1 Planning of Construction Projects: A Managerial Approach Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Ingenieurwissenschaften (Dr.-Ing.) vom Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen der Universität Siegen genehmigte Dissertation von Dipl.-Kffr. Nicole Sunke Referent: Prof. Dr. rer. pol. Frank Schultmann, Universität Siegen Korreferent: Prof. Dr. Jay Yang, Queensland University of Technology Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: Siegen, 2009
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3 Acknowledgements My supervisor and first reviewer providing a creative environment, support, and the opportunity for research and participation in the international scientific community: Prof. Dr. rer. pol. Frank Schultmann, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) My second reviewer investing time reading and making valuable comments on my thesis: Prof. Dr. Jay Yang, Queensland University of Technoloy, Australia My scientific and organizational support during the last stages of my thesis: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alfons Goris, Universität Siegen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Monika Jarosch, Universität Siegen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Stache, Universität Siegen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Steinbrecher, Universität Siegen My friends, visible and invisible support (not just with respect to my megaproject): Austin Amysan, Irina Apeykina, Lasse Asbach, Martin Bouzaima, Hayál Coelen, Michael Haasis, Andreas Hoffmann, Birgit Hoffmann, René Lange, Sebastian Schindler My family, in good times and in bad times: My mother, my father, my grandma, Bernadette, Tobias, Andreas, Irina, Katrin Lars Gollenbeck Thank you!
5 Table of contents I Table of contents List of figures List of tables List of abbreviations V VII IX 1 Introduction Problem definition Objectives and research design 3 2 Characteristics of the construction industry Peculiarities of the construction, its products, and its production processes Economic relevancy of the construction industry in Europe and Germany Structure of the construction supply chain Stakeholders and their objectives 16 3 Planning in construction Characteristics of construction projects and project delivery systems Current practice in construction planning Project schedule and construction project planning approaches Performance of construction projects Resource oriented project planning in construction Project planning approaches for repetitive projects Project planning approaches for generalized projects Common versus resource-constrained project planning Development of procurement strategies for project resources Characterization of resources for project execution Classification scheme for project resources Strategies for providing resources Strategies for the mitigation of resource criticality Discussion of results 48 4 A concept for capacity oriented construction project planning Development of an approach for hierarchical project planning Hierarchical production planning and related decision levels in enterprises A hierarchical project planning approach Methodology Fields of application 57
6 II Table of contents 4.2 Possible applications of resource-constrained project scheduling in construction A generalized resource-constrained project scheduling model Alternative processing modes of construction activities Multiple simultaneous construction projects Measures for construction project performance Construction project duration Construction project profit Construction project resource utilization Construction project sustainability Interests of different project stakeholders Construction project planning with uncertainties Further construction project particularities Solution procedures and applications in construction project planning Discussion of results 76 5 Proposition for the design and operation of construction supply chains Challenges for the design and operation of construction supply chains Supply chain management in manufacturing industries Definitions of supply chain management Framework for strategic and operational supply chain management Supply chain design Supply chain operations Adoption of supply chain management to construction Characteristics of construction supply chain management Existing work on construction supply chain management Construction supply chain design Construction supply chain operations Impacts on the design and operation of construction supply chains Logistic systems for material delivery Material and component characteristics Discussion of results Sustainable end-of-life management of construction products Need for sustainability Construction and demolition waste as an example Classification of construction and demolition waste Accomplishments of construction and demolition waste recovery in Germany 106
