pathfinder edition NGPathfinder.org March 2012 Got Poison? TEACHER S GUIDE

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1 pathfinder edition NGPathfinder.org March 2012 Got Poison? TEHER S GUIDE

2 Dear Educator: Imagine not just reading about a sea snail that devours fish whole, but watching it in dramatic action. Imagine hearing a National Geographic Explorer tell in his own voice why he s passionate about severe weather. Now you can. This month, I am so excited to announce our new interactive editions. In these robust, engaging editions, students don t just read an article they experience it. hock full of videos, audio, photographs, and interactive graphics, the interactive editions add a new level of engagement to the issue. The interactive editions are accessible on mobile devices to support your 21st entury lassroom. March 2012 Standards in this Issue Got Poison? (Teacher s Guide pages T1-T8) nimals have body systems, structures, and functions that help them survive. nimals interact with other living things in their environment. In the Strike Zone (Teacher s Guide pages T9-T17) Scientists observe the patterns of weather to make predictions about future weather events. Energy can change from one form to another, including to light, sound, and heat. Starting in March, I invite you to check out the free sample of this month s issue at NGSP.com, then place your order for the school year. I know you ll be just as excited as we are! Shelby linsky Digital and urriculum Editor, National Geographic Explorer Super Survivors (Teacher s Guide pages T18-T25) Plants have basic needs that must be met for survival. Plants have organ systems, structures, and functions that help them survive. Plants interact with other living things in their environment. Look for these icons throughout the lesson: e- Interactive web Whiteboard Lesson edition (see nationalgeographicexplorer) Look for parts of this activity in the free IW lesson. e- edition e- edition web web Projectable Edition (see ngpathfinder.org) Use the projectable edition of this issue to enhance this activity. Website (see ngpathfinder.org) This activity refers to a resource on the website. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder March 2012

3 Got Poison? pages 2-3 pages 4-5 Summary Many animals use toxins poisonous substances in poison and venom to survive. In some cases, they use it to kill prey. In others, the poisons help them defend themselves. nimals deliver poisons in several ways: biting with fangs, injecting with stingers or spikes, spitting, or oozing poison from their skin. Predators mentioned in this article that use venom to hunt prey include the viper, the scorpion, the cone snail, the Komodo dragon, and the blue-ringed octopus. nimals mentioned in this article that use poisons or venom for protection include the dart frog, the slow loris, and the lionfish. pages 6-7 pages 8-9 Learning Objectives Students will: understand that animals have adaptations that help them survive; understand that animals use poisons to protect themselves and to hunt prey; summarize to aid comprehension; use alliteration in writing. heck out the new interactive edition for: an expanded viper diagram a video of a cone snail devouring a fish expanded Wild Facts Materials Needed a pack of index cards (white and multiple colors) a wall map of the world Resources Learn more about toxins: and more! See NGSP.com. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T1 March 2012

4 Got Poison? ackground Toxins are substances made by living things that are harmful to other living things. Toxins can be found in animal venoms and poisons. poison is a toxin that is harmful or even fatal when swallowed, eaten, or inhaled. Venom is a substance that becomes toxic when it is injected, often through a bite or a stinger. There are three common types of toxins. hemotoxin affects the heart and the rest of the cardiovascular system. neurotoxin affects the brain and the rest of the nervous system. cytotoxin generally affects the cells, such as skin cells, around a wound. Many animals that use venom as a weapon are relatively small (such as a scorpion), move slowly (such as a cone snail), or are easily injured (such as a snake or jellyfish). Using venoms helps them survive by allowing them to catch food or scare predators. Komodo dragons live on the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. Researchers only recently confirmed the dragons use of venom. The viper family includes pit vipers, rattlesnakes, and copperheads. Vipers have retractable fangs that release hemotoxic venom. ll scorpions produce venom, but not all scorpion stings are deadly. Many simply cause pain. one snails are found on reefs off the coast of Southeast sia. The snail stabs its prey with a sharp tooth at the end of an extendable appendage. The blue-ringed octopus lives in the western Pacific Ocean and is common around ustralia. The octopus sneaks up on its prey and squeezes it. It then uses a beak-like protrusion to bite through the prey s shell to inject toxic saliva. Poison dart frogs are found only in the tropical forests of South and entral merica and the islands of Hawaii. Predators that try to eat the frog get a mouthful of terrible-tasting poison, and may even die. The slow loris lives in forests in Sri Lanka and southern India. It is the only known poisonous primate. The slow loris is a nocturnal animal. Scientists think one reason their toxins smell bad is to help them mark their territory it may be hard to see at night, but it s not hard to smell the toxins. The lionfish is native to the reefs of the Indian and western Pacific oceans. lthough they look fierce, they use venom in their dorsal spines for protection. To catch prey, they depend on their camouflage and quick reflexes. Fast Facts Komodo dragons are the heaviest and largest of all lizards. They can weigh more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) and reach a length of 3 meters (10 feet). Scorpions have been known to survive without food for up to a year, but they need water. There are more than 100 species of poison dart frog. Scientists estimate that there are about 20 million National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T2 March 2012

