1 Cloud Computing: Past, Present, and Future Ruay-Shiung Chang ( 張 瑞 雄 ) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Dong Hwa University ( 國 立 東 華 大 學 ) November 4, 2010 Outlines The Present of Cloud Computing Conclusions The distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion Albert Einstein
2 Cloud computing in everything! Cloud computing=cloud+computing? There are many types of clouds! 5 6 Different angles have different opinions! 7 The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion. ---Larry Ellision (Oracle CEO) Grid computing Cloud computing Utility computing Elastic computing Fabric computing Reconfigurable computing Social computing Volunteer computing SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS, IaaS, ASP (Application Service Provision) Data Center Co-location 8 2
3 Oracle CEO talks about cloud computing Computer manufacturer Dell even tried to trademark the term "cloud computing", although its application was refused. But Dell got the domain name cloudcomputing.com, cloud-computing.com cloudcomputing.org (.net) is registered by r4l.com ( 待 價 而 沽 ) cloud-computing.org (.net) (not used) thecloudcomputing.org (IEEE CC conference) 9 10 Who coined the phrase Cloud Computing? Who coined the phrase Cloud Computing?
4 台 灣 翻 譯 成 雲 端 計 算 大 陸 翻 譯 成 雲 計 算 那 個 高 明? 有 雲 (servers) 有 端 (access devices) 中 華 文 化 雲 端 的 起 源 李 白 的 詩 長 相 思 二 首 之 一 長 相 思, 在 長 安 絡 緯 秋 啼 金 井 闌, 微 霜 淒 淒 簟 色 寒 孤 燈 不 明 思 欲 絕, 卷 帷 望 月 空 長 歎 美 人 如 花 隔 雲 端, 上 有 青 冥 之 長 天, 下 有 淥 水 之 波 瀾 天 長 地 遠 魂 飛 苦, 夢 魂 不 到 關 山 難 長 相 思, 摧 心 肝 We can t see the cloud computing clearly yet. We can t reach the cloud computing yet 中 華 文 化 雲 端 的 起 源 明 朝 西 遊 記 第 二 十 七 回 : 他 在 那 雲 端 裡, 咬 牙 切 齒 Reliability issue 明 朝 金 瓶 梅 第 二 十 回 : 雲 端 裡 老 鼠 天 生 的 耗! Security issue 清 朝 三 俠 五 義 第 十 六 回 : 猶 如 入 雲 端 的 一 般, 樂 的 他 不 知 怎 麼 樣 才 好 Cost saving 清 朝 兒 女 英 雄 傳 第 二 十 二 回 : 天 下 事 最 妙 的 是 雲 端 裡 看 廝 殺, 你 我 且 置 身 事 外, 袖 手 旁 觀 Business competition 中 華 文 化 的 雲 端 計 算 in action(208 AD) 三 國 演 義 第 四 十 六 回 用 奇 謀 孔 明 借 箭, 獻 密 計 黃 蓋 受 刑 中 : 一 天 濃 霧 滿 長 江, 遠 近 難 分 水 渺 茫 驟 雨 飛 蝗 來 戰 艦, 孔 明 今 日 服 周 郎
5 中 華 文 化 的 雲 端 計 算 in action 629 年, 唐 朝 僧 人 玄 奘 違 反 朝 廷 當 時 禁 止 百 姓 擅 自 西 行 的 規 定, 從 涼 州 偷 渡 出 關, 隻 身 赴 印 度 學 習 佛 教 教 義 經 過 16 年, 在 644 年 回 國 中 華 文 化 的 雲 端 計 算 Cloud computing in a poem Cloud computing is fast! 李 白 的 詩 下 江 陵 朝 辭 白 帝 彩 雲 間, 千 里 江 陵 一 日 還 兩 岸 猿 聲 啼 不 住, 輕 舟 已 過 萬 重 山 Someday: Water Computing Still water runs deep. 老 子 道 德 經 第 七 十 八 章 : 天 下 莫 柔 弱 於 水, 而 攻 堅 強 者 莫 之 能 勝, 其 無 以 易 之 弱 之 勝 強, 柔 之 勝 剛, 天 下 莫 不 知 莫 能 行 是 以 聖 人 云 : 受 國 之 垢, 是 謂 社 稷 主 ; 受 國 不 祥, 是 為 天 下 王 正 言 若 反 19 From Wikipedia: Cloud computing is Internet- ("cloud-") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). In concept, p, it is a paradigm shift whereby details are abstracted from the users who no longer have need of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet. 20 5
6 A style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are provided "as a service" over the network 21 Driving forces Data-Intensive Applications: Explosion of applications and user-generated content, Petabyte in 2010, Exabyte in 2013, Zettabyte in 2015 Dt Datacenter t Pressures: Growing operational complexity and cost from infrastructure and application sprawls Increased network capacity and availability Rising Energy Cost & Green compliance Shared Services Across Lines of Business Innovation and Collaboration 22 A video to explain the concept Cloud Computing 23 For time and the world do not stand still. Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or the present are certain to miss the future. John Fitzgerald Kennedy 24 6
7 History of computing Computing resource past present cloud Mainframe, minicomputer Personal computer servers ownership Yes, few Yes, No individual access Time-sharing direct network cost high small rent control Yes(no) yes No destiny demised?????? Remembering Grid Computing! From Wikipedia: Grid computing (or the use of computational grids) is the combination of computer resources from multiple l administrative i ti domains applied to a common task, usually to a scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data. Connect private clouds by Grid technology to become public clouds Grid computing characteristics One application, high-performance, batchscheduled Cloud computing characteristics Transactional application, a variety of services, on demand
