Meteorology: Storm Chasing. Grade 4. Written by. Tommy Reddicks Paramount School of Excellence Indianapolis, IN

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1 Meteorology: Storm Chasing Domain Meteorology Written by Tommy Reddicks Paramount School of Excellence Indianapolis, IN

2 Storm Chasing Meteorology I. Grade Level Domain Map Core Knowledge Content Science: CKS Page 106: Meteorology a. The Water Cycle b. Clouds, cirrus, stratus, cumulus c. The atmosphere i. Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere. d. How the sun and the earth heat the atmosphere e. Air movement: wind direction. f. Cold and warm fronts: thunderheads, lightning and electric charge, thunder, tornadoes, hurricanes. g. Forecasting the weather: barometers (relation between changes in atmospheric pressure and weather), weather maps, weather satellites. h. Weather and climate: weather refers to daily changes in temperature, rainfall, sunshine, etc., while climate refers to weather trends that are longer than the cycle of the seasons. State Standards Observe and report that the moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day Observe and describe the things that give off heat, such as people, animals, and the sun Begin to investigate and explain that air is a substance that surrounds us and takes up space, and whose movements we feel as wind Describe some of the effects of oceans on climate Explain that the rotation of Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-and-day cycle. 6.1 Explain that all objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter in different states with different properties. Understand that there are different forms of energy with unique characteristics. Core Knowledge 1. Language Arts: CKS Page 101: Produce a variety of types of writing including stories, reports, summaries, descriptions, poems, and letters with a coherent storyline. Language Arts CCSS ELA W4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. W4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1 3 above.) W4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. a. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character s thoughts, words, or actions]. ) Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 1

3 Storm Chasing Meteorology 2. Language Arts: CKS Page 101: Know how to gather information from different sources (such as an encyclopedia, magazines, interviews, observations, atlas, on-line), and write short reports presenting the information in his or her own words, with attention to the following: a. Understanding the purpose and audience of the writing b. Defining a main idea and sticking to it c. Providing an introduction and conclusion d. Organizing material in coherent paragraphs b. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text ). W4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. RL4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RL4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, or drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character s thoughts, words, or actions). RI4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RI4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. L4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.* b. Choose punctuation for effect.* c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). W4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. W4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. W4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 2

4 Storm Chasing Meteorology Prior Knowledge 1. Kindergarten Science: CKS Page 21: Seasons and Weather 2. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Matter 1. Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance/ 3. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Properties of Matter: Measurement 1. Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit nd Grade Science: CKS Page 73: The Water Cycle 5. 3 rd Grade History and Geography: CKS Page 83: Spatial Sense RI4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgably. What Students Will Learn In Future Grades 1. 6 th Grade Science: CKS Page 168: Oceans a. Surface b. Currents, tides, and waves 2. 6 th Grade Science: CKS Page 169: Energy, Heat, and Energy Transfer a. Sources of energy b. Heat and temperature 3. 6 th Grade Science: CKS Page 170: Physical Change: Energy Transfer a. States of matter b. Changing phases 4. 8 th Grade Science: CKS Page 217: Electricity and Magnetism a. Basic terms and concepts b. Static Electricity 1. Language Arts: CKS Page 102: Poems a. Afternoon on a Hill (Edna St. Vincent Millay) b. Clouds (Christina Rossetti) c. Dreams (Langston Hughes) i. Creating literal and figurative links between poetry and concepts of meteorology 2. Language Arts: CKS Page 104: Sayings and Phrases a. The bigger they are the harder they fall b. Seeing is believing i. Using sayings and phrases as a tool for comparing and contrasting changes in atmospheric development Cross-Curricular Links 3. Mathematics: CKS Page 116: Number Sense a. Read and write numbers (in digits and words) up to nine digits. i. Using number sense, mathematic tables, and conversions to better understand storm dynamics Domain Vocabulary Beaver Tail Caps Clouds Cloud Tops Condensation Condensation Nuclei Cumulus Evaporation Fair Weather Cumulus Fujita Scale Knots Lunar Halo Mammatus 4. Music: CKS Page 115: Composers and their music a. Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 94 ( Surprise ). i. Drawing links between Thunderstorm development and dynamics in music 5. Music: CKS Page 114: Elements of Music b. Through participation, become familiar with basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, etc.) i. Drawing links with aural representations of cloud types through timbre, dynamics, tempo, form, and instrumentation Meteorology Nimbus Radar Roll Clouds Saffir-Simpson Scale Super Cell Towers Vertical Lift Virga Wall Cloud 2011 Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 3