5 Got Poison? ctivate Prior Knowledge 1. Point out that animals use poisons in two different ways to attack prey and to avoid becoming prey. 2. Draw students attention to the photo on pages 2 3. Note that this fierce-looking animal is a Komodo dragon, the world s largest lizard. 3. sk students to predict whether this animal uses venom to kill prey or to protect itself. sk them to predict how a Komodo dragon would use venom. (Possible answers: The animal looks large and fierce, so it is likely a predator. It probably uses venom to hurt or kill prey.) omprehension Strategy Summarize 1. Invite students to examine the headline and deck on pages 2 3 to predict what the article will be about. Point out the phrase like this Komodo dragon in the deck, and ask students what they think it means. Students should come to the conclusion that the article is about poisonous animals (not reptiles). sk students what kinds of animals they think will be included and record them on the board. 2. Then invite several students to orally summarize the class s predictions. Vocabulary Define Words pages To help students differentiate between the words toxin, venom, and poison, write the following definitions on the board. Toxin: a substance that is harmful to living things Poison: a substance that is harmful when living things swallow it, eat it, or breathe it in Venom: a substance that is harmful when it is injected, often by a bite or a sting 2. hallenge students to work in pairs to make Venn diagrams that show the relationship among the three words. Help students set up their Venn diagrams by putting poison and venom as the labels for the two outer sections. Then have students use the definitions to fill in the diagrams. 3. Have each pair switch Venn diagrams with another pair. In a pen or pencil of a different color, have each pair tell whether they agree or disagree with each diagram entry and why. 4. Then have the two pairs form a group of four and discuss their diagrams. Invite groups to share their conclusions and clarify any misconceptions. Language Skill lliteration 1. Define alliteration for students as the repeating of the same kind of sound at the beginning of words, such as in Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. 2. Instruct students to scan the article s subheads. Have them identify the subheads with alliteration. 3. sk students why a writer would use alliteration in the headline or subhead of an article. (Possible answers: It s fun to read; it s catchy; it interests the reader more.) 4. hallenge students to make up their own sentences with alliteration. Put all the letters of the alphabet into a box, with the exception of q, x, and z. You may also wish to include digraphs such as ch, ph, sh, st, and th. Have each student choose from the box the sound they must use for their sentence. Give students three minutes to compose a sentence. Invite students to read their sentences aloud. The sentences can be silly and fun, as long as they correctly use alliteration. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T3 March 2012

6 Got Poison? pages 4-5 Explore Reading Summarize e- edition 1. Display the projectable edition or hold up the magazine to indicate the diagram Poison Parts on page 5. Point out that a diagram often explains how something works and has labels to indicate its parts. web Explore Science How nimals Use Poison 1. Have students read pages 4 5. sk them to complete these sentence frames to check their comprehension of why and how animals use poisons. Some animals use venom to prey. (attack) Other animals use poisons to themselves. (defend or protect) The chemicals in poison are. (toxins) Some snakes shoot venom into prey with their. (fangs) The viper s venom comes from special in its head. (glands) The venom of a viper attacks the prey s red cells. (blood) 2. Note that by reading the text while looking closely at the parts of the diagram, the reader can find out how the snake uses its venom to subdue prey. 3. Have students use the diagram and text on page 5 to write extended captions for each label on the diagram. The captions should explain what each part does. Explore Writing Determine Sequence 1. sk students to sequence steps the viper uses to attack its prey from the time it first encounters the prey to when the viper eats it. 2. Have students come to the board to write the steps in a numbered sequence. Invite the class to compare the numbered lists and then create one for the class: 1. The viper opens its mouth. 2. The viper s fangs swing down. 3. The viper squeezes venom from its glands. 4. Venom races through the fangs. 5. The venom enters the prey. 6. The venom destroys the red blood cells of the prey. 7. The prey begins to die. 8. The viper swallows the prey. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T4 March 2012

