Database management as a cloud-based service for small and medium organizations

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1 Masaryk University Faculty of Informatics Master Thesis Database management as a cloud-based service for small and medium organizations Student: Dime Dimovski Brno, 2013

2 Statement I declare that I have worked on this thesis independently using only the sources listed in the bibliography. All resources, sources, and literature, which I used in preparing or I drew on them, I quote in the thesis properly with stating the full reference to the source. Dime Dimovski 2

3 Resume The goal of this thesis is to explore the cloud computing, manly focusing on database management systems as a cloud service. It will give review of some of current available solutions of SQL and NOSQL based database management systems as a cloud service; advantages and disadvantages of the cloud computing in general and the common considerations. Keywords Cloud computing, SaaS, PaaS, Database management, SQL, NOSQL, DBaaS, Database.com, SQL Azure, Amazon Web Services, SimpleDB, DynamoDB, Google SQL, MongoDB, CouchDB, Google Datastore. 3

4 Contents 1. Introduction Introduction to Cloud Computing Cloud computing definition Cloud Types NIST model Cloud computing architecture Infrastructure Platform Application Platform as a Service (APaaS ) or Virtual appliances Application Scalability Elasticity Database Management Systems in the cloud (Database as a service) Database.com Database.com Architecture Multitenant data model Multitenant indexes Multitenant relationships Multitenant field history Partitioning of metadata, data, and index data Application development Data Access Query languages Multitenant search processing

5 6.11 Multitenant isolation and protection Deletes, undeletes Backup Pricing Microsoft s SQL AZURE Subscriptions Databases Security and Access to a SQL Azure Database SQL Azure architecture Logical Databases on a SQL Azure Server Network Topology High Availability with SQL Azure Failure Detection Reconfiguration Availability Guarantees Scalability with SQL Azure Throttling Load Balancer SQL Azure Management Pricing in SQL Azure Amazon WebServices Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) Amazon RDS Architecture/Features Scalability with Amazon RDS High Availability Pricing Google Cloud SQL

6 9.1 Pricing Summary of RDBMSaaS and common considerations NOSQL Amazon SimpleDB and DynamoDB Dynamo History Amazon DynamoDB DataModel Amazon DynamoDB Features Amazon SimpleDB Pricing Google Datastore Datastore Datamodel Queries and indexes Transactions Scalability High Availability Data Access Quotas and Limits MongoLab/MongoDB and Cloudent/Apache CouchDB Document oriented database MongoDB and CouchDB comparison MVCC Multy Version Concurency Control Scalability Querying Atomicity and Durability Map Reduce Javascript REST

7 14.10 MongoLab and Cloudent What benefits cloud database and cloud computing brings for small and medium organizations? Advantages for Small Business Disadvantages of Cloud Computing Main things to be considered when moving to the cloud Will cloud computing reduce the budget? Conclusion Appendix Case studies from the industry Amazon RDS Case studies from the industry Microsoft SQL Azure Case studies from the industry Amazon DynamoDB Case studies from the industry Amazon SimpleDB References

8 1. Introduction The boom of the cloud computing over the past few years has led to situation that it is common to many innovations and new technologies. It became common for enterprises and a person to use the services that are offered in the cloud and recognize that cloud computing is a big deal even though they are not clear why that is so. Even the phrase in the cloud has been used in our colloquial language. Huge percentage of the developers in the world is currently working on cloud-related products. Therefore the cloud is this amorphous entity that is supposed to represent the future of modern computing. In an attempt to gain a competitive edge, businesses are looking for new innovative ways to cut costs while maximizing value. They recognize the need to grow but at the same time they are under pressure to save money. The cloud gave this opportunity for the business allowing them to focus on their core business by offering hardware and software solution without having to develop them by their own. In this thesis I will give an overview of what cloud computing is. I will describe its main concepts and architecture; and take a look at the paradigm XaaS (something/everything as a service) and the current available options in the cloud mostly focusing on Database in the cloud or Database as a service. I will give a closer look on how the cloud computing in general and database as a service can be used for small and medium enterprises, what are the main benefits that it offers and will it really help businesses to reduce the budget and focus on their core business. 8