5 Storm Chasing Meteorology II. Domain Instructional Overview Summary This domain-based unit guides students through the development of stormy weather in the USA using Core Knowledge science and technology to connect students to mathematics, language arts, geography, music, and art. Students will gain content comprehension through deepening their understanding of storms and storm prediction. Students will be engaged through 21 st Century methods such as web quests, document imaging, ebooks, MP3 downloads, and virtual storm chasing. The Big Idea Weather events are bound by a finite set of predictive variables that exist in the Earth's atmosphere; temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the ever-changing interactions of each variable over time. Content Objectives Lessons Measurable Core Knowledge Objectives 1 1. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. 1, 2, 4 2. Students will identify two specific aspects of the water cycle (e.g. evaporation, condensation) Students will describe the cloud properties of cirrus clouds, including atmospheric locations, and movements that can be observed in nature. 2, 3 4. Students will describe cloud properties of cumulus clouds, including atmospheric locations, and movements that can be observed in nature. 3, 4 5. Students will describe cloud properties of cumulonimbus clouds, including movements that can be observed in nature Students will describe categorical properties of tornadoes and hurricanes. 5, 6, 7, 8 7. Students will utilize web quests and predictive radar to show how weather can be described in measurable quantities, temperature, wind direction, and precipitation. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 8. Students will identify observable patterns in nature and physical changes in nature to predict future events based on those observations. Language Art Objectives Lessons Measureable Core Knowledge Objectives 3 1. Students will sort information into a beginning, middle, and end as it relates to a specific topic or purpose. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 2. Students will use read-alouds, illustrations, drawings, and guided questions to comprehend a variety of texts, such as non-fiction, rhymes, poems, and stories. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 3. Students will draw inferences using contextual clues. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 4. Students will read, respond to, and discuss a variety of literature including fiction, poems, sayings and phrases, and content-area reading. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 5. Students will use organizational features of books, media, or electronic information to complete short reports, web quests, or fact-finding assignments Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 4

6 Storm Chasing Meteorology Domain Lessons Lesson 1: Understanding Clouds: Cirrus Lesson 1: Read-Aloud: The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.14. ISBN: This lesson uses Cirrus clouds as a tool for learning music, math, and language arts content. Lesson 2: Understanding Clouds: Cumulus Lesson 2: Read-Aloud: The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.17. ISBN: This lesson uses summer storm development in the continental United States to connect to language arts, geography, math, and music content. Lesson 3: Red Sky in the Morning (Storm Warning) Lesson 3: Read-Aloud: The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.33. ISBN: This lesson uses predictors of severe weather (with an emphasis on super cell storms) to connect to language arts, math, and music content. Lesson4: How to Spot a thunderstorm Lesson4: Read-Aloud: The Book of Clouds: pg.23. ISBN-13: This lesson uses key concepts related to cloud identification to connect to language arts, math, and music content. Lesson 5: Tornadoes and Hurricanes Lesson 5: Read-Aloud: (then go to The Fujita Scale ) & This lesson uses the Enhanced Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scale to connect to language arts, math, and music content. Lesson 6: Reading Radar Lesson 6: Read-Aloud: Appendix M: Reading Radar This lesson uses weather radar as a springboard for connecting to language arts, math, and music content. Lesson 7: Virtual Storm Chasing: Part One Lesson 7: Read-Aloud: N/A This culminating lesson uses a web quest as a springboard for connecting to language arts and geography content. Lesson 8: Virtual Storm Chasing: Part Two Lesson 8: Online: N/A This culminating lesson uses a web quest as a springboard for connecting to language arts and geography content. Additional Resources For Teachers 1. Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The Cloudspotter s Guide. Penguin Group: NY, NY. ISBN: Available for download and use as an ebook from Ebook Download price: $ Kindle Book Price: $ Available used on Amazon.com for $ Day, J. A. (2005). The Book of Clouds. Sterling Publishing: NY, NY. ISBN-13: Available used on Amazon.com for $ Simon, S. (1992). Storms (Reading Rainbow). Harper Collins: NY, NY. ISBN-13: Available used on Amazon.com for $ Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 5

7 Storm Chasing Meteorology For Children 1. Day, J. A. (2005). The Book of Clouds. Sterling Publishing: NY, NY. ISBN-13: Available used on Amazon.com for $ Simon, S. (1992). Storms (Reading Rainbow). Harper Collins: NY, NY. ISBN-13: Available used on Amazon.com for $ Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 6

