TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER MODEL TO MIGRATE E-GOVERNANCE TO CLOUD COMPUTING

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1 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER MODEL TO MIGRATE E-GOVERNANCE TO CLOUD COMPUTING Harjit Singh, Assistant Professor, Punjabi University Akali Phoola Singh Neighbourhood Campus, Dehla Seehan(Sangrur), Punjab, India. Abstract The revolution in the Internet is changing the way we live, learn, work and interact with each other. Naturally, the governments in developing countries need to change the way they perform their functions in terms of their relationships with citizens and organization and cooperation with other governments. But the developing countries do not have necessary infrastructure to fully implement E-Services. A technology that has potential to offer solutions for E-Governance is Computing. Computing provides service oriented access to end users without compromising on security. This makes cloud an excellent platform to host e-governance services. In this paper, a technology transfer model is proposed to migrate e-governance from traditional computing to cloud computing. Keywords: Computing, E-Governance, Information Technology, Web Services. Introduction E-Governance is a process of reform in the way and deliver services to external and internal clients for the benefit of both government and the clients that they serve. E-Governance aims at providing citizen centric services and ensuring increased transparency in the service interactions with various government agencies. With the revolution in the Internet, there is a regular change in the way we live, learn, work and interact with each other. The development of skills and knowledge of end users in computers and the Internet and increasing adoption of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in their daily lives, fuelled the usage of ICT in development of e-governance solutions and platforms. Naturally, the governments in developing countries need to change the way they perform their functions in terms of their relationships with citizens and organization and cooperation with other governments. But the developing countries do not have necessary infrastructure to fully implement E-Services. A technology that has potential to offer solutions for E-Governance is Computing. Computing provides service oriented access to end users without compromising on security. This makes cloud an excellent platform to host e-governance services. Considering the large number of business processes and services that exist in any governance model, cloud computing is one of the key technology vehicle that could make e-governance projects a reality, take it to the masses and more importantly, sustain them over a period of time. This paper describes the characteristics of cloud computing, cloud architecture, cloud deployment models, cloud service models and a technology transfer model to migrate e-governance from traditional computing to cloud computing. Introduction to Computing A technology that has fastest growing segments in IT and shown its high growth rate in the last few years, is Computing. The technology uses the Internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth. The technology is not revolutionary, but it is the outcome of the continuous advancement of the data management technology. The core idea of computing as a utility computing and grid computing developed in 1960 s. Around 1999, internet as the mechanism to provide Application as Service got developed. In 2005, the term cloud computing became popular and the sub classification of IaaS, PaaS & SaaS got formalized. The phrase originates from the cloud symbol used by flow charts and diagrams to symbolize the Internet. The term Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the servers and system software in the data centers that provide those services. computing really is accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with dynamically changing needs. An application or service developer requests access from the cloud rather than a specific endpoint or named resource. What goes on in the cloud manages multiple infrastructures across multiple organizations and consists of one or more frameworks overlaid on top of the infrastructures tying them together. Computing Characteristics A. On demand self services Computer services such as , applications, network or server service can be provided without requiring human interaction with each service provider. service providers providing on demand self services include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft, Google, IBM and Salesforce.com. New York Times and NASDAQ are examples of companies using AWS. B. Resource Pooling ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