9 2. Introduction to Cloud Computing In reality the cloud is something that we have been using for a long time, it is the Internet, with all the standards and protocols that provide Web services to us. Usually the Internet is drawn as a cloud, this represent s one of the essential characteristics of cloud computing, abstraction. Cloud computing refers to applications and services that run on a distributed network using virtualized resources and are accessed by common Internet protocols and networking standards. It is distinguished by the notion that resources are virtual and limitless and that details of the physical system on which software runs are abstracted from user.[1] One of the main things that is driving cloud computing is the recent advancements in wireless speed and connectivity. Without these in place, cloud computing wouldn t be practical or even possible. In many ways, cloud computing was/is an eventuality. The influence of telecommunications organizations and their push towards simplifying and miniaturizing virtually every electronic device that can be used by the mobile users is pushing cloud computing even faster. This represents a major breakthrough in not only computing but also communication. Cloud computing represents a real paradigm shift in the way in which systems are deployed. The massive scale of cloud computing systems was enabled by the popularization of the Internet and the growth of some large service companies.[1] Cloud computing has been compared to the standard utility companies, and it does bear a striking resemblance to these institutions. Just like water, electricity or gas, cloud computing makes the longheld dream of utility computing possible with a pay-as-you-go, infinitely scalable, universally available system. In other words, the goods come from one central location; we re just turning things off and on. This may ultimately give more people access to a larger pool or resources at an extremely reduced cost. One of the biggest benefits of cloud computing is its ability to offer users access to off-site hardware and software. With cloud computing the resources of the cloud itself are at your disposal. This means all the hardware, software, processors and networks will combine to give individuals much more computing power than has ever been possible. This will completely change nearly every facet of information exchange as well as influence everything from social networking to web development. By keeping things light and simple individual access devices are going to last a lot longer and become much more durable. And of course, losing or breaking a device is no longer going to be of any particular concern, as they will be easily replaced and there s no danger of losing your files or information either. With cloud computing, you can start very small and become big very fast. That's why cloud computing is revolutionary, even if the technology it is built on is evolutionary. 2.1 Cloud computing definition The use of the word cloud makes reference to the two essential concepts: Abstraction Virtualization 9

10 Abstraction Cloud computing is abstracting the details of the system implementation from the users and the developers. Applications run on physical systems that aren't specified, data is stored in locations that are unknown, administration of systems is outsourced to others, and access by users is ubiquitous.[1] Virtualization Cloud computing virtualizes systems by pooling and sharing resources. Systems and storage can be provisioned as needed from a centralized infrastructure, costs are assessed on a metered basis, multitenancy is enabled, and resources are scalable with agility. Cloud computing is an abstraction based on the notion of pooling physical resources and presenting them as a virtual resource. It is a new model for provisioning resources, for staging applications, and for platform-independent user access to services. Clouds can come in many different types, and the services and applications that run on clouds may or may not be delivered by a cloud service provider. 2.2 Cloud Types Usually the cloud computing is separated into two distinct sets of models: Deployment models refers to location and management of the cloud s infrastructure. Service models particular types of services that can be accessed on a cloud computing platform NIST model The NIST model is set of working definitions published by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.[2] Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service - A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access - Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). Resource pooling - The provider s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth. 10

11 Rapid elasticity - Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured service - Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g. storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. Service Models: Software as a Service (SaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider s applications running on a cloud infrastructure 2. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based ), or a program interface. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user specific application configuration settings. Platform as a Service (PaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls). Deployment Models: Private cloud - The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. Community cloud - The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. Public cloud - The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It is usually open system available to general public via WWW or Internet. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider. Examples of public cloud: Google application engine, Amazon elastic compute cloud, Microsoft Azure. Hybrid cloud - The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud 11