8 Evolution Grid Computing Utility Computing Made mainstream by Globus Alliance Pay and use Software as a Service Application Service Provision Cloud Computing Next generation Internet computing and data centers 29 Is cloud computing just a new name for grid? Opinion of Ian Foster Yes, the vision is the same to reduce the cost of computing, increase reliability, and increase flexibility by transforming computers from something that we buy and operate ourselves to something that is operated by a third party. The differences lie in scalability cloud could have millions of users simultaneously Virtualization is also a major difference 30 Grid computing s destiny: 杜 甫 蜀 相 丞 相 祠 堂 何 處 尋, 錦 官 城 外 柏 森 森 映 階 碧 草 自 春 色, 隔 葉 黃 鸝 空 好 音 三 顧 頻 煩 天 下 計, 兩 朝 開 濟 老 臣 心 出 師 未 捷 身 先 死, 長 使 英 雄 淚 滿 襟 The overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is rooted in the sixties
9 Lick s vision was for everyone on the globe to be interconnected and accessing programs and data at any site, from anywhere. Sound a lot like what we are calling cloud computing today. John McCarthy (1927-), coining the term "Artificial Intelligence, inventor of Lisp, Turing award Predicted that computation may someday be organized as a public utility in Tim Berners-Lee
10 Milestones The arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999, which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website. The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk Crowd+Outsourcing=Crowdsourcing (crowd computing?) The crowdsourcing process in 8 steps:
11 41 42 In 2006, Amazon launched its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications. i In 2009, as Web 2.0 hit its stride, and Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications, though services such as Google Apps
12 Cloud Computing Yesterday's the past, tomorrow's the future, but today is a gift. That's why it's called the present. Bil Keane - an American cartoonist The Present of Cloud Computing But we are not floating in the cloud yet! Internet connections aren't fast enough Internet connections aren t reliable enough Internet connections aren't available at all times in all places Issues related to reliability, privacy, security, etc. Amazon s S3 (Simple Storage Service) cloud outage in Feb and July 2008 (down 8 hours) While things you may keep in your house are constitutionally protected, the things you place in the "cloud" are not The Present of Cloud Computing Lack of standards Everybody seems to be developing a piece of the puzzle, but nobody has brought all the pieces together The methods used in today s commercial clouds have not been open and general purpose, but instead been mostly proprietary and specialized. The Present of Cloud Computing Free Software Foundation founder Richard Stallman said (interviewed by the Guardian): Cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time. One reason you should not use web applications to do your computing is that you will lose control. If you use a proprietary program or somebody else's web server, you're defenceless. You're putty in the hands of whoever developed that software
13 The Present of Cloud Computing NETBOOK WORLD SUMMIT; PARIS, France December 1, 2008 Good OS, most known for its gos Linux that debuted in Wal- Mart computers, today announced Cloud, a new operating system that boots into a browser with Google, Yahoo! and Live in seconds, and optionally boots into Windows. The Present of Cloud Computing The Present of Cloud Computing The Present of Cloud Computing
14 The Present of Cloud Computing Commercial cloud architecture Open-Cirrus cloud architecture The Present of Cloud Computing The Present of Cloud Computing The Present of Cloud Computing Many commercial products
15 The Present of Cloud Computing A cautious note: Don t put all your eggs into one basket. Cloud Computing A dying people tolerates the present, rejects the future, and finds its satisfactions in past greatness and half remembered glory 57 John Steinbeck 58 Many clouds Grid computing backup privacy scalability reliability hardware SOA scheduling heterogeneity software middleware replication maintenance management infrastructure
16 Reliability issue Nick Saber isn t happy now. One Monday afternoon, after lunch, Nick came back to find out that he couldn t get into his Gmail account. Further, he couldn t get into anything that Google made (beside search) where his account credentials once worked. When attempting to log in, Nick got a single line message: Sorry, your account has been disabled. Reliability issue Nick sent a message or three to Google for support. He got back this: Thank you for your report. We ve completed our investigation. Because our investigation was inconclusive, we are unable to return your account at this time. At Google we take the privacy and security of our users very seriously. For this reason, we re unable to reveal any further information about this account The robot company fears that a robot becomes too smart and creative. The company decides to centralize the brains. PC becomes too powerful. So it must be clouded!