7 Table of contents III Laws and regulations in Germany Product recovery management in construction Challenges in product recovery and related work Terminology of recovery strategies for materials and components Limitations of product recovery Measuring the advantageousness of product recovery Closed-loop supply chain management Closed-loop supply chains General drivers for the establishment of closed-loop supply chains Reverse logistics Phases of reverse logistics Existing work on reverse logistics Characteristics of product returns Collection systems Reverse chain actors Discussion of results Planning models for reverse logistics operations in construction General structure of the reverse logistic planning problem in construction Implications for the use of site storage space and vehicle capacities Constraints on site storage space Constraints on vehicle capacities Contractor s multi vehicle multi material assignment problem for bulk material General model formulation Multi vehicle multi material assignment problem with consolidated storage Waste management company s vehicle assignment problem for bulk material Single contractor vehicle assignment problem with setup times Multiple contractor vehicle assignment problem with setup times Waste management company s roll-on roll-off planning problem for bulk material Waste management company s vehicle routing problem for low volume material Vehicle routing problem with time windows Multi day vehicle routing problem with time windows Waste management company s inventory routing problem for low volume material An approach for integrated project and vehicle routing planning Discussion of results 173
8 IV Table of contents 8 Energy-oriented end-of-life management The role of energy efficiency in construction Energetic evaluation of product reuse and recovery An approach for integrated deconstruction-recovery planning Project planning with energy-time-resource trade-offs Integrated deconstruction-recovery model Discussion of results Summary and outlook Zusammenfassung (German) 191 References Appendix Construction and demolition waste classification according to the European Waste Catalogue (EWC) i xxvii xxvii
9 List of figures V List of figures Figure 1: Segments of the construction industry 8 Figure 2: Typical building life cycle 10 Figure 3: Generic configuration of a supply chain in manufacturing 13 Figure 4: Typical configuration of a construction supply chain 14 Figure 5: CSC relationship model 15 Figure 6: The myriad of construction supply chains 16 Figure 7: Traditional design-bid-build delivery system 22 Figure 8: Agency construction manager delivery system 23 Figure 9: At-risk construction manager delivery system 24 Figure 10: Project manager delivery system 24 Figure 11: Document and construct relationship chart 25 Figure 12: Separate prime contracts relationship chart 26 Figure 13: Project management life cycle 30 Figure 14: Two-dimensional classification 44 Figure 15: Resource classification 45 Figure 16: Decomposition of a project 52 Figure 17: Hierarchical project planning approach 55 Figure 18: Activity-on-node network for the dismantling of a residential building 59 Figure 19: Time points and periods 60 Figure 20: Supply chain strategies 83 Figure 21: Disposition C&D debris in Figure 22: Disposition road construction waste in Figure 23: Disposition of excavated earth in Figure 24: Applications for recycling construction material 110 Figure 25: Product recovery management in the manufacturing industries 116 Figure 26: Recovery strategies in the building construction sector 118 Figure 27: Stages of reverse logistics in the manufacturing industries 125 Figure 28: Factors impacting collection system design 130 Figure 29: Focus of the reverse logistic planning problem in construction 136 Figure 30: General structure of the material collection problem in construction 137 Figure 31: Material accumulation of activity j (example) 142 Figure 32: Material type accumulation at time t with parallel activities (example) 144 Figure 33: Utilization of storage space by succeeding accumulating material types 152 Figure 34: Types of roll-on roll-off planning problems 159
10 VI List of figures Figure 35: Integrated project scheduling and vehicle routing approach 172 Figure 36: Assignment of the ESV to job j in mode m 181
11 List of tables VII List of tables Table 1: Selected construction project stakeholders 17 Table 2: Delivery systems in construction - a comparison 27 Table 3: Brief comparison of CPM, MPM, and PERT with RCPSP 38 Table 4: Criteria for resource categorization 41 Table 5: Selected definitions for supply chain management 81 Table 6: SCD considerations 84 Table 7: CSC design approaches 91 Table 8: CSC operations and execution 95 Table 9: Logistic systems and suitable building materials 99 Table 10: Influence of construction materials on transport and inventory management 101 Table 11: Current state of C&D waste recovery (10-year average) 111 Table 12: Reverse logistics planning tasks for bulk materials 139 Table 13: Reverse logistics planning tasks for valuable and hazardous materials 140 Table 14: Example: Modeling of 3 pickups at one customer in the MDVRPTW 168 Table 15: C&D debris xxvii Table 16: Road construction waste xxvii Table 17: Excavated earth xxviii Table 18: Gypsum-based construction material xxviii Table 19: Construction waste xxix
13 List of abbreviations IX List of abbreviations AON Activity-on-node ARGE KWTB Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kreislaufwirtschaftsträger Bau ATV Allgemeine technische Vertragsbedingungen B2B Business-to-business BOOT Build-own-operate-transfer BOT Build-operate-transfer BRB Bundesvereinigung Recycling Baustoffe BTO Build-transfer-operate C&D waste Construction and demolition waste CAD Computer aided design CM Construction Manager CPM Critical path method CPT Construction planning technique CSC Construction supply chain CSCD Construction supply chain design CSCM Construction supply chain management CVP Construction virtual prototyping CVRP Capacitated vehicle routing problem DB Design-build DBB Design-bid-build DBOF Design-build-operate-finance DCMF Design-construct-manage-finance DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. EMMRCPSP Extended MMRCPSP EOLPs End-of-life products EPR Extended producer responsibility ESV Energy-savings value EWC European Waste Catalogue GMP Guaranteed Maximum Price HOAI Honorarordnung für Architekten und Ingenieure HVACR Heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration
14 X IRP IT ISO JIT Krw-/AbfG LCA LCE LCEA LOB LSM MCDM MCVAPST MDVRPTW MIP MMRCPSP MPM MRP MVMMAP NGO NPV OEM PBC PERT PRM PVRP RCCP RCMPSP RCMPSP DCF RCPSP RCPSP DCF RFID List of abbreviations Inventory routing problem Information technology International Organization for Standardization Just in time Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz Life cycle assessment Life cycle energy Life cycle energy analysis Line of balance Linear scheduling method Multi criteria decision making Multiple contractor vehicle assignment problem with setup times Multi day vehicle routing problem with time windows Mixed integer program Multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem Metra potential method Material requirements planning Multi vehicle multi material assignment problem Non-governmental organization Net present value Original equipment manufacturer Phosphate bonded ceramic Programme evaluation and review technique Product recovery management Period vehicle routing problem Rough cut capacity planning Resource-constrained multi project scheduling problem Resource-constrained multi-project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows Resource-constrained project scheduling problem Resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows Radio frequency identification
15 List of abbreviations XI RIP RLP RPM RRBau RRVRP RSCM SC SCD SCE SCM SCVAPST SMEs TCPSP TSP TSSM VMI VP VPM VRP VRPTW WEEE WMC ZDB Resource investment problem Resource leveling problem Repetitive project model Richtlinien für die Durchführung von Bauaufgaben des Bundes Roll-on roll-off vehicle routing problem Repetitive scheduling method Supply chain Supply chain design Supply chain execution Supply chain management Single contractor vehicle assignment problem with setup up Small and medium enterprises Time-constrained project scheduling problem Traveling salesman problem Time space scheduling method Vendor managed inventory Virtual prototyping Vertical production method Vehicle routing problem Vehicle routing problem with time windows Waste electrical and electronic equipment Waste management company Zentralverband des deutschen Baugewerbes
16 XII List of abbreviations
17 Introduction 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Problem definition The construction industry can be considered as one of the oldest industries organized on a project basis. Well known examples are, for instance, the Egyptian pyramids (3 rd millennium B.C.) and the aqueducts carrying water to cities and industrial sites, such as gold mines, with the first one constructed in Rome in 312 B.C. Thereby, construction has early started to develop characteristics of taylorism and specialization for complex buildings with diversified construction activities and a heterogeneous mix of materials and components. The project based organizational structure has mainly remained the same for centuries in construction, apart from recent achievements of standardization of construction with modular or preengineered housing and prefabricated standardized components, concepts taken over from the manufacturing industries. However, although being an old industry, construction is still an unsustainable industry in terms of the triple-bottom of sustainability comprising economic, ecological as well as social aspects. Focusing on economic means, construction is characterized by time and cost intensive production processes which make it prone to project risks and failure, mainly in terms of time and cost. In practice, this means, that the performance of construction projects is usually low. In particular, construction projects are very often delayed and over budget. This is not just due to problems faced during project scheduling, but also during related processes such as material procurement and material management. Apart from the economic dimension, negative environmental impacts include approximately % of global energy consumption as well as % of greenhouse gas emissions which can be traced back to the construction industry (UNEP 2007), complemented by a huge amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste accumulating during deconstruction projects, which has to be dealt with. Concluding, these problems call for the construction industry to become the centre of efforts in achieving sustainability. Moreover, the construction industry can be considered as a unique industry as the projects are customer driven, of a one-off nature and accompanied by locally concentrated production and high investments due to the complexity of its products. Following, supply chains of the construction industry are specific and, compared with those of the manufacturing industries, it can be observed that they are more complex due to the unique nature of the projects, the highly uncertain planning environment and the numerous stakeholders of a construction project. Hence, if the focus is drawn to individual construction, for instance, designer buildings as well as streets and tunnels, standardized construction processes to achieve competitive advantages cannot be applied. Concluding, sophisticated methods for project planning and control for these so called design-to-order planning environments would be required. However, researchers are still reluctant to tackle the complexity of individual