12 infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds). [2] 2.3 Cloud computing architecture Cloud computing is essentially a series of levels that function together in various ways to create a system. This system is also referred to as cloud computing architecture. The cloud creates a system where resources can be pooled and partitioned as needed. Cloud architecture can couple software running on virtualized hardware in multiple locations to provide an on-demand service to user-facing hardware and software. A cloud can be created within an organization's own infrastructure or outsourced to another datacenter. Usually resources in a cloud are virtualized resources because virtualized resources are easier to modify and optimize. A compute cloud requires virtualized storage to support the staging and storage of data. From a user's perspective, it is important that the resources appear to be infinitely scalable, that the service be measurable, and that the pricing be metered.[1] Figure 1 Cloud computing stack Applications in the cloud are usually composable systems, this means that they are using standard component so assemble services that are tailored for a specific purpose. A composable component must be: Modular: It is a self-contained and independent unit that is cooperative, reusable, and reeplaceable. 12

13 Stateless: A transaction is executed without regard to other transactions or requests In general cloud computing doesn t require that hardware and software to be composable but it is a highly desirable characteristic. It makes system design easier to implement and solutions are more portable and interoperable. Some of the benefits from composable system are: Easier to assemble systems Cheaper system development More reliable operation A larger pool of qualified developers A logical design methodology There is a trend toward designing composable systems in cloud computing in the widespread adoption of what has come to be called the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The essence of a service oriented design is that services are constructed from a set of modules using standard communications and service interfaces. An example of a set of widely used standards describes the services themselves in terms of the Web Services Description Language (WSDL), data exchange between services using some form of XML, and the communications between the services using the SOAP protocol. There are, of course, alternative sets of standards.[1] What isn't specified is the nature of the module itself; it can be written in any programming language the developer wants. From the standpoint of the system, the module is a black box, and only the interface is well specified. This independence of the internal workings of the module or component means it can be swapped out for a different model, relocated, or replaced at will, provided that the interface specification remains unchanged. That is a powerful benefit to any system or application provider as their products evolve. Essentially there are 3 tiers in a basic cloud computing architecture: Infrastructure Platform Application If we further break down the standard cloud computing architecture there are really two areas to deal with; the front end and back end. Front End - The front end includes all client (user) devices and hardware in addition to their computer network and the application that they actually use to make a connection with the cloud. Back End - The back end is populated with the various servers, data storage devices and hardware that facilitate the functionality of a cloud computing network Infrastructure The infrastructure of cloud computing architecture is essentially all the hardware, data storage devices (including virtualized hardware), networking equipment, applications and software that operates and 13

14 drives the cloud. Most Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) providers use virtual machines to deliver servers that run applications. Virtual machines images or instances are containers that have assigned specific resources (number of CPU cycles, memory access, network bandwidth, etc.). Figure 2 shows the cloud computing stack that is defined as the server. The Virtual Machine Monitor, also called a hypervisor is the low level software that allows different operating systems to run in their own memory space and manages I/O for the virtual machines.[1] Figure 2 "Server" stack Platform A cloud computing platform is the actual programming, code and implemented systems of interfacing that help user-level devices (and applications) connect with the hardware and software resources of the cloud. It is a software layer that is used to create higher level of services. A cloud computing platform is generally divided up between the front end and back end of a network. Its job is to provide a communication and access portal for the client, so that they may effectively utilize the resources of the cloud network. The platform may only be a set of directions, but it is in all actuality the most integral part of a cloud computing network; without it cloud computing would not be possible. There are many different Platform as a Service (PaaS) providers, we will mention some of them: Salesforce.com s Force.com and Databse.com Platforms Windows Azure Platform Google Apps and Google AppEngine Amazon Web services All platform services offer hosted hardware and software needed to build and deploy Web application or services that are custom built by the developers. It makes sense for operating system vendors to move their development environments into the cloud 14