2 The provider s computing resources are pooled together to serve multiple consumers using multiple-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The resources include among others storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, virtual machines and services. The pooling together of the resource builds economies of scale. C. Rapid Elasticity services can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. D. Mutitenacity It refers to the need for policy-driven enforcement, segmentation, isolation, governance, service levels, and chargeback/billing models for different consumer constituencies. Consumers might utilize a public cloud provider s service offerings or actually be from the same organization, such as different business units rather than distinct organizational entities, but would still share infrastructure. E. Measured Service computing resource usage can be measured, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. computing services use a metering capability which enables to control and optimize resource use. This implies that just like air time, electricity or municipality water IT services are charged per usage metrics pay per use. The more you utilize the higher the bill. Just as utility companies sell power to subscribers, and telephone companies sell voice and data services, IT services such as network security management, data center hosting or even departmental billing can now be easily delivered as a contractual service. Computing Architecture computing Architectures are designs of software applications that use Internet accessible on-demand services (Figure 1). Applications built on Architectures are such that the underlying computing infrastructure is used only when it is needed, draw the necessary resources on- demand, perform a specific job, then relinquish the unneeded resources and often dispose themselves after the job is done. Figure 1. Computing Architecture While in operation the application scales up or down elastically based on resource needs. The rapid growth of cloud computing is largely based on the effective implementation of its architecture. In cloud computing, architecture is not just based on how the application will work with the intended users. computing requires an intricate interaction with the hardware which is very essential to ensure uptime of the application. Applications build on Architectures run in the cloud where the physical location of the infrastructure is determined by the provider. They take advantage of simple API s of Internet accessible services that scale ondemand, that are industrial strength, where the complex reliability and scalability logic of the underlying services remains implemented and hidden inside-the cloud. The usage of resources in Architecture is as needed, thereby providing the highest utilization with optimum cost. Deployment Models A. Private The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. B. Community The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Example: ebay. C. Public Enterprises may use cloud functionality from others, respectively offer their own services to users outside of the company. Providing the user with the actual capability to exploit the cloud ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

3 features for his / her own purposes also allows other enterprises to outsource their services to such cloud providers, thus reducing costs and effort to build up their own infrastructure. As noted in the context of cloud types, the scope of functionalities thereby may differ. Example: Amazon, Google Apps, Windows Azure. D. Hybrid A hybrid cloud is the private cloud which is linked to one or more public cloud services, which are centrally managed and provisioned as a unit. The hybrid cloud provides services as a mix of both public and private clouds as virtualized services. It is a cloud computing environment in which an organization provides and manages some resources in house and has others provided externally. This model is more prevalent for large enterprises which often already have substantial investments in the infrastructure required to provide resources in house. Hybrid provides applications and data in a secure manner so that many organizations prefer to keep sensitive data under their own control to ensure security. B. Platform-as-a-Service Broadly speaking a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is a cloudbased application development environment. Using a PaaS, companies can produce new applications more quickly and with a greater degree of flexibility than with older development platforms tied directly to hardware resources. Running application development on a PaaS has a number of key benefits. Programmers and development managers especially appreciate that the cloud provider handles all the care and maintenance of the underlying operating system(s), servers, storage, and application containers. PaaS environments can be extremely useful when development teams are widespread geographically or when partner companies or divisions share development efforts. Engineers can more easily share and back up a central repository of application data and implement tighter version control. Companies can build up and tear down PaaS environments on demand with no capital expenditures or long-term investment. Service Models A. Software-as-a-Service This was the earliest cloud service and the first to enjoy widespread adoption. In a nutshell, SaaS is the online delivery of software functionality and capability without the need for locally running software. Rather, SaaS runs on a Web browser. Gmail and Salesforce are two popular SaaS products. Thousands of others exist delivering everything from graphics design to CRM to online security to basic word processing. Enterprise level SaaS providers deliver a wide variety of sophisticated applications such as product lifecycle management, supply chain management, and many other vertical applications. Direct benefits of SaaS include reduced hardware costs, reduced software licensing costs, and more flexible IT resources that can be dialed up or down quickly on demand. Secondary benefits include reduced or outsourced software support overhead and simpler licensing and product lifecycle management requirements. Equally important, SaaS applications allow users to access and manipulate their data anywhere they have a data connection from any device an important consideration in a world where nearly everyone has several compute platforms (mobile, laptop, tablet). Drawbacks include less ability to customize the application for specific business requirements, difficulty integrating SaaS with existing software based infrastructure, and budgeting uncertainties inherent in pay-as you-go pricing models. Increasingly, SaaS solutions are accepted by even the largest enterprises as viable replacements for traditional software which resides on an individual computer or is delivered over a local area network. Figure 2. Service Models A key drawback to many PaaS implementations, however, is the tie-in to one vendor s platform and infrastructure. Customers need to ensure that the platform allows for maximum portability of applications and data. Overall, companies can save considerable capital and operating expenses using a PaaS solution. However, companies running production applications in a PaaS environment need to perform detailed due diligence on the infrastructure underlying the PaaS itself. Many of PaaS platforms are built on top of other cloud platforms. If those underpinning infrastructure layers go offline or become unresponsive, then a PaaS might also become unavailable and with it the customer s production applications. This is precisely what happened when the popular and highly-regarded application development and runtime environment PaaS Heroku was taken down in April 2011 by a multiday outage in Amazon Web Service s Elastic Compute. C. Infrastructure-as-a-Service The most foundational use of cloud computing is Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). This entails the rental of a complete computing resources for running applications, hosting data, or housing a company s entire computing environment. IaaS is the ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

