Workshop Infrastrutture Tier2. Michele Michelotto

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1 Workshop Infrastrutture Tier2 Michele Michelotto

2 Padova 3 e 4 Ottobre 2005 Scopo del Workshop Capire i problemi di infrastruttura dei Tier2 Alimentazione Elettrica, Edifici, Condizionamento, Racks, UPS Evoluzione tecnologica di storage e cpu, soprattutto in termini di Spec/Watt Aperto anche a Tier3, Virgo e resposanbili servizi calcolo A seguire discussione sui Tier2

3 Ditte invitate Technology Tracking Intel AMD Hitachi HP HPC Infrastrutture APC Chloride Silectron Liebert Hiross Forind Avio Stulz, MGE, Knuerr

4 Apertura I Tier2 sono sotto il referaggio di un gruppo coordinato da Francesco Forti Lo stesso gruppo che segue i finanziamenti di Grid e Tier1 L infrastruttura dei Tier2 dovrebbe essere nel nuovo mandato della CCR I Tier2 vanno fatti nelle sedi idonee e solo se le sedi garantiscono il personale Per il momento non ci sono nemmeno i soldi

5 cpu Le cpu dual core permettono di raddoppiare i processi contemporanei e quindi il throughput di un box a costi e consumi elettrici costanti I consumi di un WN non dovrebbe superare i Watt Poi verranno i 4 core

6 infrastrutture Grande attenzione al condizionamento Due vie: Pavimento rialzato con eventualmente aiuti dall alto o dietro (porte aspiranti) Armadi chiusi o isole chiuse Progettazione integrata della computing room Attenzione anche alla distribuzione elettrica

7 Dischi Un disco consuma pochi Watt Consumo legato a rpm ma non alle dimensioni Non dovrebbero venire problemi da consumo eccessivo

8 Millions of Units HDD market trends: Total Market Total Market ~ 21% unit CAGR Consumer Electronics 2.5 Automotive 1-inch Microdrive 1.8 Consumer Electronics 2.5 Consumer Electronics 3.5 Consumer Electronics 3.5 / 2.5 Server Enterprise 1.8 Notebook PC 2.5 Notebook PC Desktop PC 2.5 PC Server 3.5 ATA Enterprise 3.5 ATA Desktop Information Technology

9 Hard Disk Drive Areal Density Evolution Growth of Recording Densities (Gigabits/square-inch vs. Year-of-Introduction) Thermal Stability Limited Region Areal Density (Gb/in2) Simple scaling allowed for increasing areal density for many years at 30% CGR In 1990 s rate of increase greatly accelerated to % CGR Superparamagnetic effect now poses a significant challenge Perpendicular technology required Year

10 Perpendicular & Longitudinal Technologies Compared Longitudinal Lower Pole Upper Pole Perpendicular Return Pole Main Pole write coil readelement readelement Field from Narrow Gap Hard Recording Layer Soft Magnetic Underlayer Disk material can be thicker, which makes small grains more resilient to superparamagnetic effect Soft underlayer allows head to provide stronger field to make it possible to write on media with higher stability Adjacent perpendicular bits stabilize one another

11 Hitachi s 230 Gbits/in 2 Perpendicular Achievement Laboratory spin-stand demonstration Highest areal density to date 965,000 bits/inch x 242,000 tracks/inch = 233 Gbits/inch 2 This areal density will enable 20 GB 1-inch Microdrive or 1 terabyte 3.5-inch desktop drive

12 Array Density 3.5 compared to 2.5 inch Drives 3.5 HDD s 42 U Rack 3.5 Drives 14 drives in 3U 14 x 14 = GB per drive = 98TB 14 Drives 3U Package 2.5 HDD s 2U Package 24 Drives 2U Package 42 U Rack 2.5 inch drives 24 drives in 2U 24 x 21 = GB per drive = 50TB

13 CPU Innovazione dei dual core AMD sembra avere 9 mesi di vantaggio su Intel Ha fatto le scelte giuste al momento giusto Intel ha maggiori potenzialità se si impegna in un certo campo Grande attenzione al consumo