15 with the same technologies that have been successfully used to create Web applications. Thus, you might find a platform based on an Oracle xvm hypervisor virtual machine that includes a NetBeans Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and that supports the Oracle GlassFish Web stack programmable using Perl or Ruby. For Windows, Microsoft would be similarly interested in providing a platform that allowed Windows developers to run on a Hyper-V VM, use the ASP.NET application framework, support one of its enterprise applications such as SQL Server, and be programmable within Visual Studio which is essentially what the Azure Platform does. This approach allows someone to develop a program in the cloud that can be used by others. Platforms often come with tools and utilities to aid in application design and deployment. Depending on a vendor they can be: tools for team collaboration, testing tools, versioning tools, database and web service integration, and storage tools. Platforms providers begin with creation of developer s community to support the work done in the environment. Platform is exposed to users through an API, also an application built in the cloud using a platform service would encapsulates the service through its own API. An API can control data flow, communications, and other important aspects of the cloud application. Till now there are is no standard API and each cloud vendor has their own Application Platform as a Service (APaaS ) or Virtual appliances A virtual appliance is software that installs as middleware onto a virtual machine. This are usually a Web server, database server, BPM, ESBs, Messaging Portals and others that are running on a virtual machine image. This, by someone referred to as Application platform as a Service, is more or less horizontal extension of the offerings of PaaS. APaaS is a type of service model that gives cloud software developers the power to actually do their jobs. This gives an opportunity to use the APaaS /Virtual Appliances to build more complex services. Within the ApaaS system, the actual software architectures of applications are built and established. It is also within this layer that overall portability (and the ability of an application to function alongside a bevy of other cloud applications as well as operating systems) is established. Since most of the actual developmental breakthroughs (both in terms of software and overall cloud usability) occur within the realms of the middleware (PaaS, APaaS), it makes sense that a great deal of attention is paid to it. [3] For example Amazon WS is offering more than 700 different virtual machine images preconfigured with enterprise applications like Oracle BPM, SQL Server, and even complete application stacks such as LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) which are used to create a virtual machine within the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). It serves as the basic unit of deployment for services delivered using EC2. APaaS gives software developers a solid part of platform that they can stand on, with its own impressive workbench of tools, while they are constructing and envisioning new possibilities. The true benefit from APaaS however is its ability to provide accurate feedback regarding the functionality and compatibility of applications that are still under development. This is extremely important to software developers, who can take serious losses (in terms of both money and time spent) if they produce an application that simply won t function in an environment, behave as expected once deployed, or function in a compatible manner with other elements in a cloud infrastructure. For those companies that want to run their IT and/or software development projects through an APaaS, they need only pay subscription fees and not licensing fees. Subscription is substantially cheaper than licensing and offers its benefits when paired with cloud APaaS. Most APaaS 15

16 packages that are put together for designers are often much easier to use than most standardized design tools. These packages often allow software development teams to integrate and share their work more smoothly as well as run the project from start to finish much faster than with other systems.[3] The global emergence of APaaS will no doubt lead to the creation of a number of companies that will utilize the tools of APaaS to create their own business model, especially one that seeks to provide yet another proprietary service aimed at delivering timely solutions to business software issues. One particular area that could use the help is enterprise software, for example. Enterprise software is often hard to manage, difficult to customize and frequently falls short in its functionalities. When you couple these shortcomings with the fact that it is often quite expensive, there is a serious problem. An obvious solution for dealing with enterprise software problems would be the deployment of an APaaS-style service. Not only would this greatly increase the overall functionality of expensive enterprise business software, but it would also allow for a great range of customization, as well as the option for integrating it with other cloud services and/or networking opportunities. APaaS was created to make the lives of software designers, developers and investors much easier. It is through the use of APaaS that many excellent next generation apps have been developed and many experts in the field of cloud computing agree that it is APaaS that will produce some of the upcoming game changing applications that will actually shape the future of cloud computing in general Application This area is compromised of the client hardware and the interface used to connect to the cloud. Big problems arise from the design of Internet protocols to treat each request to a server as an independent transaction (stateless service) [1]. The standard HTTP commands are all atomic in nature. While stateless servers are easier to architect and stateless transactions are more resilient and can survive outages, much of the useful work that computer systems need to accomplish are stateful. Usage of transaction servers, message queuing servers and other similar middleware is meant to bridge this problem. Standard methods that are part of Service oriented Architecture that help to solve this issue and that are used in cloud computing are: Orchestration process flow can be choreographed as a service Use of service bus that controls cloud components There are many ways how clients can connect to a cloud service. The most common are: Web browser Proprietary application This application can run on number of different devices, PC, Servers, Smartphones, and Tablets. They all need a secure way to communicate with the cloud. Some of the basic methods to secure the connection are: Secure protocol such as SSL (HTTPS). FTPS, IPSec or SSH Virtual connection using a virtual private network (VPN) Remote data transfer such as Microsoft RDP or Citrix ICA that are using tunneling mechanism Data encryption 16