8 Understanding Clouds: Cirrus Lesson 1 The Big Idea Weather events are bound by a finite set of variables that exist in the Earth's atmosphere; temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the ever-changing interactions of each variable over time. Prior Knowledge Previously Learned Content 1. Kindergarten Science: CKS Page 21: Seasons and Weather 2. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Matter a. Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance/ 3. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Properties of Matter: Measurement b. Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit nd Grade Science: CKS Page 73: The Water Cycle Prerequisite Skills 3 rd Grade Language Arts: CKS Pages a. Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction and nonfiction appropriately written for third grade or beyond. b. Orally summarize main points from fiction and nonfiction readings Lesson Objectives Content Objectives 1. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. 2. Students will describe the cloud properties of cirrus clouds, including atmospheric locations, and movements that can be observed in nature. 3. Students will identify two specific aspects of the water cycle (e.g. evaporation, condensation). Language Art Objectives 1. Students will use read-alouds, illustrations, drawings, and guided questions to comprehend a variety of texts, such as non-fiction, rhymes, poems, and stories. 2. Students will draw inferences using contextual clues. 3. Students will read, respond to, and discuss a variety of literature including fiction, poems, sayings and phrases, and content-area reading. Cross-curricular Connections 1. Mathematics: CKS Page 116: Number Sense a. Read and write numbers (in digits and words) up to nine digits. i. From this lesson, students will read and discuss numbers up to nine digits relating to Cirrus clouds and their elevation in the atmosphere. 2. Music: CKS Page 115: Composers and their music a. Students will discover contemporary composer Kevin Kendel and analyze his compositions that relate directly to the meteorology domain. 3. Music: CKS Page 114: Elements of Music a. Through participation in a listening exercise, students will link basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, etc.) to physical characteristics of Cirrus clouds Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 7

9 Understanding Clouds: Cirrus Lesson 1 Sayings and Phrases (optional) Core Vocabulary (3-5 words) Tier 2 Words Tier 3 Words Condensation (verb) Condensation Nuclei (noun) Evaporation (verb) Meteorology (noun) Read-Aloud 1. Condensation: The process of water vapor turning from a gas to a liquid. a. Rain droplets are formed from condensation. 2. Condensation Nuclei: tiny particles in the atmosphere that are used as a host for condensation. a. In order for raindrops to develop, water must first form on condensation nuclei. 3. Evaporation: The process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its vapor form and thus transferred from land and water masses to the atmosphere. a. Evaporation is an important art of the water cycle. 4. Meteorology: the study of weather and the earth s atmosphere. a. When someone studies the weather, they must know a great deal about meteorology. The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.14. ISBN: Materials 1. CD/MP3: Clouds: Kevin Kendle 2. CD/MP3 player with speakers for the class 3. Book: The Cloudspotter s Guide 4. Copies of Appendix A for the whole class 5. One copy of Appendix B: Cloud Basics Key 6. One copy of Appendix C: Lesson One Connections 7. Copies of Appendix O for the whole class 8. LCD Projector, Document Camera, and/or Smartboard Procedure and Activities 1. Just before the students arrive, prepare the CD, Clouds, by Kevin Kendle. Start track seven, Cirrus (6:26) and have it playing as the class arrives. When the track ends stop the CD. 2. As the class enters, write Storm Chasers on the board. Explain to the class that they will be starting a unit on predicting weather. 3. Say, in 2 nd grade you discussed the four seasons and types of clouds. And, each year you come to school you are affected by the changing weather. In fourth grade, we get to learn even more about how weather affects us. 4. Say, Experts agree that the United States has the most extreme weather in the world. Depending on where you are, a hurricane could pass over you, a tornado could land near you, you could feel 100 mph winds on a clear day, see golf ball sized hail, hear thunder during a snowstorm, and get buried in a blizzard with clear skies overhead. But, a true storm chaser is never worried, because a storm chaser knows what s coming long before it arrives! 5. Write the word meteorology on the board. Ask the class if they know what it means. (Allow for answers.) 2011 Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 8