14 HyperTransport Technology Scalable Link Width & Speed Up to 1.6 GBits/s per pin-pair Links operate in one direction only 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 bits wide at 200Mhz to 800Mhz Double Data Rate Narrower Devices can talk to wider devices Width and speed negotiation at initialization Data is packetized Packets are multiples of 4-Bytes Serial Interface with commands, address, and data using the same wires

15 HyperTransport Technology Scalable Bandwidth GBytes/Sec HyperTransport Math: 16 Bits x 800 MHz x 2 transfers/clk x 2 (each direction) = 6.4 GB/s 8 Bits per Byte Bi-Directional Throughput >2X bits 64-bits 32-bits 64-bits 64-bits 2-bits 4-bits 8-bits 16-bits 32-bits 33Mhz PCI 66Mhz PCI 133Mhz 800 MHz HyperTransport PCI-X HT 2.0 (Planned)

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18 Thermal/Power Comparison AMD Opteron Power Advantage Examples CPU level / Published Specifications based on Max Powe

19 AMD Opteron Processor Less Power and Less Heat than From HP s Power Calculator: Xeon HP ProLiant DL 145 2P AMD Opteron TM processor-based 220V input, 2 CPU, 4GB RAM, 2 HD, 1PCI card HP ProLiant DL 140 2P Xeon processor-based 220V input, 2 CPU, 4GB RAM, 2 HD, 1PCI card 309W, 1052 BTU/hr 389W, 1326 BTU/hr AMD Opteron TM processor-based system: Uses ~21% less power!

20 Dual Core - Another AMD First

21 AMD Dual Core Value Proposition Highest Performance per Watt Taking server/ws application performance to a new level Redefining the performance per watt metric Non Disruptive Migration Fully leverage existing 90nm infrastructure Simple DC BIOS upgrade Non-disruptive upgrade possibilities Increased performance without change to power and infrastructure investment

22 MultiCore Technology Dual Core Technology Comparison Eliminating Architectural Bottlenecks 1P Core 0 Core 1 Intel Pentium D 800MHz FSB bottleneck Cache for for Core 0 0 System Request Interface ( 2200MHz) & Crossbar Switch HyperTransport System Bus Memory Controller Cache for Core 1 Core 0 Core 1 Memory Controller 800MHz FSB bottleneck 2000MHz HyperTransport technology link Integrated memory controller operating at full CPU clock speed I/O Chipset I/O Chipset other I/O links other I/O links AMD Athlon 64 X2 I/O and memory calls are implemented on separate, dedicated high-speed busses

23 MultiCore Technology Dual Core Technology Comparison Eliminating Architectural Bottlenecks 1P Core 0 Core 1 Cache for Core 0 Cache for Core 1 800MHz FSB bottleneck System Request Interface ( 2200MHz) & Crossbar Switch HyperTransport System Bus Memory Controller 800MHz FSB bottleneck 2000MHz HyperTransport technology link Integrated memory controller operating at full CPU clock speed I/O Chipset I/O Chipset other I/O links other I/O links AMD Athlon 64 X2 I/O and memory calls are implemented on separate, dedicated high-speed busses

24 MultiCore Technology Dual Core Technology Comparison Eliminating Architectural Bottlenecks 1P Core 0 Core 1 Cache for Core 0 Cache for Core 1 800MHz FSB bottleneck System Request Interface ( 2200MHz) & Crossbar Switch HyperTransport System Bus Memory Controller 800MHz FSB bottleneck 2000MHz HyperTransport technology link Integrated memory controller operating at full CPU clock speed I/O Chipset I/O Chipset other I/O links other I/O links AMD Athlon 64 X2 I/O and memory calls are implemented on separate, dedicated high-speed busses

25 Eliminating Architectural Bottlenecks CPU CPU CPU CPU 8 GB/S 8 GB/S 8 GB/S I/O I/O Hub Hub Memory Controller PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge Hub Hub PCI-E PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge Bridge PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge 8 GB/S I/O I/O Hub Hub USB USB PCI PCI Legacy x86 Architecture 20-year old front-side bus architecture CPUs, Memory, I/O all share a bus Major bottleneck to performance Faster CPUs or more cores performance AMD64 Technology with Direct Connect Architecture Industry-standard AMD64 technology AMD s revolutionary Direct Connect Architecture eliminates FSB bottleneck HyperTransport Technology interconnect for high bandwidth and low latency