17 3. Scalability The scalability is the ability of a system to handle growing amount of work in a capable manner or its ability to improve when additional resources are added. The scalability requirement arises due to the constant load fluctuations that are common in the context of Web-based services. In fact these load fluctuations occur at varying frequencies: daily, weekly, and over longer periods. The other source of load variation is due to unpredictable growth (or decline) in usage. The need for scalable design is to ensure that the system capacity can be augmented by adding additional hardware resources whenever warranted by load fluctuations. Thus, scalability has emerged both as a critical requirement as well as a fundamental challenge in the context of cloud computing.[1][4] Typically there are two ways to increase scalability: Vertical scalability by adding hardware resources, usually addition of CPU, memory etc. This vertical scaling (scaling-up) enables them to use virtualizations technologies more effectively by providing more resources for the hosted operating systems and applications to share. Horizontal scalability means to add more nodes to a system, such as adding new node to a distributed software application or adding more access points within the current system. Hundreds of small computers may be configured in a cluster to obtain aggregate computing power. The Horizontal scalability (scale-out) model also creates an increased demand for shared data storage with very high I/O performance especially where processing of large amounts of data is required. In general, the scale-out paradigm has served as the fundamental design paradigm for the large-scale data-centers of today. Integrating multiple load balancers into your system is probably the best solution for dealing with scalability issues. There are many different forms of load balancers to choose from; server farms, software and even hardware that have been designed to handle and distribute increased traffic. Items that interfere with scalability[3]: Too much software clutter (no organization) within the hardware stack(s). Overuse of third-party scaling. Reliance on the use of synchronous calls. Not enough caching Database not being used properly. Creating a cloud network that offers the maximum level of scalability potential is entirely possible if we apply a more diagonal solution. By incorporating the best solutions present in both vertical and horizontal scaling, it is possible to reap the benefits of both models[3]. Once the servers reach the limit of diminishing returns (no growth), we should simply start cloning them. This will allow us to keep a consistent architecture when adding new components, software, apps and users. For most individuals, problems arise from lack of resources not the inherent architecture of their cloud itself. A more diagonal approach should help the business to deal with the current and growing demands that it is facing. 17

18 4. Elasticity Of all the attributes possessed by cloud computing in general, the most important is certainly its elasticity. It s ability to amplify and instantly upgrade resources and/or capacities on a moment notice. Storage, processing and the scalability of applications are all elastic in the cloud. The really remarkable thing about cloud computing is the real-time infrastructure that actively responds on user requests for resources. Without the real-time monitoring and support behind this elasticity, the effectiveness, adaptability and muscle of cloud computing would be greatly undermined. It is this elastic ability that the service providers possess which allows them to offer their users access to cloud computing services at such reduced costs. Since users only pay for what they use they can save money. For example with the traditional grid computing network every user has its own intensive hardware setup of which most of the users rarely use more than 50% of the capacity. Their combined resource usage might be 20-30% of the total resources available on their central cloud computing hardware stack. What cloud computing is really offering is the ability for average users to retain their current standards and expectations, while leaving the door open for instant expansion opportunities if they desire it. This also gives a much more efficient way to use energy. Elasticity offers the same computing experience to which we are accustomed, with the added benefit of near limitless resources at the same time offering a way to manage the energy consumption. [1][3] The elastic capabilities offered by cloud computing makes it perfectly suited toward handling certain activities or processes. Establishing an in office communication and online networking infrastructure (for employees). Setting up a system that allows those in the organization a cleaner and more efficient system for communicating and working often leads to greatly increased profits. Using cloud computing to handle overdrafting - high volume data transfer periods and events. Some businesses only use cloud computing when they run out of their own resources, or perhaps anticipate that they might lack needed functionalities. This can be something that is scheduled for an annual or bi-annual basis; designed to meet a seasonal demand for a particular product for example. Assigning all customer data and transaction information to a cloud computing element. This allows an organization to keep their customer s data safe even from their own employees. Utilizing a third party to handle all customer data can also pay off in the event of a catastrophic type event. Cloud computing providers tend to keep your information more securely backed-up than most are even aware of. [3] In other word elasticity allows both user and provider to do more with less. 18

