori at his own expense attended the American Federation of Mineral Societies Mineral Show in Salt Lake City, Utah. He obtained several outstanding new specimens that add to the variety and quality of our collections and exhibit material. During the summer months he visited the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and conferred with curators on department procedures. Curator Murphy, also at his own expense, visited the Field Museum of Natural History, the Chicago Academy of Sciences, Royal Ontario Museum, American Museum of Natural History, the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, the Smithsonian Institute, the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, and the Natural Science Museum in Cleveland. He was priviledged to meet many of the Directors and members of the staff of the above fine museums. Among the acquisitions obtained by purchase the last year are several very fine specimens which should be mentioned. Notable are the minerals acquired by Dr. Cajori at Salt Lake City, including: brazilianite, Brazil; mimetite, South West Africa; adamite, Mexico; siderocalcite, Iowa; and a quartz cast after fluorite, from Ouray, Colorado. Other fine specimens purchased include: a columbite crystal, Brazil; tarnowitzite from South West Africa; a beautiful wolframite crystal from Panasquera, Portugal; and amazonite and a smoky quartz specimen from the Pikes Peak region, Colorado. Tre curators are particularly grateful to donors who add to the collection for present prices of minerals are so high that their ability to acquire new specimens by purchase is very limited. METEORITES One of the Department's current projects is the re-organization of the meteorite collection. The bulk of this material has been in storage for several years, and the old method of cataloging the meteorites with the minerals always has caused confusion. The extensive task of re-cataloging and classifying over 500 individual specimens (representing about 140 falls) into a separate catalog and card index system is now under way, and the curators would like to thank Mrs. William Snare for h~r volunteer assistance in helping with the preliminary inventory and compiling the needed list of names and accession numbers of specimens.

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