26 Eliminating Architectural Bottlenecks CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU 8 GB/S SRQ Crossbar Mem.Ctrlr HT SRQ Crossbar Mem.Ctrlr HT 8 GB/S 8 GB/S I/O I/O Hub Hub Memory Controller PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge Hub Hub PCI-E PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge Bridge PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge 8 GB/S I/O I/O Hub Hub USB USB PCI PCI Legacy x86 Architecture 20-year old front-side bus architecture CPUs, Memory, I/O all share a bus Major bottleneck to performance Faster CPUs or more cores performance AMD64 Technology with Direct Connect Architecture Industry-standard AMD64 technology AMD s revolutionary Direct Connect Architecture eliminates FSB bottleneck HyperTransport Technology interconnect for high bandwidth and low latency

27 Continuation of Moore s Law ocess Name P856 P858 Px60 P1262 P1264 P1266 P1268 P1270 t Production ocess neration afer Size m) ter-connect annel µm 200 Al Si µm 200 Al Si µm 200/300 Cu Si nm 300 Cu Strained Si nm 300 Cu Strained Si nm 300 Cu Strained Si nm 300 Cu Strained Si nm 300? Straine Si te dielectric SiO 2 SiO 2 SiO 2 SiO 2 SiO 2 High-k High-k High-k te electrode Polysilicon Polysilicon Polysilicon Polysilicon Polysilicon Metal Metal Metal Introduction targeted at this time Subject to change Intel found a solution for High-k k and metal gate

28 Intel Xeon Processor Family Innovations 2003 & Prior Enhancements Future Enhancements Hyper-Threading Technology Intel Netburst micro-architecture SSE & SSE2 instructions Virtualization User defined power thresholds Dual core CPUs Fully buffered DIMMs 2004 Enhancements New SSE3 instructions PCI Express* 800MHz FSB 64-bit extension technology Power management technology 9 Demand Based Switching (DBS) DDR2 memory 9 Higher capacity & performance w/ lower power Intel Intelfocus focuson onplatform platforminnovations innovationsthat thatdeliver deliverperformance, performance, reliability reliabilityand andmanageability manageabilityto toall allenterprise enterprisesegments segments

29 Intel E8500 Chipset Architected for Dual Core Intel Xeon Processor MP Platforms System Bandwidth Single system bus Socket MP Chipsets 400 MHz (3.2 GB/s) 64-bit Intel Xeon Processor MP with up to 8MB cache 2005 Socket 3.2 GB/s 10.6 GB/s Dual independent system buses Intel E8500 chipset 667 MHz (5.3 GB/s) 667 MHz (5.3 GB/s) >3X ual-core 64-bit Intel Xeon Processor MP (Paxville & Tulsa) Expected in 2006 Socket Intel E8501 chipset 3X Intel E8500 Chipset Architecture Designed for Platform Longevity and Dual-Core

30 Xeon Platform RAS Advantages RAS Features Memory Subsystem Memory ECC Hardware memory initialization Demand memory scrubbing Online spare memory Memory Mirroring Memory Hot Swap Dual channel fail over to single channel operation I/O and other System Bus (HTT for opteron) 32-bit CRC on PCI Express* PCI Express* Hot Swap (2 Ports) SM Bus components and features Configurable Error Containment at I/O Interfaces Prestonia / Plumas X X X Irwingdale / Lindenhurst X X X X X X Parity X X X Potomac / Twin Castle X X X X X X X ECC X X X X Opteron X X X CRC (no retry)? Need to drive end user demand for unique features