19 5. Database Management Systems in the cloud (Database as a service) Data and database management are integral part of wide variety of applications. Particularly Relation DBMSs had been massively used due to many futures that they offer: Overall functionality offering intuitive and relatively simple model for modeling different types of applications. Consistency, dealing with concurrent workloads without worrying about the data getting out of sync Performance, low latency and high throughput combined with many years of engineering and development Reliability, persistence of data in the presence of different types of failures and ensuring safety. The main concern is that the DBMSs and RDBMSs are not cloud-friendly because they are not as scalable as the web-servers and application servers, which can scale from a few machines to hundreds. The traditional DBMSs are not design to run on top of the shared-nothing architecture (where a set of independent machines accomplish a task with minimal resource overlap) and they do not provide the tools needed to scale-out from a few to a large number of machines. Technology leaders such as Google, Amazon, and Microsoft have demonstrated that data centers comprising thousands to hundreds of thousands compute nodes, provide unprecedented economiesof-scale since multiple applications can share a common infrastructure. All three companies have provided frameworks such as Amazon s AWS, Google s AppEngine and Microsoft Azure for hosting third party application in their clouds (data-center infrastructures). Because the RDBMs or transactional data management databases that back banking, airline reservation, online e-commerce, and supply chain management applications typically rely on the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) guarantees that databases provide and It is hard to maintain ACID guarantees in the face of data replication over large geographic distances 1, they even have developed propriety data management technologies referred to as key-value stores or informally called NO-SQL database management systems.[6] The need for web-based application to support virtually unlimited number of users and to be able to respond to sudden load fluctuations raises the requirement to make them scalable in cloud computing platforms. There is a need that such scalability can be provisioned dynamically without causing any interruption in the service. Key-value stores and other NOSQL database solutions, such as Google Datastore offered with Google AppEngine, Amazon SimpleDB and DynamoDB, MongoDB and others, have been designed so that they can be elastic or can be dynamically provisioned in the presence of load fluctuations. We will explain some of these systems in more details later on. 1 CAP theorem, also known as Brewer's theorem, states that it is impossible for a distributed computer system to simultaneously provide all three of the following guarantees: Consistency (all nodes see the same data at the same time) Availability (a guarantee that every request receives a response about whether it was successful or failed) Partition tolerance (the system continues to operate despite arbitrary message loss or failure of part of the system) According to the theorem, a distributed system can satisfy any two of these guarantees at the same time, but not all three. 19