18 2 Introduction construction due to the difficulties of generalization of approaches to be developed. Instead, supply chains of the traditional manufacturing industries have been well researched and have been tackled with qualitative as well as quantitative methods. These perform well for standardized production processes. Thereby, usually concepts for make-to-stock, assemble-toorder or make-to-order production were developed and have been established so far. One important aspect in construction supply chain planning remains the proper project time planning. For many decades, methods such as the critical path method (CPM), the programme evaluation and review technique (PERT), the metra potential method (MPM), and Gantt charts have been applied in construction and have maintained their role for construction project planning. These simple techniques do not pay sufficient respect to the complex planning environment in construction and are solely suitable for the determination of time windows for project activities. In contrast, in construction, more difficult planning problems are faced. These range from pure project characteristics, like multiple projects that access the same resource pool, to external constraints opposed to construction projects, such as different stakeholder interests, and environmental concerns, like waste accumulation and disposal. With this respect, special emphasis has to be put on the aspect of sustainability, gaining increasing importance during the last years. Thus, according to the triple-bottom line of sustainability addressing the ecological, economic as well as social responsibility of actors, not just the efficient economic execution of construction projects has to be a core focus in construction management. Instead, the focus has to be shifted additionally to ecological and social issues as well. Especially focusing on ecological aspects, key issues comprise materials management in closed-loop supply chains due to the high amount of construction and demolition waste accumulating with respect to logistic activities as well as energy-related planning tasks in terms of processes and materials. In addition to the traditional planning methods (e. g. CPM, MPM, and PERT) focusing on the economic aspects of the triple bottom line, existing guidelines and regulations assist in making the construction industry more sustainable in terms of environmental aspects. Admittedly, solely applying these approaches it is not possible to satisfactory tackle the occurring problems addressed. Instead, opportunities that might present an appropriate alternative are substitutionally or complementary applying quantitative approaches. The development of quantitative approaches or methods for construction project planning problems has just started. However, these solution approaches are not yet sufficiently methodologically sound enough to present a valuable and realizable contribution to the problem solution. Concluding, up to now, approaches to tackle these planning problems are not available. Hence, more sophisticated approaches are required to take the construction project environment into consideration during construction project planning.
19 Introduction Objectives and research design The main objectives of this research are to develop new solution approaches for construction project planning problems by adopting concepts for production planning known from the manufacturing industries to construction projects, and to set out new perspectives on the reorganization of common project planning processes in construction. While a lot of other research on these issues presents approaches developed for construction without looking at other industry sectors, this research explicitly takes approaches developed for and successfully applied in other sectors into consideration and seeks for possible adoption and transformation of them to the particularities of the construction industry. Although aspects covered have already been investigated in Anglo-American speaking countries to some extend, knowledge about planning approaches from other industrial sectors has rarely expanded into the German construction industry. An application of methods from other industry sectors has only been marginally considered in theory as well as in practice in the construction industry in Germany. For the achievement of the research objective, several research questions need to be addressed. These questions include: What is the performance of construction projects, hence, of construction project planning and which methods exist or have to be developed to appropriately tackle existing deficiencies? Furthermore, what is the role of sustainability in the construction industry, especially regarding the occurrence of construction and demolition waste? With this respect, what lacks of knowledge can be identified and which approaches for the ecologically end-of-life management of construction outputs exist or have to be developed? The first part of the thesis focuses on the economic dimension of sustainability. In particular this comprises the development of approaches for successful construction project planning and materials management to ensure that projects are within time and budget. In contrast, the second part of the thesis shifts the focus to ecological aspects of construction projects and the decrease of its negative ecological impacts with respect to the high amount of waste accumulation. In more detail, this means, that approaches for the processing of arising material during deconstruction projects focusing on materials as well as energetic aspects during deconstruction projects are developed. In section 2, problem awareness is established and the construction industry is distinguished from the manufacturing industries. This comprises the identification of the characteristics of the construction industry and its products, the discussion of the economic relevancy of the construction industry as well as the analysis of the structure of the construction supply chain and the role of stakeholders of construction projects.