31 Intel Xeon Processor Family Roadmap Volume Server & Workstation Platforms DP Intel Xeon Processor (3.20 GHz; 1M Cache) Intel E7501, E7505 chipsets (533 MHz) Intel Xeon processor (800 MHz FSB) (3.60 GHz; 1M Cache) Irwindale ( 3.8GHz, 2M cache) Paxville Dual Core Intel E7520, E7525, E7320 chipsets (800 MHz) Dempsey Dual Core Woodcrest Dual Core Blackford / Greencreek chipsets 2003 & Prior: Intel Hyper- Threading Technology Intel Netburst micro- architecture IA-32 Intel Xeon with EM64T Platforms: Performance Performance (800Mhz FSB, HT) Investment protection & 64 bit headroom (EM64T) High bandwidth/flexible I/O (PCI Express*) Faster, more reliable, lower power memory (DDR2) Power/Thermal management (DBS) Improved security (XD) Up to 20% application performance boost (2M L2 caches) Better Value & Capabilities through High Impact Platforms to to Solve Business Challenges Future Platforms: Breakthrough 04 technologies (EM64T, DDR2, PCIe*, XD) Highly scalable (dual core) Improved virtualization (VT) High throughput (DIB) High bandwidth and 4x memor capacity ( 64GB) (FBD) Manageability (IAMT) Flexible Storage (SSB) Improved networking (I/OAT) More power efficient cores 2006

32 Intel Xeon Processor Platform 2H 05 Roadmap 1H 06 2H erformance ptimized est performance r 2U / Pedestal IRW 110W Paxville 130W Dempsey 130W Woodcrest 80W Next Gen 130W ack ptimized alanced perf/power r rack density ltra-dense #1 ower is the #1 stomer concern MV Irwindale 90W LV Irwindale 55W Lindenhurst Platforms Single Core MV Dempsey 105W Sossaman 31W Woodcrest 80W Bensley Platforms Sossaman 31W Lindenhurst (modified) Platforms Dual Core Multi-Core In planning Next Gen MV 80W LV Woodcrest ~35W

33 Paxville DP Processor Performance Most Widely Deployed 64-bit Platform Keeps Getting Better Value of dual core vs. single core on current DP server platforms Both utilize Intel E7520 chipset & 800 MHz system bus Dual Core processor: Paxville DP 2.80 GHz w/ 4M L2 Cache Single Core processor: 64-bit Xeon (Irwindale) 3.60 GHz w/ 2M L2 Cache Dual Core processor-based platform delivers significant performance boost over single core solution Paxville-DP/LH 800 vs Irw 3.6/LH 800 SPECint_rate_base2000 SPECjbb2000 TPC-C - SQL SPECfp_rate_base2000 1,26 1,23 1,46 1,45 Benchmarks with good parallelism show most benefit Baseline Irwindale 3.6/2M 1,00 0,0 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 Data Source: Intel Internal Measurement (June 2005). See backup for details Up to 46% more performance with Paxville DP

34 Dempsey Overview Targeted for DP Servers and Workstations Q1 06 launch Overview/Key Processor Features Dual core enhancements to the 64-bit Intel Xeon processor 65nm process New H/W virtualization support (Intel Virtualization Technology) Hyper-threading Technology Performance/Power Significant performance boost over Lindenhurst platform on key server benchmarks 2 MB L2 cache per core (4M total) Frequency target remains >-= 3.46 GHz at launch 130W TDP Price positioning like IRW MV Dempsey mid power SKU at <=105W Platform LGA-771 socket 1066 MHz FSB CDM Core 2MB L2 Cache Bus Interface Dempsey System Bus CDM Core 2MB L2 Cache Bus Interface 1066 MHz FSB Performance Leader Leader in in DP DP Servers and and Workstations