10 Understanding Clouds: Cirrus Lesson 1 6. Read the sentence for the word meteorology from the vocabulary listed above. 7. Say, Studying weather in the United States can be pretty exciting. Especially when you learn enough to be able to follow and predict it! 8. Write, Prediction & Recognition on the board. Say, When we are done with this unit, you will be able to predict oncoming weather and identify changes in the atmosphere around you. These are skills you will use for the rest of your life! 9. Ask, What is usually the biggest indicator of changing weather? Answers will vary (accept all answers as close, but the answer of clouds ends the guessing session as the most correct answer.) 10. Write clouds on the board. Say, Clouds are excellent predictors of change in weather. But what are clouds? (Allow for answers.) The correct scientific answer is, A visible area of water vapor, droplets, or ice crystals in the sky. 11. Say, Water vapor, droplets, and ice crystals represent three states of matter. Ask, Can anyone match water vapor, water droplets, and ice crystals to the correct three states of matter? (Answer: vapor = gas, water=liquid, ice = solid.) 12. Explain that clouds exist because of a constant circle between evaporation (turning to water vapor) and condensation (returning to water). (Read the sentence descriptions above for condensation and evaporation at this time and allow for discussion.) 13. Explain to the class that the earth s atmosphere is always adjusting and changing between very wet and very dry air because of the cycle of evaporation and condensation. 14. Say, When clouds form, there must be enough water in the atmosphere. This water needs the help of some very small friends. Can anyone tell me what those friends are called? (Allow for answers: answer is condensation nuclei.) 15. Read the definition for condensation nuclei (in the definitions above). 16. Explain that condensation nuclei can be a variety of things. It can be things like dust, soot, smoke, and even ocean spray. 17. Say, When there is a good mix between moisture in the atmosphere and condensation nuclei, then the moisture clings to the condensation nuclei. When many of these nuclei attract moisture in a single area, clouds are formed. 18. Open the book, The Cloudspotter s Guide to page 14. When possible, use a document camera to display the book or a LCD projector/smartboard to display the ebook on the whiteboard. 19. Explain to the class that the types of clouds pictured in the book are the clouds we will be studying in this unit. 20. Allow for brief discussion based on the projected imagery. 21. Tell the class that they will begin by learning about the high clouds and then work down towards the ground. 22. Ask, So, which kind of clouds will we begin with? (Answer is Cirrus.) 23. Start the CD again on the same track and pass out Appendix O: Listening Worksheet. Allow three-five minutes for the class to fill out the worksheet as the music plays. (Important answers: Country - USA, song name - Cirrus). 24. Explain that the music that was playing at the start of class was called Cirrus. It was an MP3 download by composer Kevin Kendel (Write his name on the board). Explain that his music can be found for download on both itunes and Amazon. Allow a few students to share their reasoning for their answer to question number Draw some initial links (these can be guesses as answers will rely on previous content knowledge) between the music s speed, volume, and feeling to Cirrus clouds and write those on the board. Use the comprehension questions listed below to guide this short discussion. 26. Keeping the book/ebook open on the document camera/lcd Smartboard, turn to page Have volunteers in the class read pages Take the time to review the diagram on page 115. (This section may be augmented for advanced students by adding pages These pages discuss cirrus variations and troposphererelated issues with wind currents.) 28. Pass out Appendix A: Cloud Basics. Allow 15 minutes for completion Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 9

11 Understanding Clouds: Cirrus Lesson 1 Comprehension Questions 1. How did the music remind you of cirrus clouds? (Answer: Light, simple, slow, dreamy, etc.) 2. What are the characteristics of condensation? (Answer: The process of water vapor turning from a gas to a liquid.) 3. How do condensation nuclei contribute to cloud development? (Answer: Tiny particles in the atmosphere that are used as a host for condensation) 4. What are common scientific characteristics of clouds? (Answer: Masses of water vapor, ice crystals, or droplets in the atmosphere.) Extension (optional) 1. Weather observation and prediction: Have the class observe current weather conditions and make predictions on outcomes for the remainder of the day or the following day. Students will write these predictions in complete sentences and turn them in. These predictions can be read the following day for comparing to the actual results. 2. Read today s forecast from the paper or Internet! As a read-aloud, recite the day s weather forecast for the class. Pause to explain terminology that may present challenges. Take time to reflect the meaning of the day s predictive forecast. Scaffolding and Support In order to remediate this lesson s idea of clouds containing condensation nuclei (become saturated, and rain) teachers can create clouds from small paper bathroom water cups and cotton balls. Have one student hold cotton balls in the air while the other drips water from the cup onto the balls. Notice how a drop of water will not pass through the cotton ball. It is held by the cotton; something similar to the condensation nuclei in clouds. Count how many droplets of water it takes to saturate the cotton ball clouds, making them drip. Compare the process to condensation nuclei and rain from a cumulus cloud. Discuss the similarities and differences from the cotton ball example to the actual cloud. Allow students to uncover differences between the two. This will help to illustrate comprehension through the ensuing discussion. To extend this lesson for students with higher reading capacity, the additional pages ( ) can be assigned as small group reading. Who Will Benefit Students with varying learning styles/students in need of sensory learning. Assessment and Evaluation Ongoing Assessment Appendix A: Cloud Basics. Use Appendix B: Cloud Basics Key for grading. Summative Evaluation Finish class on a verbal review with Appendix C: Lesson One Connections. Bibliography Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The Cloudspotter s Guide. Penguin Group: NY, NY. ISBN: Available for download and use as an ebook from Ebook Download price: $ Available used on Amazon.com for $ Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 10