7 Got Poison? Explore Reading Summarize Explore Science ompare Poison Delivery Systems pages Have students read the text on pages 6 7. Instruct each student to draw one of the animals and label it with how it delivers venom fangs, sting, stab, or spit. 2. Lead students in a discussion of why each animal uses venom. Guide the discussion so that they realize all of the animals immobilize or slow down their prey so they can eat it, or so they can t be harmed by it. Emphasize that each animal on this page is a predator. 3. Point out that for all the animals here, except the Komodo dragon, the venom works very quickly. sk students why they think it s important for the venom to work quickly. (The prey has less of a chance to escape. For example, the cone snail is too slow to catch a fish. The venom stops the fish from swimming away.) Then ask students why they think the Komodo dragon might not need speedy venom. (It can track down the prey after it collapses.) 1. Instruct students to briefly summarize the Poison Spit section of the article in their own words. Remind students that a summary must give the most important points. 2. fter students write their summaries, challenge them to write a new subhead for the section using alliteration. If needed, remind students that a subhead gives a clue to what the section is about. 3. Have students share summaries and subheads with the class. Explore Writing reate a Warning Sign 1. Draw students attention to the Facts box at the bottom of page 6. Read through the facts together. 2. Tell students they will design a warning sign for a nature park based on one of the facts. To familiarize students with a warning sign, show them a line through warning sign like the one below, for No ike Riding. 3. Have students write a brief paragraph under the symbol that describes the reason for the warning and the danger of not following it. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T5 March 2012

8 Got Poison? Explore Reading Summarize 1. sk students to summarize the reasons that animals use poisons. pages Pair students and have them compare their summaries. Then have each pair write their final summary on a piece of paper. 3. Display the summaries around the room, and have the class walk around to read them all. Explore Science Poison for Self Defense 1. Start a discussion of pages 8 9 by asking students what all of these animals have in common. Hint that it has to do with the way they use poisons. (They use poisons for self-defense rather than to attack prey.) 2. sk students to classify these animals, using sets of cards that you make ahead of time. For each set, write the names of the three animals on three different white index cards: poison dart frog, slow loris, lionfish. 3. Write the names of the three groups they belong to, with a short description of each group, on another three cards of a different color: amphibian (smooth skin; lives on land but breeds in water) mammal (covered with hair or fur; has live babies) fish (lives in water; breathes through gills; has fins) 4. Divide students into groups and give each group a set of animal and classification cards. Have them work together to match each animal with its proper group. 5. Invite groups to share their responses, and discuss the idea that many kinds of animals use poisons. 6. Then have students complete the ctivity Master. ctivity Master, page T7 4. s a class, create one final summary. Then discuss the process with students, including what changes their personal summary went through from creating it to the final class summary. 5. Invite students to send e-cards on the Explorer e- edition website (ngpathfinder.org) summarizing what they ve learned about poisonous and venomous animals. Explore Writing Why nimals Use Toxins 1. Tell students to think about the way the animals in the article use poisons or venom. 2. Have each student write a reflection piece on why so many different types of animals use poisons or venom. Students should include animals that use toxins for predation as well as those that use them for self-defense. Extend Writing ustralian nimals 1. Read aloud the Wild Fact on page 6 about ustralia and point out ustralia on a world map. 2. hallenge students to research and write about ustralia s poisonous and venomous animals, such as: the cane toad inland taipan (also called a fierce snake ) duck-billed platypus box jelly (also called a sea wasp) funnel web spider (atrax robustus) reef stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) web 3. Have students choose three animals to highlight in a Traveler s Guide to Dangerous nimals of ustralia. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T6 March 2012