35 2006 DP Server Bensley Platform Overview w Platform Bus Architecture aster FSB speeds igher throughput better performance rtualization/security** tel Virtualization Technology VT) lexibility, Manageability, RAS, ailover nterprise South Bridge-2 ighly integrated I/O solution ntel I/O Acceleration technology erver management capability High Performance Xeon Processors Dempsey and Woodcrest: Dual core performance H2 06 Dual core low power/high performance upgrade Intel EM64T and XD-bit supported ESB-2 ESB-2 I/O I/O Bridge Bridge ESI x8 Blackford Blackford MCH MCH x8 DIB 17 GB/s x8 21 GB/s FBD FBD FBD FBD Power / Thermal Management Lower power consumption using Demand Based Switching (DBS) wit Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology Memory RAS/ Fully Buffered DIMM Higher capacity and bandwidth (21( GB/s) Memory Mirroring erver Storage Single Chip, high performance, Intelligent RAID 5 solution Flexibility in drive interface PCIe slot Configurable set of PCIe* ports Sunrise Sunrise Lake Lake SAS/SATA PXH PXH PCI-X 10 GbE** 10 GbE** TCP-A/iSCSI TCP-A/iSCSI 10 GbE** PCI Express Performance headroom Bandwidth efficiency Schedule Targeted for Launch : Q Platform Inflection Delivers Enhanced Performance, Bandwidth, Flexibility, Manageability & IO Integration

36 A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B A M B eeping the Platform In alance oday vs. Tomorrow Today Lindenhurst Platform AM B AM B AM B 6.4 GB/s DDR2 6.4 GB/s Dual Core Point to Point Bus Q1 06 Bensley Platform GB/s 21 GB/s AM B FBD Lindenhurst / 2004 Bensley / vs. Today FSB BW peak 6.4 GB/s 17 to 21 GB/s (1066MHz, 1333MHz respectively) up to 3x Memory BW peak 6.4 GB/s up to 21 GB/s (FBD-667) up to 3x Memory Capacity 16 GB (DDR2-400) 64 GB (FBD) up to 4x Balanced Platform Performance More Bandwidth and Capacity Headroom for the Future

37 Bensley Platform Projections Dempsey: Significant performance gains over 64-bit Xeon (Irwindale) /Lindenhurst ~ 2X boost for OLTP and SPECintrate ~ 1.7X boost for SPECfprate Woodcrest: Performance and perf/watt advantages over Dempsey Bensley Platform Relative Performance Projections OLTP SPECintrate SPECfprate 64-bit Xeon/ Lindenhurst Dempsey/ Blackford Woodcrest/ Blackford Significant Performance and Performance/Watt Boost in the Bensley Platform Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems or components they are considering purchasing. For more information on performance tests and on the performance of Intel products, visit Source: Intel Corporation Projections and technical specifications are based on internal analysis and subject to change

38 Advancing Performance & Performance/Watt Together TODAY Performance / Watt Performance 2H 06 Up to 3.5X PERFORMANCE /WATT * Over 2X PERFORMANCE * Driven By Dual Core, Balanced Platform Performance and Lower Power Cores

39 Introducing Sossaman The DP server solution for ultra-dense, space-constrained environments Intel Xeon processor LV Watts For Dual Core DP 32-bit processor platforms with up to 16GB memory support > 2x performance/watt* over current DP platforms Targeted for volume DP server rack and blade designs e.g. Financial Services, HPC and other high-density/scale-out applications Platforms based on the widely deployed Intel E7520 (Lindenhurst) chipset Sossaman 2M L2 Cache Core Core Bus Interface 667 MT/s FSB

40 ossaman rojections Higher Performance per Rack* over Low Voltage Irwindale/Lindenhurst ~ 2X boost for SPECint_rate ~ 50% boost for TPCC & SPECfp_rate Sossaman Relative Performance per Rack* Projections TPCC* SPECint*_rate SPECfp*_rate 3.0GHz Low Volt IRW / LH 2.0 Sossaman [Q1 06] Source: Intel Corporation Projections and technical specifications are based on internal analysis and subject to change Significant Performance Per Rack Gains With Sossaman * Aggregate performance in wattage constrained rack (8Kw)

41 Comparing Performance/Watt 2.5 SPECint_rate/Rack Relative Performance/8Kw Rack Sossaman >2X Sossaman Perf/Watt >2X Than Perf/Watt LV IRW Than LV IRW # servers per rack TDP= 0 55W 31W 68W 33W 55W 31W 68W 35W 2005 LV IRW 1H'06 Sossaman Opteron* DC 2.2 Opteron* DC Leading Architecture For Ultra-Dense Environment Source: Intel Corporation Projections and technical specifications are based on internal analysis and subject to change

