1 Agricultural Catastrophic Insurance for Poor Farmers in Perú Lourdes del Carpio Manager, Agricultural Insurance p g, g Rio de Janeiro, November 2011
2 La Positiva Seguros Who we are? La Positiva Seguros is an insurance company with more than 73 years of experience in the insurance market with more than 3 000,000 insured clients in Perú.
3 La Positiva Seguros Innovating La Positiva Seguros : Leads in Agricultural Insurance. Developed the fisrt area based yield insurance for cotton. Pioneer selling life microinsurance to farmers in Perú. Developed the first index insurance based on sea surface temperature ( Index Insurance against El Niño). Insures cropsof more than 219,000 poor farmers.
4 International Presence In Latin America Perú La Positiva Seguros y Reaseguros La Positiva Vida Bolivia Alianza Seguros Generales Alianza Vida Panamá: Interoceánica de Seguros S.A. Nicaragua Compañía de Seguros América
5 National Presence In Perú 23 Offices Arequipa Cajamarca Chiclayo Chimbote Cusco Lima San Isidro Lince Miraflores Los Olivos San Juan de Lurigancho Callao Trujillo Huancayo Ica Iquitos Ilo Juliaca Piura Pucallpa Tacna
6 Insurance Market Share MAPFRE 10,7% INTERSEGUR O 6,7% INVITA 7,6% OTROS 4,0% RIMAC 33,9% LA POSITIVA 12,1% 1% PACÍFICO 25,0% La Positiva Seguros is third in the Peruvian Insurance Market Fuente: SBS a Julio 2011
7 Agricultural Sector New Market GDP: 8% Rural Poverty: 60,3 % Urban Poverty: 21,1%
8 Agricultural Sector New Market New Insurance Products Agroexportation 90,000 Has. Extensive Agriculture 1. 7 Millones Has. Internal commerce Subsistence Agriculture 2 Millones de Has. Minifundio Self-consumption Commercial Agricultural Insurance Index Insurance against El Niño No subsidy Sales channel: Direct, banks, farmer s orgranization. Commercial Agricultural Insurance Index Insurance against El Niño No subsidy Sales channel: Banks, Microfinance institutions, farmer s organization s Catastrhophic Agricultural Insurance 100% government subsidy Net premiums: 2009 USD 6.1 Millones 2010 USD 6.9 Millones Sales Channel: Direct to Regional Governments
9 Insurance for the poor needs public private partnership
10 Challenges to sell agricultural insurance to small farmers. Demand Side 1. Smallholders Between 3-10 Ha Less than 3 Ha Between Ha More than 50 Ha
11 2. No insurance culture in rural areas. High costs to implement an educational campaign. Public and private sector could invest on insurance education. Farmers educational level: 2009 / No education / Incomplete Primary / Completed Primary / Completed Secondary / Superior
12 Supply Side 1. High transactionti costs highh insurance premium rates. t - Government needs to improve the information quality (yields, cost of production and crop losses due to climate). Government could subsidize in part or all the premium cost. Private sector could research mechanisms to reduce cost (for example can save on loss ajustment with weather index based insurance). 2. Limited insurance distribution channels for selling agricultural insurance. - Insurance companies could agree with governement to use some organizations or public programs as distribution channels.
13 Public Sector in Latin America (LA) Susbsidizes Agricultural Insurance Evolución del Financiamiento del Seguro Agropecuario (millones de US$) Sector Privado 36% 40% 35% Sector Publico Sector Publico/Primas 26% 25% 30% 25% % 20% 20% 14% % % 100 5% 0 0% Public Sector Subsidy in LA =US$ 260MM. Brasil y México concentrates 90% of public sector subsidies in LA. Source:Ramiro Iturrioz,, Senior Agriculture Insurance Specialist The World Bank 13
14 Subsidies in Spain Evolution of subsidies an insured sums Subsidies Insured Sum Subsidies Years Millions of Euros Source: Insured Sum
15 Subsidy in México Assigned and Implemented Budget Implemented Resources (Million of Dollars) FederalDirect support Direct Total support Federal Insurance Total Insurance