9 Got Poison? ctivity Master Name: hoose one animal that uses poison power to hunt prey. Paste its picture and write its name in the Offense column. hoose an animal that uses poison power to protect itself. Paste its picture and write its name in the Defense column. Then fill in the rest of the chart. Offense Defense nimal Type of nimal (reptile, arachnid, amphibian, mammal, or fish) How It Delivers Poison or Venom Why It Uses Poison or Venom Kirill M/Shutterstock Elisei Shafer/Shutterstock G Tipene/shutterstock nneka/shutterstock efendy/shutterstock ngarare/shutterstock 2012 National Geographic Learning. ll rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T7 March 2012

10 Got Poison? ssessment Name: Read each question. Fill in the circle next to the correct answer. 1. Why do some animals use venom? to attack prey to find mates to build homes 2. Which animal uses venom to defend itself? a pit viper a Komodo dragon a lionfish 3. Why do so many different types of animals use poisons? Poisons are a good way to get food or avoid becoming food. Poisons are easy to make, and all animals are born with them. Poisons warn other animals to stay away. 4. How does a scorpion deliver venom? It bites. It stings. It stabs. 5. How does a poison dart frog protect itself? It has poison in its saliva. It oozes poison from its skin. It bites prey with its fangs National Geographic Learning. ll rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T8 March 2012

11 Got Poison? ctivity Master Name: hoose one animal that uses poison power to hunt prey. Paste its picture and write its name in the Offense column. hoose an animal that uses poison power to protect itself. Paste its picture and write its name in the Defense column. Then fill in the rest of the chart. nimal Offense Possible responses: viper; Komodo dragon; scorpion Defense Possible responses: lionfish; dart frog; slow loris Type of nimal (reptile, arachnid, amphibian, mammal, or fish) viper: reptile; dragon: reptile; scorpion: arachnid lionfish: fish; dart frog: amphibian; slow loris: mammal How It Delivers Poison or Venom viper: bite; dragon: spit; scorpion: sting lionfish: spikes; dart frog: oozes; slow loris: spit Why It Uses Poison or Venom to catch prey Kirill M/Shutterstock Elisei Shafer/Shutterstock G Tipene/shutterstock nneka/shutterstock efendy/shutterstock ngarare/shutterstock to avoid becoming prey 2012 National Geographic Learning. ll rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T7 March 2012

12 Got Poison? ssessment Name: Read each question. Fill in the circle next to the correct answer. 1. Why do some animals use venom? to attack prey to find mates to build homes 2. Which animal uses venom to defend itself? a pit viper a Komodo dragon a lionfish 3. Why do so many different types of animals use poisons? Poisons are a good way to get food or avoid becoming food. Poisons are easy to make, and all animals are born with them. Poisons warn other animals to stay away. 4. How does a scorpion deliver venom? It bites. It stings. It oozes. 5. How does a poison dart frog protect itself? It has poison in its saliva. It oozes poison from its skin. It bites prey with its fangs National Geographic Learning. ll rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T8 March 2012

13 In the Strike Zone pages Summary Lightning can form when negative charges from a cloud start toward the ground while positive charges from the ground move upward. n electric current shoots along the pathway, and we see a flash of lightning. Lightning bolts heat the air around them, which expands quickly. This action causes the sound we hear as thunder. ecause light travels faster than sound, we see the lightning before we hear the thunder. pages Lightning can zap within a cloud, from cloud to cloud, or between the clouds and the ground. Learning Objectives Students will: understand how lightning forms; understand how lightning and thunder are related; pages use sequence to aid comprehension; explore compound adjectives. Materials Needed several small beanbags slips of paper and a hat or bowl a small carpet runner poster a door with metal knob batteries, insulated wires, and light bulbs for a circuit activity Sky Lights poster heck out the new interactive edition for: an interactive lightning diagram photos from the poster a video of Tim Samaras and more! See NGSP.com. Resources Learn more about lightning and lightning safety: news/2004/06/0623_040623_lightningfacts.html Learn more about Tim Samaras: Learn more about the formation of lightning: National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T9 March 2012