4 delivery model which provides computer Infrastructure as a service. It is a single tenant cloud computing layer where the dedicated resources of Computing vendors are shared only with the contract based clients at a pay-per-use fee. This greatly reduces the need for huge initial investments in computing hardware such as networking devices, computing servers, and processing unit. It is the base layer of the computing Virtualized stack. It serves as a base foundation for their execution, for the other two layers. Amazon EC2 is an example of an IaaS. The challenge with IaaS is that rack space and virtual server rentals reproduces and even magnifies many of the same IT management issues as outright server and network hardware ownership. Further downsides to IaaS include lack of control over your hardware and network infrastructure and exposure to unknown actors who may be running virtual machines on the same piece of hardware as your own organization s virtual machines. These other tenants in a multitenancy environment can suck up bandwidth, I/O and, in a worst-case scenario, present a significant security hazard by breaking out of their virtual machine to attack other tenants or the software kernel of the IaaS platform itself. Proposed Technology Transfer Model The technology transfer model described here is based on Prototyping model. The model is explained step by step to migrate e- governance from present traditional computing to cloud computing. This is a continuing process of improvement starting from an initial prototype until we find our requirements fulfilled. A. Step-1: Learning This is the first step of transferring the e-governance from traditional computing to cloud computing. It is very important to educate and inform policy makers about the advantages and value of cloud computing. The policy makers need to be informed about how cloud computing is working and how it is more beneficial than traditional computing. The technocrats from outside the government will provide all these services to the policy makers. B. Step-2: Requirement Specifications This step deals with the assessment of technological requirements, capacity utilization and structure. As per the demand resources can be increased or decreased to fulfill the needs. The Government officials and IT officers are engaged in this step to specify the system requirements. Advancement Rollout Learning Technology Transfer Model for Data and Application Migration Figure 3. Technology Transfer Model for C. Step-3: Prototype Development Based on the requirements specified in step-2, a working model is developed in this step. This is the initial model and can provide only minimal set of services. IT Professionals will determine which type of cloud (public, private or hybrid) would be suitable and usable. This is usually a scaled-down system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product. The basic concept of prototyping is to eliminate the use of well-defined project requirements. Projects are allowed to grow as the customer needs and request grow. Projects are initially designed according to basic requirements and are refined as requirement become more refined. This process allows customer to feel their way around the application to ensure that they are developing exactly what they want in the application. D. Step-4: Data and Application Migration In this step, an overall assessment is performed to determine which data and applications could be moved to the cloud environment. As this assessment progresses, IT decision makers must focus on establishing decision rules as to which data and applications can and cannot be housed in cloud environment. E. Step-5: Rollout Requirement Specifications Prototype Development In this step rolling out the cloud computing begins and the cloud becomes more mainstream in the way the government manages its data, operations and citizens. The cloud goes away from the test effort and enters the reality. It involves gaining buy- ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