12 Understanding Clouds: Cumulus Lesson 2 The Big Idea Weather events are bound by a finite set of variables that exist in the Earth's atmosphere; temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the ever-changing interactions of each variable over time. Prior Knowledge Previously Learned Content 1. Kindergarten Science: CKS Page 21: Seasons and Weather 2. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Matter a. Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance/ 3. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Properties of Matter: Measurement a. Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit nd Grade Science: CKS Page 73: The Water Cycle 5. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. a. Clouds are developed through a process of evaporation and condensation with condensation nuclei 6. Cirrus clouds are thin clouds high in the atmosphere Prerequisite Skills 3 rd Grade Language Arts: CKS Pages a. Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction and nonfiction appropriately written for third grade or beyond. b. Orally summarize main points from fiction and nonfiction readings Lesson Objectives Content Objectives 1. Students will identify two specific aspects of the water cycle (e.g. evaporation, condensation). 2. Students will describe cloud properties of cumulus clouds, including atmospheric locations, and movements that can be observed in nature. Language Art Objectives 1. Students will use read-alouds, illustrations, drawings, and guided questions to comprehend a variety of texts, such as non-fiction, rhymes, poems, and stories. 2. Students will draw inferences using contextual clues. 3. Students will read, respond to, and discuss a variety of literature including fiction, poems, sayings and phrases, and content-area reading. Cross-curricular Connections 1. Music: CKS Page 115: Composers and their music a. Students will discover contemporary composer Kevin Kendel and analyze his compositions that relate directly to the meteorology domain. 2. Music: CKS Page 114: Elements of Music a. Through participation in a listening exercise, students will link basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, etc.) to physical characteristics of Cumulus clouds Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 11

13 Understanding Clouds: Cumulus Lesson 2 Sayings and Phrases (optional) Language Arts: CKS Page 104: Sayings and Phrases a. The bigger they are the harder they fall Core Vocabulary (3-5 words) Tier 2 Words Tier 3 Words Cumulus (noun) Nimbus (noun) Virga (noun) Read-Aloud 1. Cumulus: a cloud lower to the ground with cauliflower shaped masses. a. Cumulus clouds are very puffy and white. 1. Nimbus: the term added to cloud names when moisture is visibly reaching from the cloud to the ground. a. A raining cumulus cloud is called a cumulonimbus. 2. Virga: visible lines or sheets of moisture falling from a cloud that does not appear to touch the ground. a. Virga develops when it is too dry in the air, and rain evaporates before it can reach the ground. The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.14. ISBN: Materials 1. CD/MP3: Clouds: Kevin Kendle 2. CD/MP3 player with speakers for the class 3. Book: The Cloudspotter s Guide 4. One copy of Appendix C: Lesson One Connections 5. Copies of Appendix D: Cloud Identification for the whole class 6. One copy of Appendix E: Cloud Identification key 7. One copy of Appendix O: Listening Worksheet 8. LCD Projector, Document Camera, and/or Smartboard Procedure and Activities 1. Just prior to the class arriving, begin track one (Cumulus 7:13) from the CD, Clouds by Kevin Kendel. 2. Prep the book, The Cloudspotter s Guide to page Write the word, cumulus on the board. 4. As the class arrives, use Appendix C: Lesson One Connections to guide a recap of the previous lesson. Allow no more than five minutes for this review. 5. Ask the class to guess which song is playing from the Clouds CD. (Answer is already on the board: Cumulus.) 6. Use Appendix O: Listening Worksheet for guided questions about the music. Use these questions to guide a brief informal evaluative discussion (no more than 5 minutes) with the class. (For a shortened list of questions see Appendix F: Lesson Two Connections.) 7. Next, project page 17 of the book on the whiteboard with the LCD or document camera. 8. Explain that today the class will be learning about cumulus clouds (once again refer to the word and spelling on the board). Read the sentence description of the word cumulus from the descriptions above Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 12