20 4 Introduction Project planning in construction as currently practiced is addressed in section 3. Characteristics of construction projects are highlighted and project delivery systems are briefly introduced. Afterwards, performance problems are revealed and related to potential lacks of current methods for project planning. Thereby, the potential of resource oriented planning for construction projects is discussed. With this respect, procurement strategies for project resources are elaborated based on a classification scheme for project resources, which is developed in this section. As outlined in sections 2 and 3, the project planning problems in construction are of complex nature, especially with respect to the consideration of limited resource availability. This aggravates the development of new planning approaches to tackle the performance problems. Hence, a decomposition of the problems is necessary to be able to deal with them. In section 4 a hierarchical planning approach for resource based construction project planning is developed and the role of quantitative resource-constrained project scheduling, an approach well researched in operations management within the context of construction projects, is investigated. The underlying assumption is that project performance not only depends on an efficient resource allocation during the scheduling of the project but also on a proper materials management, which could be improved by applying concepts of supply chain management. Thus, in section 5 a proposition for the design and operation of construction supply chains is made by revealing potential benefits and risks for construction. Afterwards, the focus is shifted towards the ecological dimension of sustainability in the construction industry in section 6. Thereby, the need for the consideration of ecological aspects in construction is highlighted and current accomplishments in Germany with respect to C&D waste treatment are highlighted. In response to the large amount of C&D waste accumulating, the relevancy of the establishment of closed-loop material flows in construction is stressed and aspects of reverse logistics in the context of product recovery as relevant for the operation of construction projects are discussed. Section 7 concentrates on the organization of the material flow and reverse logistic tasks for the collection of construction and demolition waste. Therefore, quantitative planning models for reverse logistic operations in (de-)construction projects are introduced. These models are either especially developed for a particular planning context or are based on existing models which are extended. Finally, an approach for integrated project scheduling and reverse logistic planning is introduced to pay respect to the fact that the timely organization of reverse logistic activities depends on the project schedule.
21 Introduction 5 Section 8 resumes the discussion on sustainability of section 6 and concentrates on project planning with respect to energy efficiency of materials. In particular, an integrated deconstruction-recovery planning approach for deconstruction projects is developed to include ecological as well as economic benefits throughout the life cycle of a building by extending a model for resource-constrained project planning discussed in section 4. Therefore, a measure called energy-savings value, which is based on life cycle energy analysis, is derived for the evaluation of the environmental impact of product recovery. In section 9, a summary and outlook on future research efforts are given. A German executive summary of the thesis is presented in section 10.
22 6 Introduction
23 Characteristics of the construction industry 7 2 Characteristics of the construction industry The construction industry significantly differs from traditional manufacturing industries 1, such as the automobile, consumer food, and textile industry. In the following, a common understanding of the peculiarities of the construction industry, its products, production processes and stakeholders is created and the relevancy of the construction industry for the national and international economy is discussed. 2.1 Peculiarities of the construction, its products, and its production processes The construction industry is that part of the economy which deals with the design, construction, maintenance, and utilization as well as with the modulation, modification and demolition or deconstruction of constructs (Rußig et al. 1996). It is a major sector in most national economies and a major contributor to environmental changes, both in terms of designing the built environment as well as in terms of anthropogenic effects on the environment. Thereby, it impacts economic, social, and ecological issues throughout the whole life cycle of a constructed product. For instance, the construction industry accounts to approximately 10 % to a countries gross domestic product (GDP) 2 and contributes approximately % to global energy consumption as well as % to greenhouse gas emissions (UNEP 2007). Thus, sustainability is of growing importance in the construction sector. The construction industry can be divided into two broad categories: general building construction and engineered construction, as depicted in Figure 1 (Bennett 2003). The general building construction sector can further be divided into four types. The residential construction comprises buildings for human habitation, for example single-family dwellings, flats, multifamily townhouses or high-rise apartments. Retail and wholesale stores, shopping malls, office buildings or small manufacturing facilities belong to commercial construction. The institutional construction includes constructed assets such as hospitals, schools, government buildings or athletic stadiums. Especially institutional construction projects are often very complex and require more planning effort than general building construction projects. The fourth category of the general building construction is industrial construction in which large-scale projects are developed and executed. Unusually, these projects are also characterized by a high technical complexity. Examples for large-scale projects are 1 The manufacturing industries comprise establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. This includes all foods, chemicals, textiles, machines, and equipment as well as all refined metals and minerals derived from extracted ores and all lumber, wood, and pulp products (U.S.Census Bureau 2002a; U.S.Census Bureau 2002b). 2 A detailed discussion on the role of the construction industry within Germany and the European Union is given in section 2.2.
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