14 In the Strike Zone ackground Lightning is a discharge of electricity. Most lightning forms in storm clouds, where violent updrafts and downdrafts cause drops of rain, ice, or snow to smash into each other. This movement creates positive and negative electric charges in different parts of the clouds. The bottom part of the clouds becomes negatively charged, while the ground (and objects on it) beneath the clouds becomes positively charged. Lightning bolts form as a negative charge moves downward from the bottom of a cloud and a positive charge moves upward from the ground. When they meet, there is a flow of electric current and a lightning flash. Fast Facts bout 100 cloud-to-ground lightning bolts strike Earth every second. Lightning strikes most frequently in entral frica. Florida has more lightning strikes than any other place in the United States. You can hear thunder and can be struck by lightning within 16 kilometers (10 miles) of a storm. bolt of lightning can heat the air around it to a temperature five times hotter than the sun s surface. Formation of lightning is similar to what can happen when you walk across a rug and then get a shock when you touch a metal doorknob. It is a form of static electricity. Storm clouds are not the only place lightning occurs. Lightning can also form during forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and even heavy snowstorms. s a weather scientist and National Geographic Explorer, Tim Samaras spends a lot of time each spring and summer racing around the midwestern United States. His main focus of study is severe weather events, such as tornadoes and lightning. The data he collects during weather events including air pressure, humidity, wind, and temperature helps scientists gain a better understanding of how severe storms form and move. This better understanding leads to better storm prediction, which can save lives. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T10 March 2012

15 In the Strike Zone Language Skill Images Support Text 1. Write the headline of the article on the board. sk students what it means. ccept a few answers. (It should be difficult for students to determine what the article means from the headline alone.) 2. Have students open their magazines to pages Read the headline aloud. sk them again to tell you what the headline means. (Students should be able to tell that it is about lightning.) sk students to explain why it s easier to tell what the headline means when they re looking at the photo. (The picture of lightning bolts gives the clue. Each bolt is a lightning strike. ) 3. Explain that text and pictures often work together. Tell students to look at images for clues to words or phrases they don t understand. ctivate Prior Knowledge Illuminate Lightning 1. Display the projectable edition or hold up pages sk students if they ve ever seen lightning like this in the sky. Have students share stories and facts they already know about lightning. 2. Have students complete the K and W columns on the ctivity Master. 3. Then ask students to share their responses with the class. e- edition 4. fter reading, have students return to the chart and fill in the L column with what they have learned about lightning after reading the article. pages web e- edition web ctivity Master, page T16 Vocabulary Inter- and Intra- 1. Write the prefixes inter- and intra- on the board, along with simple definitions. (intra: inside or within; inter: between or among) 2. Reinforce the prefixes by playing a game. lear a space in the middle of the classroom. Divide students into groups, and have them sit in their groups around the empty space. Give one person in each group a beanbag. Tell students that you will call directions to pass the beanbag either inter-group or intra-group. If you call intra-group, the student holding the beanbag should pass it to another student within the same group. If you call inter-group, the student holding the beanbag should pass it to a student in a different group. Play the game until each student has received a beanbag at least once. omprehension Strategy Finding Sequences e- edition 1. On slips of paper, write the numbers 1 through as many students as you have in class. Place the slips of paper in a hat or bowl, and have each student draw a number. 2. sk students to arrange themselves in an orderly line according to the number they drew. 3. Point out that words can also tell a sequence. 4. sk students to identify the three actions described in the deck on page 10. (setting up equipment; lightning danced; thunder echoed) 5. In pairs, have students tell the order in which the events happened, and identify the sequence words that helped them know the correct order. ( setting up equipment came first as indicated by we had just started; lightning danced and thunder echoed slightly later as indicated by when. ) 6. Write a sentence that uses similar construction and time sequence on the board, such as: I had just gotten home when it started to rain. Have students identify the sequence and explain the how words indicate it. 7. sk volunteers to create other sentences with the same just when construction. web National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T11 March 2012