14 Understanding Clouds: Cumulus Lesson 2 9. Have student volunteers take turns reading paragraphs on page 16. On page 17, take the time to explain the pictures by reading the captions next to each photo. Finish page 17 and then skip to page 20 reading in the same manner until coming to a stop at the middle of page 21 at the section called The Spirit of a Cumulus. 10. Next, turn to page 33 and read only that page in the same fashion. Stop once you get to the picture/diagram. (Save that for the next lesson. That s where you will restart the reading) 11. Read the definition sentences (from above) for nimbus, and virga. Ask for volunteers in the class to come forward and draw examples of each on the board. Explain that virga is rainfall that evaporates prior to touching the ground. Allow students to comment on where this evaporated rain might go in relation to the water cycle and to redevelopment of the same cloud. 12. Now ask the class if they can name the two states of water that are demonstrated with nimbus and virga. Ask students to represent these two states (liquid: rain, and gas: evaporation/water vapor) in their drawings. Use a Smartboard if available to record student drawings for later displays. 13. Allow 5-10 minutes for additional student drawings and discussion. 14. Now, turn off the LCD or document camera. Using Appendix F: Lesson Two Connections, read the poem Clouds, by Christina Rossetti. Ask the class to think about how the poem could be about cirrus and cumulus clouds. Allow for some silent thinking time, then say, This poem talks about white sheep that have gone away. Think about the shapes and colors of sheep. Is it possible the author was talking about something other than sheep? Is it possible the author was talking directly about clouds? Do clouds resemble sheep? If so, can we read this poem and apply it to your experiences with clouds. 15. Next, from the same appendix, read the phrase, The bigger they are the harder they fall. Write it on the board. Ask the class if any of them understand what it means. (Answer: it means that it is more difficult to beat stronger opponents, but we can beat them, and when they lose, they suffer a bigger loss.) Allow for answers, but end the discussion with the true definition after a few guesses. 16. Ask, How does that phrase connect to cumulus clouds? Allow for a brief discussion. (Answers will vary, but should resemble large cumulonimbus clouds have extreme rainfall and extreme wind, hail, etc. The bigger they are, the harder the rainfall. ) 17. Pass out Appendix D: Cloud Identification. Allow 10 minutes for completion. Comprehension Questions 1. Ask the class to compare the poem to what they have learned about cirrus and cumulus clouds. Allow for a brief discussion. 2. How did the song (Cumulus) remind you of cumulus clouds? (Answers: Light, puffy, large, floating, thoughtful, dreamy, etc.) 3. Read the phrase, The bigger they are the harder they fall. Write it on the board. Ask the class to apply that phrase to a weather event. (The connection to note is that larger clouds, larger storms, and larger visual sections of cumulonimbus clouds all represent harder falling rain, hail, etc.) Extension (optional) N/A Scaffolding and Support 1. Allow students to make their own drawings to support their understanding of the cloud types described in the lesson. 2. Provide time for the read-aloud to be used during interventions, or additional reading times for students who need additional reinforcement. 3. Provide copies for students to read along. The same can be done for the day s poem. Who Will Benefit English language learners and students with learning disabilities Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 13

15 Understanding Clouds: Cumulus Lesson 2 Assessment and Evaluation Ongoing Assessment 1. As the class arrives, use Appendix C: Lesson One Connections to guide a recap of the previous lesson. Allow no more than five minutes for this review. 2. Use Appendix O: Listening Worksheet (or Appendix F: Lesson Two Connections) to find guided questions about the music. Use these questions to guide a brief (no more than 5 minutes) discussion with the class. Summative Evaluation Appendix D: Cloud Identification. Use Appendix E: Cloud Identification Key for grading. Bibliography Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The Cloudspotter s Guide. Penguin Group: NY, NY. ISBN: Available for download and use as an ebook from Ebook Download price: $ Available used on Amazon.com for $ Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 14