20 As we move to the cloud-computing arena which typically comprises data-centers with thousands of servers, the manual approach of database administration is no longer feasible. Instead, there is a growing need to make the underlying data management layer autonomic or self-managing especially when it comes to load redistribution, scalability, and elasticity. [7] Figure 3 Traditional VS Cloud Data Services This issue becomes especially acute in the context of pay-per-use cloud-computing platforms hosting multi-tenant applications. In this model, the service provider is interested in minimizing its operational cost by consolidating multiple ten-ants on as few machines as possible during periods of low activity and distributing these tenants on a larger number of servers during peak usage [7]. Due to the above desirable properties of key-value stores in the context of cloud computing and large-scale data-centers, they are being widely used as the data management tier for cloud-enabled Web applications. Although it is claimed that atomicity at a single key is adequate in the context of many Web-oriented applications, evidence is emerging that indicates that in many application scenarios this is not enough. In such cases, the responsibility to ensure atomicity and consistency of multiple data entities falls on the application developers. This results in the duplication of multi-entity synchronization mechanisms many times in the application software. In addition, as it is widely recognized that concurrent programs are highly vulnerable to subtle bugs and errors, this approach impacts the application reliability adversely. The realization of providing atomicity beyond single entities is widely discussed in developer blogs. Recently, this problem has also been recognized by the senior architects from Amazon and Google, leading to systems like MegaStore [10] that provide transactional guarantees on key-value stores. Both RDBMs and NOSQL DBMs offerings in the cloud will be explained in more details, how they work who offers them and how they are provisioned. I will first focus on the relational database offered in the cloud. I will start with one of the first Enterprise database built for the cloud, the Salesforce s database.com. 20

21 6. Database.com Database.com is a database management system that is built for cloud computing with multitenancy inherent in its design. Traditional RDBMSs were designed to support on premises deployments for one organization. All core mechanisms such as system catalog, cashing mechanisms and query optimizer are built to support single-tenant applications and to run directly on a specifically tuned host operating system and hardware. Only possible way to build multi-tenant cloud database service with standard RDBMS is to use virtualization. Unfortunately, the extra overhead of the hypervisor typically hurts the performance of the RDBMS. Database.com combines several different persistence technologies, including a custom -designed relational database schema, which are innately designed for clouds and multitenancy - no virtualization required. 6.1 Database.com Architecture Database.com s core relational database technology uses a runtime engine that materializes all application data from metadata - data about the data itself. In Database.com s metadata-driven architecture, there is a clear separation of the compiled runtime database engine (kernel), tenant data, and the metadata that describes each application s schema. These distinct boundaries make it possible to independently update the system kernel and tenant -specific application schemas. Figure 4 Databse.com Architecture [9] Every logical database object is internally managed using metadata. Objects, ( tables in traditional relational database parlance), fields, stored procedures, and database triggers are all abstract 21

22 constructs that exist merely as metadata in Database.com s Universal Data Dictionary (UDD). Database.com used terminology is shown in Table 1. Relational Database Term Equivalent Term in Databse.com Database Organization Table Object Column Field Row Record Table 1 Database.com Terminology When a new application object is defined or some procedural code is written, Database.com does not create an actual table in a database or compile any code, it simply stores metadata that the system s engine can use to generate the virtual application components at runtime. When modification or customization of something about the application schema is needed, like modify an existing field in an object, all that s required is a simple non-blocking update to the corresponding metadata [9]. In order to avoid performance-sapping disk I/O and code recompilations, and improve application response times, Database.com uses massive and sophisticated metadata caches to maintain the most recently used metadata in memory. The system runtime engine must be optimizes to access metadata because frequent metadata access would prevent the service from scaling. At the heart of Database.com is its transaction database engine. Database.com uses a relational database engine with a specialized schema build for multitenancy. It also employs a search engine (separate from the transaction engine) that optimizes full -text indexing and searches. As applications update data, the search service s background processes asynchronously update tenant - and userspecific indexes in near real time. The goal of this separation of duties between the transaction engine and the search service lets applications process transactions without the overhead of text index updates [9]. 6.2 Multitenant data model Database.com storage model manages virtual database structures using a set of metadata, data, and pivot tables, as illustrated in Figure 5 Figure 5 Multitenant data model of Database.com [9] 22

Masaryk University Faculty of Informatics. Master Thesis. Database management as a cloud based service for small and medium organizations

Masaryk University Faculty of Informatics. Master Thesis. Database management as a cloud based service for small and medium organizations Masaryk University Faculty of Informatics Master Thesis Database management as a cloud based service for small and medium organizations Dime Dimovski Brno, 2013 2 Statement I declare that I have worked

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