42 AMD s Story AMD The Power Myth 92.6w 92.6w 110w CPU CPU CPU Intel 110w CPU Integrated memory Controller 9.7w MCH 2.3w ICH ICH Power = CPU TDP = 2 x 92.6 = 185w Power = CPU TDP + NB = 2 x = 232w AMD Claims ~20% Less Power

43 78w The Complete Picture 92.6w 92.6w CPU The Power Myth AMD DDR-400 DDR-400 CPU 110w CPU Intel 110w CPU 6w PCI-X PCI-X 2.3w Legacy Legacy ~535w (4GB) 9.7w MCH ~639w (8GB) 2.3w ~557w (4GB) ICH ICH DDR w ~630w (8GB) System Power = CPU TDP + All Chipset + Memory + Planar + Fans + I/O Devices + PSU Efficiency Reality = Near Even Platform Level Power

44 DP System Comparison: The Details System Component Processors 1 (2 CPUs populated) Platform Silicon MCH, I/O Bridge & legacy I/O controllers 2,3 Platform Memory 4 Other components lanar 5, Fans (low RPM) 6 HDD, Peripherals) ub Total (W) SU efficiency 7 otal (W) 64 bit Intel Xeon based system 220 W (Irwindale 3.6) 12 W (MCH & legacy) 111 W (8GB, DDR2-400) 130 W 473 W 75% 631 W Processor Power from publicly available product specifications - intel.com and amd.com* Lindenhurst 2-channel TDP and Blackford pre-si 4 channel TDP; Opteron* North Bridge power estimated ICH5 TDP and ESB pre-si TDP; Opteron South Bridge power estimated Memory power differences from kingston.com memory specification. 8 x 1GB (1Gb Dram) active memory wer calculation with 60% derating. DDR2-400 for Irwindale. DDR-400 for Opteron based systems Planar power is estimated on Intel DP based board and assumed same for competition. Power based on 3 fan 2U rack system w/o redundancy for both Intel and AMD system PSU efficiency based on Industry common 2U rack system power supply. Other PSU may vary Competitive system offering 185 W (Opteron* 2.6 SC) 9 W (I/O bridge & legacy) 144 W (8GB, DDR-400) 130 W 468 W 75% 624 W Comparison System Power is MORE than Processor power 2 chip solutions beyond CPU required for both platforms Power Efficient DDR2 Negligible difference in system peripherals ~1% Difference ~1% Difference System Level Power Is A Wash Source: Mixture of publicly available data and Intel internal estimate Actual system power measurements may vary based on

45 Benefits of 2MB L2 Cache Intensive Performance Intel Compiler v8.1 SPECrate* Base frequency scaling performance 45,0 40,0 35,0 30,0 25,0 20,0 15,0 39,3 37,8 35,9 34,1 32,2 31,7 31,1 30,3 29,6 28, GHz / 2MB 3.60 GHz / 2 MB 3.40 GHz / 2 MB 3.20 GHz / 2 MB 3 GHz / 2 MB 10,0 5,0 0,0 SPECint*_rate_base2000 SPECfp*_rate_base2000 Best published 32-bit Windows-based results** on Nocona 3.60 GHz All speeds with 2MB L2 Cache outperform 1MB L2 Cache SPECint2000 and SPECfp2000 benchmark tests reflect the performance of the microprocessor, memory architecture and compiler of a computer system on compute-intensive, 32-bit applications. SPEC benchmark tests results for Intel microprocessors are determined using particular, well-configured systems. These results may or may not reflect the relative performance of Intel microprocessor in systems with different hardware or software designs or configurations (including compilers). Buyers should consult other sources of information, including system benchmarks; to evaluate the performance of systems they are considering purchasing. ** As of October 11, 2004

46 Improved Performance per Rack with Power-Optimized Platform 64-bit Intel Xeon processor LV 3 GHz Aggregate Performance per 6kW Rack SPECint*_rate/Rack 100% 119% 19% perf/rack increase SPECfp*_rate/Rack 100% 124% 24% perf/rack increase 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1, GHz LV/3 GHz LV 3 GHz Processor Reduces Power to 55W