16 In the Strike Zone pages poster Explore Science e- edition Understanding Lightning Formation Explore Science web e- edition Understanding Types of Lightning web 1. Read the section Opposites ttract and the first paragraph of Lightning olts with students. Display the projectable edition and lead students through the diagram on page 13. If needed, clarifythat the electricity shown coming up from the ground is not electricity from the electrical towers. It s electrical charges that have been built up on the ground and objects on the ground. 2. Demonstrate static electricity for students. ring a small carpet runner to class. Make the classroom as dark as possible by turning out lights and closing shades. Have students gather near a door with a metal knob. Place the carpet on the floor nearby and walk back and forth along it several times, wearing socks and shuffling your feet as you go. ring your index finger slowly toward the metal doorknob. When it is close enough, students should see a spark go from your hand to the knob, as the electrons you picked up from the carpet discharge from your finger. e- edition 3. Tell students that what they just saw was a discharge of static electricity a spark of electric current flowing between two objects with unlike charges. 1. Examine the different types of lightning with students. Remind students of the difference between intracloud and intercloud lightning. web 2. Display the Sky Lights poster and read aloud the headline and the introductory paragraph. Have a volunteer read each extended caption. s the volunteer reads each caption, have students examine the photo. 3. On a sheet of paper, have students write whether each lightning photo shows intercloud, intracloud, or cloud-to-ground lightning. (ribbon lightning photo: cloud-to-ground; forked lightning photo: cloud-to-ground; sheet lightning photo: intracloud; anvil crawlers photo: intercloud) Invite students to share which answers they got right and wrong and to explain why the correct answer is right. 4. Extend the conversation by discussing how the name of each type of lightning fits the way it looks and behaves. (ribbon lightning: looks like a thin ribbon; forked lightning: has a forked appearance; sheet lightning: looks like sheets of bright light; anvil crawlers: seems to crawl slowly across the sky) 4. sk students how this is similar to how lightning forms. (Lightning forms when negative charges from clouds travel down and meet positive charges from the ground.) Note that when the two opposite charges meet, it is like completing a circuit along which electricity can now flow. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T12 March 2012

17 In the Strike Zone Explore Reading Sequence 1. Direct students to the diagram on page 13. Point out that the diagram shows the way lightning forms in steps from 1 through 6. sk students why the diagram is designed this way. (It shows the events that happen to form lightning in the order they happen.) Emphasize that it would be difficult to understand how lightning works if the steps were not read in the correct order. 2. hallenge each student to make a small diagram with four steps that explains how something works or how something is done. Give this example of four steps in making a sandwich: 1. Put one piece of bread on a plate; 2. Spread peanut butter on one piece of bread. 3. Spread jelly on the other piece of bread; 4. Place the second piece of bread on top of the first. 3. Have students share their sequences. pages (continued) Language Skill ompound djectives 1. Write the three types of lightning on the board: intercloud lightning, intracloud lightning, and cloudto-ground lightning. 2. Invite a volunteer to come to the board and underline the word lightning in each of the phrases. sk students what the other word or words in each phrase are doing for the word lightning. (They re describing it; They re adjectives.) 3. Then ask students to note what is different about the each phrase. Lead students to notice that cloud-to-ground has hyphens but intercloud and intracloud do not. If needed, remind students that inter- and intra- are prefixes, or parts added to the beginning of a word. 4. Explain that when some multi-word adjectives come before a noun, they are hyphenated. Point out that the whole phrase cloud to ground describes the lightning, and that if any of the words were missing, the phrase would mean something different. 5. Write the following phrases on the board and have students turn each into a phrase with a hyphenated compound adjective and compare their responses: the sky that is filled with clouds (the cloud-filled sky) the flowers that smell sweet (the sweet-smelling flowers) the storm that is moving across the town (the cross-town storm) Explore Writing Interpret Photos e- edition web 1. Tell students to look at the photo on page Have them write a brief response to this question: fter reading these pages, how has your understanding of the photo changed? (Paragraphs should contain information on how the lightning bolt formed and what type of lightning it is.) National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T13 March 2012