16 Red Sky in the Morning (Storm Warning) Lesson 3 The Big Idea Weather events are bound by a finite set of variables that exist in the Earth's atmosphere; temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the ever-changing interactions of each variable over time. Prior Knowledge Previously Learned Content 1. Kindergarten Science: CKS Page 21: Seasons and Weather 2. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Matter a. Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance/ 3. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Properties of Matter: Measurement a. Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit nd Grade Science: CKS Page 73: The Water Cycle 5. Cirrus and Cumulus cloud characteristics 6. Students will identify and describe 3 distinct states (e.g. solid/ice, liquid/rain, gas/water vapor) in which water can be found on Earth. 7. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. a. Condensation and evaporation and their roles in cloud development Prerequisite Skills 3 rd Grade Language Arts: CKS Pages a. Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction and nonfiction appropriately written for third grade or beyond. b. Orally summarize main points from fiction and nonfiction readings c. Produce written work with a beginning, middle, and end. d. Spell most words correctly or with a highly probable spelling, and use a dictionary to check and correct spellings about which he or she is uncertain. Lesson Objectives Content Objectives 1. Students will describe cloud properties of cumulonimbus clouds, including movements that can be observed in nature. 2. Students will identify observable patterns in nature and physical changes in nature to predict future events based on those observations. Language Art Objectives 1. Students will sort information into a beginning, middle, and end as it relates to a specific topic or purpose. 2. Students will use read-alouds, illustrations, drawings, and guided questions to comprehend a variety of texts, such as non-fiction, rhymes, poems, and stories. 3. Students will draw inferences using contextual clues. 4. Students will read, respond to, and discuss a variety of literature including fiction, poems, sayings and phrases, and content-area reading. Cross-curricular Connections 1. Mathematics: CKS Page 116: Number Sense a. Read and write numbers (in digits and words) up to nine digits. i. Students will read and write numbers to describe changes in altitude as they relate to descending through a thunderstorm Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 15

17 Red Sky in the Morning (Storm Warning) Lesson 3 2. Music: CKS Page 114: Elements of Music a. Through participation in a listening exercise, students will link basic elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, etc.) to physical characteristics of Cumulonimbus clouds. Sayings and Phrases (optional) 1. The bigger they are the harder they fall 2. Seeing is believing Core Vocabulary (3-5 words) Tier 2 Words Tier 3 Words Mammatus (noun) Super Cell (noun) Wall Cloud (noun) Read-Aloud 1. Mammatus: Meaning "mammary cloud" or "breast cloud"; a meteorological term applied to a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud. a. Puffy mammatus often form under the anvil of a super cell. 2. Super Cell: a large thunderstorm that is characterized by the presence of a continuouslyrotating updraft a. Super cell thunderstorms are rare and can be very severe. 3. Wall Cloud: A large, lowering, and rotating base of a cumulonimbus cloud that potentially forms tornadoes. a. Tornadoes form from wall clouds. The Cloudspotter s Guide: pg.14. ISBN: Materials 1. ebook/book: The Cloudspotter s Guide 2. CD/MP3: Clouds: Kevin Kendle 3. CD/MP3 player with speakers for the class 4. One copy of Appendix F: Lesson Two Connections 5. One copy of Appendix O: Listening Worksheet 6. Copy of Appendix G: Falling Through a Thunderstorm for the entire class 7. LCD Projector, Document Camera, and/or Smartboard Procedure and Activities 1. As the class enters, have Track 6: Cumulonimbus from the Clouds CD playing for the class. (Again, use the guided music questions from Appendix O to draw links between the music and the domain.) 2. As a springboard from the music review, begin a discussion on the previous lesson s cloud type and the characteristics of that cloud. Allow for a brief discussion to stimulate prior learning. 3. Write the phrase Storm Warning on the board and explain to the class that today they will learn about the true strength of a thunderstorm. 4. Ask the class what direction the sun rises from. (Answer is East.) 5. Ask the class what direction the sun sets towards. (Answer is West.) 6. Explain that, opposite the sun, the weather in the United States typically moves from West to East. While there are some minor exceptions, this pattern is a dependable starting point for understanding the weather in the USA Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 16