47 64-bit Intel Xeon processor with 2MB L2 Cache Workstation CPU Performance vs. Previous Generation Up to an additional 5% performance improvement with 64-bit Intel Xeon processor 3.80 GHz Data Source: Submitted Results as of Feb 14, See backup for details Higher is better 64-bit Intel Xeon processor 3.60 GHz, 1MB cache, 800MHz 64-bit bus Intel Xeon processor 3.60 GHz, 2MB cache, 800MHz bus SPECint_base2000 SPECfp_base2000 SPECint_rate_base2000 SPECfp_rate_base % 14% 16% 18% Additional Cache provides up to 18% performance boost for dual-processor workstations tested See 3.80 GHz configuration details in backup

48 64-bit Intel Xeon processor with 2MB L2 Cache Server Platform Performance vs. Previous generation Up to an additional 5% performance improvement with 64-bit Intel Xeon processor 3.80 GHz Data Source: Published/Submitted Results as of Feb 14, See backup for details Higher is better 64-bit Intel Xeon processor 3.60 GHz, 1MB cache, 800MHz 64-bit bus Intel Xeon processor 3.60 GHz, 2MB cache, 800MHz bus SPECWeb99 SPECjbb2000 MMB3 TPC-C % more Web connections 21% faster Java applications 9% more Exchange users 9% more database transactions Web Server Java App Server Exchange Server Database Server 64-bit Intel Xeon Processor-based DP Platforms Continue to Deliver Outstanding Performance Results See 3.80 GHz configuration details in backup

49 Power Efficient DDR2-400 Memory DDR2-400 Performance Better Performance up to 11% Lower power 30 to 40% lower than DDR-400 Memory Metric Other Performance Relative to DDR-333 on 400MHz SB 3% 3% 4% Linpack* 2 GB Gflop 1Kx1K IntRate* 2 GB Base 8.0 ICC SPECjbb * 2 GB Ops/s BEA 5% Web Bench* 2 GB Req/s ISAPI 7% FpRate* 2 GB Base 8.0 ICC 11% Stream 2 GB Score Triad Grow Efficiently With The Latest Memory Technology On Intel Platforms Source: Intel Corporation (Apr 0 Early Measurements on Pre-production Hardwa

50 Not for Use in the following countries: PRC, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan System Power Benefits with DBS WebBench Power Measurements Typical CPU utilization Approx. CPU Utilization (DBS OFF) 15% 30% 45% 60% 83% ystem Power with DBS OFF 258 W 291 W 316 W 341 W 360 W ystem Power with DBS ON 201 W 220 W 240 W 291 W 340 W BS Power Savings per system 57 W 71 W 76 W 50 W 20 W st. Cost Savings er system (annual)** $148 $186 $200 $130 $55 st. Cost Savings er 500 systems (annual)** $74,289 $93,214 $99,939 $64,909 $27,473 System power savings up to 24%, which could save ~$100K annually for every 500 servers based on systems tested. Measurements based on Intel testing. Cost assumptions made for systems tested: a. Power in costs assumed at $0.10 / KWh. b. Cooling costs assumed to be roughly 2X the power-in costs. Any difference in systems tested, configurations or assumptions made may affect actual results or performance. See backup for system configuration and test information

51 UPS parallel systems intrinsic reliabilty MTBF (kh) Basic UPS UPS with bypass Distributed system (2 units) Centralised parallel (2 units)

52 CROSS system static switch Manual Bypass 1 S1 Loads S2 Manual Bypass 2

53 Dual bus system with CROSS

54 CROSS controlled systems

55 Typical Server Comparisons 2004 Model Dell PowerEdge 1850 Dell Power Edge 1855 Heigh t (U) 1 7 Maximu m Quantity Per 42 U Cabinet 42 6 Maximum Heat Load Per Cabinet (kw) Maximum Heat Load per m 2 (kw / m 34,4 2 ) 38 Sun Fire B ,5 IBM BladeCente r Type

56 Uptime Institute - Footprint - Heat Density Trends Amdahl, Cisco, Compaq, Cray, Dell, EMC, HP, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Motorola, Nortel, Sun, Unisys