18 In the Strike Zone Explore Science Lightning and Thunder Safety 1. Point out that energy comes in many different forms, and that one type can change into another. Tell students that lightning is electrical energy that changes into two different types of energy as it streaks across the sky. Write these terms on the board: heat energy, light energy, sound energy. sk: When you hear the rumble of thunder, what type of energy has been created? (sound energy) When you see a big streak of lightning flash, what type of energy do you see? (light energy) If you were close to lightning, what type of energy might you feel? (heat energy) 2. Discuss the effects the types of energy in lightning on Earth. Emphasize that lightning can be very dangerous and precautions should be taken during thunderstorms in the area. Share the National Weather Service s rhyming warning, When thunder roars, go indoors, and have students interpret it. 3. Remind students that they should always seek shelter during a thunderstorm. sk students why they should never stand near or under a tall object when lightning is nearby. (Tall objects can attract lightning strikes.) Explore Reading Find Sequence Words e- edition pages web 1. Display the projectable edition and guide students through a rereading of the text on pages s you read, have students identify words that indicate sequence, and highlight them in the projectable edition. e- edition Have students return to the text and classify each sequence word as indicating: the beginning of a sequence (possible responses: before; beginning; since) the middle of a sequence (possible responses: in a few minutes; followed; instantly; just; when; for now) or the end of a sequence (possible responses: finally; then; the result) Have them create a chart and list words in the proper column in the table. 3. hallenge students to review the entire article to find and classify more sequence words. Explore Writing Write a Persuasive Letter 1. Have students imagine that they are weather scientists who need to secure funding to study lightning. 2. Invite students to write a letter that would persuade a grant panel to fund the project. Students should explain why studying lightning can help people stay safe. 3. Invite students to give an oral presentation of their persuasive letters to a grant panel comprised of teachers or students from another class. web Support Struggling Readers Literal and Figurative Language Read aloud the last paragraph under the subhead Weird Lightning on page 15. sk students what it means to say lightning can leave its mark. (Lightning has physical effects or effects you can see on things.) Tell students that leave its mark can also have another meaning, which is to have an effect that you can t see on something. Give this example: The invention of the electric light left its mark on the world. Point out that the electric light didn t leave a physical mark on anything, but it affected the way people live their lives. sk students to think of something that has had a great effect on their lives. Have each student write a sentence about it using the figurative phrase, left its mark. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T14 March 2012

19 In the Strike Zone Extend Science Diagram Types of Lightning 1. Refer students to the diagram on page 13. Have them identify the type of lightning shown in the diagram. (cloud-to-ground lightning) 2. sk students to identify where the positive charges in the lightning come from. (the ground) Then ask students what happens when the negative and positive charges meet. (They complete a path and an electric current shoots up it.) 3. Lead a discussion about how intercloud and intracloud lightning might be similar or different in how they form. If needed, point out that positive charges gather at the top of storm clouds. 4. Have students work in pairs to create a diagram showing how either intracloud or intercloud lightning might form. (intracloud: The negative and positive charges within one cloud form a path. intercloud: The negative charges from one cloud form a path with the positive charges from another cloud.) Extend Science Hands-On ctivity omplete a ircuit 1. Display the diagram on page 13 in the projectable edition for reference during this activity. 2. Show students a battery, and discuss how the positive and negative ends of the battery are related to the positive and negative charges in the cloud diagram. e- edition 4. Divide students into groups and give each two wires, one battery, and one light bulb. 5. Lead students in creating a circuit by connecting a wire from the negative terminal of the battery to the light bulb and the other wire from the light bulb to the positive terminal of the battery. 6. Discuss the completed circuit and help students relate it to lightning formation. (Electricity flows from one opposite charge to the other because opposite charges attract. This path completes a circuit of moving electrical charges. When electricity moves in a complete circuit, it can do work, such as making a light bulb light up or causing a flash of lightning.) Extend Writing Write a Journal Entry 1. Review Tim Samaras activities. Tell students to think about what storm chasers do each day. 2. Have students imagine themselves as a storm chaser and write a journal entry for a day on the road chasing thunderstorms. 3. Students can work as partners or in a small group to create a dialogue among several members of a storm chaser team. Have them perform this work as a short skit. web 3. sk students to recall what happens when a path is formed between positive and negative charges in clouds. (lightning forms) Then ask students what they think will happen when a path is formed between the positive and negative charges in the battery. National Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder Page T15 March 2012

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