5 in from leadership and IT officers and communicating goals, progress and cost/benefit of this cloud project with internal and external stakeholders. Now the cloud becomes a part of regular operations of the government as an important IT tool. F. Step-6: Advancement This last step makes improvements in the working cloud project. The above steps are repeated again and again until we get the fully functional cloud computing system with live data and are the requirements are fulfilled. Benefits to E-Governance A. Data and Application Scalability With cloud architectures, scalability is inbuilt. Typically, E- Governance applications can be scaled vertically by moving to a more powerful machine that can offer more memory, CPU, storage. A simpler solution is to cluster the applications and scale horizontally by adding resources. databases available for deployment offer unprecedented level of scaling without compromising on the performance. B. Security and Reliability can help in analyzing huge volumes of data and detecting any fraud. It can help in building and placing defense mechanisms to enhance the security, thereby making the applications reliable and available. helps to increase the number of resources dynamically to maintain quality of service intact even at the times of high load, which generally happens in E- Governance. C. Disaster Recovery virtualization technologies allow backups and restoring. It offers application migration seamlessly compared to traditional data center. The regular backups provide reliability that it can be restored in case of any disaster. D. Policy Implementation architectures help a great deal in implementing policies in data center. Policies with respect to security, application deployment etc can be formalized and enforced in the data center. With cloud, E-Governance applications can manage the policies well by providing security and adoptability. Various E- Governance applications can be integrated easily. E. Green E-Governance computing helps government to go green, by centralizing all resources and efficient utilization of resources. This could be one of the reasons for moving to governance. Instead of duplicating these facilities, with cloud, one can offer centralized infrastructure that can be efficiently used to minimize pollution. F. New Application Instances architectures offer excellent features for rolling out a new application instance. can reduce the time to deploy new application instances such as to include another municipality or e-court as part of E-Governance. G. Total Cost of Ownership Adoption of reduces TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) in the long run. Deploying applications on a cloud platform reduces capital outlays. Even if the government intends to setup a private cloud there are new business models that ensure the outflow from the government is minimal. Conclusion From the above research it is concluded that cloud computing provides better services than traditional computing with reduced cost. The migration from traditional computing to cloud computing may take time but once completed it will provide numerous benefits to the government in long run. It is the best option to enhance the government services in developing countries such as education, healthcare and social welfare of citizens. References [1] Michael Armbrust, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy Katz, Above the s: A Berkeley View of Computing, University of California Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, February 10th, [2] Boss G, Malladi P, Quan D, Legregni L, Hall H. omputing. IBM White Paper (2007). wes/hipods/_computing_wp_final_8oct.pdf [3] Vouk, M.A. Computing - Issues, research and implementations, IEEE Information Technology Interfaces 30th International Conference, page(s): 31~40 (2008). [4] Klems, M, Lenk, A, Nimis, J, Sandholm T and Tai S, What s Inside the? An Architectural Map of the Landscape, IEEE Xplore, pp 23-31, viewed 21 (2009). [5] L. Wang et al., Scientific 1. Computing: Early Definition and Experience, Proc. 10th Int l Conf. High- Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC 08), IEEE CS Press, pp (2008). ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

6 [6] CHEN Kang, ZHENG Wei-Min., Computing: System Instances and Current Research. Journal of Software, 20(5): pp.1337 (2009). [7] D. Dikaiakos, D. Katsaros, P. Mehra, A. Vakali, Computing Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research, IEEE Xplore, pp 23-31, viewed 22 (2009). [8] S. Singh, Different Com- 4. Putting Standards a Huge Challenge, The Economic Times, 4 June 2009; times.com/infotech/different - cloud-computing-standards/articleshow/ cms. [9] Amazon. Amazon elastic compute cloud (Amazon EC2). (2009). [10] Jinesh Varia. architectures- Amazon web services [EB/OL]. ACM Monthly Tech Talk, may-2008 cloudarchitectures amazon-web-services.html,(2008) [11] Udayan Banerjee, The Evolution of Computing, 8 March 2011, New Roman that you have access to. [12] J.B. Horrigan, Com- 3. puting Gains in Currency, 12 Sept. 2008, org/pubs/948/cloudcomputing-gains-in-currency. [13] D. Rosenberg, Supercloud looms for Japanese government, CNet News, May 14, [14] R. Hicks, Chinese city builds public cloud to aid innovation, FutureGov, September 29, [15] D.C. Wyld, Moving to the cloud: An introduction to cloud computing in government. Washington, DC: IBM Center for the Business of Government, November [16] IDC, Press Release: IDC Finds Computing Entering Period of Accelerating Adoption andpoised to Capture IT Spending Growth Over the Next Five Years, October 20, [17] G. Nagesh, USA.gov's successful shift to cloud computing could become the model, NextGov, September 29, [18] S. Towns, Federal web portal moves to cloud computting platform, Government Technology,May 1, [19] G. Gross, Gov't agencies embrace cloud computing: Government agencies say they're moving toward an embrace of cloud computing and software-as-a-service, PC World, February 25, [20] A. DiMaio, Is there a European government cloud? Gartner, May 19, ISSN No: Volume 2, Issue 4, July

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