57 Cooling Methods Room Air Cooling Hot Aisle / Cold Aisle approach ASHRAE Guidelines Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments

58 Cooling Methods Room Air Cooling The ASHRAE SOLUTION Hot Aisle / Cold Aisle approach Rack 5 kw, Air Delivery of 1100 to 1300 m 3 /h required Cold air completely fills the front of the racks with even Temperatures

59 And if we increase up to 10kW per rack? Rack 10kW, Air Delivery of 2200 to 2600 m 3 /h required (shown with 1500 m 3 /h) Cold Aisle Rack Rack Cold Aisle Rack Rack Cold Aisle Limitations of air through the floor tiles will only partially deliver the necessary airflow

60 Raising the Floor Height Minimum Raised Floor Height Vs. Power per Rack 1000 m 2 Data Center Air Changes Per Minute Best Practice Raised Floor Height -cm Typical Air Cooling System 0.49 Air Changes Per Minute kw/rack

61 Adaptive Cooling Architecture Traditional Floor-Mount through the first 3-5 kw/rack supplemental cooling above that level Close Loop Rack Cooling for high density Closed Loop Rack Cooling embedded solutions Supplemental Cooling Base Level Floor-Mount kw / Rack

62 Liebert XD Extends Your Existing Infrastructure Cooling where is needed Up to 15 kw/m2 Works with any racks Cooling fluid gas (No Water in data center) Self-regulating capacity 100% Sensible cooling Liebert XDO

63 Liebert XD System Base Infrastructure Cooling Modules Pumped Refrigerant Cooling Pre-Piping Assembly XDC Chiller with Pumping Unit or XDP Pumping Unit XDV Above Rack Module and/or XDO Overhead Cooling Module

64 Closed Loop Cooling for High Density Racks Cool the Servers, Not the Room H 2 O Liebert XDFN Up to 24 kw/rack

65 Liebert XDFN Cool the server not the room No impact (noise & heat) on the datacenter room Manage extreme density 24 kw+ per rack H 2 O Small rooms, remote locations and add ondemand cooling Scalability and Modularity Access protection Configurable with 100% of redundancy with different cooling modules (DX-CW-FC) Raised floor not required, installation in any room Micro environmental controlled in temperature and humidity

66 Liebert XDO Overhead Module Features 12 kw of cooling capacity 230V/1Ph/50Hz Dimensions (W x L x H) 1929mmx610mmx517mm Ceiling mounted Allows movement of the racks without disturbing the cooling system Can be used with any rack Ideal for new construction Draws warm air from both hot aisles and discharges cold air in to the cold aisle Supports racks on both sides of the cold aisle Fold down fan tray w / single prop fan Easily accessible and energy efficient Hot swappable in minutes Hot Aisle Cold Aisle Side View Hot Aisle

67 Liebert XDO Overhead Piping Access Module Micro channel Cooling Coils EBM Axial Fan 0.38 HP

68 Liebert XDO CFD Model (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Side View

69 Liebert XDV - Vertical Module General Fan Coil (Enclosure, Coil, Fans, Controls) Mounted on Top of the Cabinets Nominal Cooling Capacity 6,5 kw at 33,3 C EAT 230V-1ph-50Hz Dimension 597 x 762 x 356 mm WxLxH Options Condensate Detection Features No Floor Space Needed Flexible Cabinet Mounted or Ceiling Suspended Hot Air Inlet From the Hot Aisle (and From the Top of the Cabinet) Room for Cabling at the Top Back of Hot Aisle Cold Aisle Side View Ho Aisl

70 Delivers Cooling Where it Is Fills the cold aisle completely to maintain reliable server operation Needed Liebert XDV Liebert XDO Uses the room volume for operational variations that close coupling can not provide

71 XD Piping System Advantage Pipe today for tomorrows migration to X-treme Density Fractional cost up-front a small price to pay for an insurance policy for the future Pre-fabricated XD System field piping Ease of installation Provide for future expansion XDV units are shipped precharged with flexible hoses installed Unit can be unpacked, installed and started for quick connect fittings and isolation valves Allows plug n play arrangement

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