18 Red Sky in the Morning (Storm Warning) Lesson 3 7. Now ask the class if they can finish the following phrase, Red sky at night, fisherman s delight. Red sky in the morning,.? (Answer: Fisherman s warning.) Finish the phrase if needed, and ask the class if they know what that phrase means. Allow for brief answers. 8. Tell the class that when the sun sets at night in the west, if there are clouds in the west allowing the sun to shine from underneath and behind (as it sets) then the clouds will reflect the sun s color and turn brilliant red and pink. When these colors can be seen it means there are clearing skies behind the clouds in the west. This means that, as clouds move from west to east that the clearing skies will inevitable move eastward, carrying their clear weather with them. 9. Now explain that the opposite is also true. When the sun rises in clear eastern skies in the morning and there are clouds to the west, the sun reflects brilliant pinks and reds off those western clouds. But, as those western clouds move eastward, they will move their cloudy weather with them. 10. Explain that red skies in the morning can be a very good warning that there will be storms coming in the afternoon. While not perfect, this simple observation can be an important storm chaser s sign. 11. Now, again reference the saying, Seeing is believing. Remind the class of how seeing a red sky in the morning can help one to believe that weather is imminent. 12. Open the book The Cloudspotter s Guide to page 33. Begin with the picture/diagram about the cumulonimbus. Explain the photo using an LCD or document camera so the class can view the diagram. 13. Next, Select classroom readers to read the following pages (33-40). This will take some time. Stop to rotate readers every couple paragraphs. 14. Stop to have students recap and discuss the story of the pilot who fell through a super cell. 15. Make sure to pause to discuss the vocabulary terms Super Cell, Wall Cloud, and Mammatus (described as Mamma Clouds ) as they appear in the book. With those discussions, again reference the phrase, The bigger they are, the harder they fall. Explain how these powerfully large storms typically produce very heavy rainfall and often times, heavy hail. 16. Finish the lesson with Appendix G: Falling Through a Super Cell. Pass this appendix out. 17. Use any remaining class time to begin this assignment. This appendix can be assigned as homework. Comprehension Questions 1. Explain how the name the song we listened to is linked to the title cloud? (Answer: Cumulonimbus) 2. Describe the pilot s journey through the clouds in your own words. Extension (optional) Riffing off of the pilot story, students can write an account of falling through their most memorable storm or stormy event. Scaffolding and Support 1. There is a large amount of reading in this lesson. Providing extra stoppage time to recap and check for understanding is key for students needing extra help with focus and understanding. Providing a hard copy or providing the reading to the student for use in intervention or remediation groups will help provide further exposure. 2. To challenge accelerated writers, Appendix G can be modified to suit more advanced needs by adding additional writing prompts targeted at higher student ability levels. Who Will Benefit 1. English language learners and students with learning disabilities. 2. Accelerated student writers. Assessment and Evaluation Ongoing Assessment Appendix G: Falling Through a Super Cell. Pass this appendix out. Use any remaining class time to begin this assignment Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 17

19 Red Sky in the Morning (Storm Warning) Lesson 3 Summative Evaluation Appendix G: This 30-point writing assignment should be due the following day. Bibliography Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The Cloudspotter s Guide. Penguin Group: NY, NY. ISBN: Available for download and use as an ebook from Ebook Download price: $ Available used on Amazon.com for $ Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 18

20 How to Spot a Thunderstorm Lesson 4 The Big Idea Weather events are bound by a finite set of variables that exist in the Earth's atmosphere; temperature, air pressure, water vapor, and the ever-changing interactions of each variable over time. Prior Knowledge Previously Learned Content 1. Kindergarten Science: CKS Page 21: Seasons and Weather 2. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Matter a. Water as an example of changing states of matter of a single substance/ 3. 1 st Grade Science: CKS Page 46: Properties of Matter: Measurement a. Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit nd Grade Science: CKS Page 73: The Water Cycle 5. 3 rd Grade History and Geography: CKS Page 83: Spatial Sense 6. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. a. Cirrus, Cumulus, and Cumulonimbus clouds. 7. Sever weather indicators including wall clouds, mammatus clouds, and morning sky color. Prerequisite Skills 1. 3 rd Grade Language Arts: CKS Pages a. Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction and nonfiction appropriately written for third grade or beyond. b. Orally summarize main points from fiction and nonfiction readings 2. 3 rd Grade History and Geography: CKS Page 83 a. Name your continent, country, state, and town Lesson Objectives Content Objectives 1. Students will define how materials can exist in different forms, (solid, liquid, gas) and can be changed from one form to another. 2. Students will identify two specific aspects of the water cycle (e.g. evaporation, condensation). 3. Students will describe cloud properties of cumulus clouds, including movements that can be observed in nature. 4. Students will identify observable patterns in nature and physical changes in nature to predict future events based on those observations. Language Art Objectives 1. Students will use read-alouds, illustrations, drawings, and guided questions to comprehend a variety of texts, such as non-fiction, rhymes, poems, and stories. 2. Students will draw inferences using contextual clues. 3. Students will read, respond to, and discuss a variety of literature including fiction, poems, sayings and phrases, and content-area reading. 4. Students will use organizational features of books, media, or electronic information to complete short reports, web quests, or fact-finding assignments Core Knowledge National Conference,, Storm Chasing, Tommy Reddicks 19

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