16 The poor are always the most affected by natural disasters, sometimes becoming poorer.
17 Rural population is more affected by natural disasters than urban population Graphic N 17: Population perceives that was affected by natural disasters during the period Rural Urban
18 Thepooraffected more by disasters between Extremely poor Poor Not poor
19 How people respond to natural disasters impact Sold their belongings g Received aid from government Obtained loans Spent their savings or capital Found another job Diminished consumption Didn t do anything
20 Disasters economic impact from the households perspective Income diminishes Loss of belongings g Income diminishes and loss of belongings None
21 Economic losses due to El Niño by sectors Loss 7 % of GDP Loss 5 % of GDP Social sector Productive Sector Infrastructure t Social sector Productive Sector Infrastructure t Sectores sociales Sectores productivos Infraestructura Sectores sociales Sectores productivos Infraestructura Fuente: Estimaciones de la CAF, sobre la base de la cifras de CEPAL Fuente: Programa Desarrollo Rural Sostenible - PDRS
22 Rain registered in Juli District Puno Region (litro/m2)- Period january-march Rain 600 accumulated in 500 the period january 400 march 2011 is 300 the highest level in the last years Agriculture calendar years
23 Region of Puno 2010 and 2011 Damaged Crops Hale Flood Flood
24 When there is a natural disaster Government s aid to poor usually reaches them late or the poor doesn t get the aid
25 Government Aid for Natural Disasters ( ) 2008) Variable Received Government Aid (%) Extremely poor 4.07 Poor 3.12 Not Poor 3.89 The not poor received more government aid than the poor.
26 Pending reconstruction of cities after earthquatke The 2007 Peru earthquake was an earthquake measuring 8.0 richter scale that hit the central coast of Perú on Wednesday, August 15, people dead; 1,366 wounded; 58,581 houses destroyed; 13,585 houses affected; 103 hospitals affected; 14 hospitals destroyed. Cities affected have been reconstructed yet. The Comptroller General's Office detected the public entities involved in thereconstruction have comitted several irregularities (crimes of misappropriation, embezzlement, incompatible negotiation).
27 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance What is the agricultural catastrophic insurance? Protects crops in areas cultivated by poor farmers. The guaranteed yield is 40% of the average yield in the insured area.
28 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Institutional Framework Government: Pays 100% of the premium. There is a subsidy fund Fondo de Garantía del Campo y del Seguro Agropecuario. The FundCouncil Members: Representatives from Ministry Agriculture and from the Ministries Council. of Economy, Define, insured areas, premium rates, risks covered.
29 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Regional Governments Decides what crops to insure and is the policy holder. La Positiva Seguros Retains part of the risk and the other part is transferred to a reinsurer. Pays indemnization if crops are loss due to a catastrophic weather event.
30 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Characteristics: Massive: Insures all the farmers on the areas selected y the Ministryof Agriculture. Catastrophic: Indemnization occurs when the crop yield is in the area insuredis bl below 40% of the average historici yield. ild
31 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Covered risks: Drought, low temperature, hail, high temperatures, humidity excess, flooding, freezing, strong winds, plagues, diseases. Sum insured: Between 100 y 200 dollars per hectare.
32 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Loss Adjustment 11points randomly selected to do loss adjustment. Loss adjusment is not done parcel by parcel. If the average of loss in the 11 points is below the 60% of the average historic yield in the area insured, La Positiva will need to insure to all the farmers that have crops in the area insured.
33 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Siniestrality Premiums/Indemnizations REGIÒN PRIMAS NETAS ($) SUMA ASEGURADA ($) INDEMNIZACIONES ($) INDICE DE SINIESTRALIDAD AYACUCHO 1,932, ,804, ,114, % CAJAMARCA 1,393, ,952, % HUANUCO 1,418, ,024, , % PASCO 394, ,798, , % PUNO 1,807, ,772, ,134, % Total 6,946, ,353, ,666, %
34 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Indemnizations REGIÓN INDEMNIZACIONES CAMPAÑA INDEMNIZACIONES CAMPAÑA AYACUCHO 1,025, ,114, CAJAMARCA HUÁNUCO 587, , PASCO , PUNO 820, ,134, TOTAL ($) 2,433, ,666,320.86
35 Catastrophic Agricultural Insurance Poor Farmers that Received Indemnization Región Puno 9,376 29,600 Ayacucho 7,200 30,300 Huánuco , ,200 Pasco 3,900 Total 24,550 61,100
36 Conclusions 1. Agricultural insurance for the poor is only possible is the Government subsidizes part or all the premium. 3. Insurance companies need to do research to find the best agricultural insurance schemes that will lower transaction costs and the premium rate. 4. Private public partnership p facilitates the poor to have access to agricultural insurance. 5. Inurance han help poor farmers not to become poorer.