17 PC and the Internet were originally "generative" platforms, where users can improve the basic function of the platform through easily adding applications. Now we are full of non-generative devices that only the vendor in charge can control The Ultimate Cloud-IBM's Project KittyHawk Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, is the site of the Wright brothers' first powered airplane flight. IBM's Project KittyHawk The project aspires to create a global-scale shared computer capable of hosting the entire Internet as an application. Thomas Watson's apocryphal remark: I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Maybe it needs just one
18 Opportunity Computing What is opportunity computing? Opportunity computing enables you to recognize an opportunity for your business and respond to it faster than ever before. Opportunity computing encompasses utility computing. But it also gives you the tools, partnerships, API support and go-to-market capability that you need to be successful as a business What is opportunity computing? Opportunity computing is designed for distributing applications in a software as a service model. Does utility computing have the tools built-in that enable that? t? Do they have user management, account management, licensing enforcement, billing, marketing, monetization support for free distribution?
19 鑑 往 知 來 唐 太 宗 : 以 銅 為 鏡, 可 以 正 衣 冠 ; 以 史 為 鏡, 可 以 知 興 替 ; 以 人 為 鏡, 可 以 知 得 失 Life is divided into three terms - that which was, which is, and which will be. Let us learn from the past to profit by the present, and from the present to live better in the future. William Wordsworth The economics of distributed computing The recurrent theme of this analysis is that On Demand computing is only economical for very cpu-intensive (100,000 instructions per byte or a cpu-day-per gigabyte of network traffic) applications. Pre-provisioned computing is likely to be more economical for most applications - especially data-intensive ones. If telecom prices drop faster than Moore's law, the analysis fails. If telecom prices drop slower than Moore's law, the analysis becomes stronger. The economics of distributed computing When Jim published this paper the fastest Supercomputers were operating at a speed of 36 TFLOPS. A new Blue Gene/Q is planned for which will operate at 10,000 TFLOPS, out stripping Moore's law by a factor of 10. Telecom prices have fallen and bandwidth has increased, but more slowly than processing power, leaving the economics worse than in
20 The cooperation between hardware vendor and software developer Nature is a mutable cloud, which is always and never the same. --Ralph Waldo Emerson ( )
21 Conclusions The bottom line for IT directors is that they will need to continue to manage their internal computing environments, whilst learning how to secure, manage and monitor the growing range of external resources residing in the cloud. Conclusions Security issue will always be a problem! Conclusions Conclusions Using someone else's infrastructure for your application will forever be a business risk, but it sounds so much less so with a cuddly name, like cloud computing
22 Conclusions Conclusions Dos and Don ts Don t be reactive Do consider the cloud a financial issue Don t go it alone. Do think about your architecture Don t neglect goverance Don t forget about business process Do make security the centerpiece of your strategy Don t apply the cloud to everything Don t forget about service management Do start with a pilot project 85 Chinese Wisdom Do 撥 雲 見 日 Don t 雲 端 跌 落 谷 底 Don t 不 測 風 雲 Don t 前 後 判 若 雲 泥 Do 平 步 青 雲 Don t 翻 雲 覆 雨 Don t 風 雲 變 色 Do 富 貴 如 浮 雲 Don t 煙 消 雲 散 Do 美 女 如 雲 86 Conclusions Conclusions Cloud computing as a move to Green computing For both suppliers and users of IT equipment, green computing is part of a larger effort to be good corporate citizens. IBM Project Big Green (try to save 42% of energy in data centers) UCSD GreenLight project (build an instrumented datacenter to measure energy savings and CO2 reductions using different server configurations and software in a real-world environment) Google s solar panel (RE<C initiative) But don t Green Washing Repositioning your product so that its shortfalls are now positioned as environmental benefits. Not enough power? Just re-position as energy-saving. Renewable Energy cheaper than Coal In the era of the cloud, open source without open data is only half the application. Tim O reilly Don t become clouded computing Ground(ed) Computing Living in the cloud=sharecropping? You farm land you don t own with tools you really couldn t afford. You run the code you don t have on servers you don t own
23 Conclusions Ian Foster: The economics of computing will look more and more like those of energy sector Whether grid or cloud or something else, start with figuring out problems to be solved, not what technology to bring in, and the right solution should surface 三 國 演 義 早 說 了 : 話 說 天 下 大 勢, 分 久 必 合, 合 久 必 分 Conclusions The amazing power of social cloud! Conclusions Interest Internet statistics! Conclusions Google 已 經 成 功 將 地 球 殖 民 化 ", 但 它 自 己 也 面 臨 著 巨 大 的 風 險 : 版 權 問 題 隱 私 問 題 和 規 模 問 題, 猶 如 會 在 Google 臉 上 爆 炸 的 三 顆 原 子 彈 "
24 Conclusions Conclusions References Conclusions The end. Thanks for your attention. Final Quote