Protecting Floodplain. While Reducing Flood Losses

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1 Protecting Floodplain Natural and Beneficial i Functions While Reducing Flood Losses Jon Kusler Association of State Wetland Managers ; Report available at:

2 Welcome Why be concerned about floodplain natural and beneficial functions in flood loss reduction programs? How can we better protect floodplain l natural and beneficial functions while reducing flood and erosion losses?

3

4

5 Fills, Culverts

6 Channelization

7 Why Be Concerned About Floodplain Natural and Beneficial Functions in Flood Loss Reduction Programs? 1. Development in flood hazards is damaged by flooding increasing public and private flood losses. 2. Development in these areas increases flood hazards on adjacent, upstream, and downstream properties and this often results in disputes between landowners and lawsuits. 3. Flood plains and the wetlands and riparian areas often provide important flood loss reduction functions. 4. Floodplains provide in their own right a broad range of other functions and values to society.

8 1. Floodplain Wetlands And Riparian Areas Are Subject To A Variety Of Flood And Erosion related related Hazards. Reducing Development In These Areas Reduces Hazard Losses and, Simultaneously, Protects a Variety of Functions and Values Inland Flooding Due to Runoff Inland Floodingand Basement FloodingDue to Long Term Fluctuations in Ground Water Levels Erosion Coastal/Estuarine/InlandWave Action Storm Surge (Coastal and Estuarine) Liquefaction Subsidence Earthquake Wave Propagation Floodingand Hydrostatic Pressures

9 1. Floodplain Wetlands And Riparian Areas Are Subject To A Variety Of Flood And Erosion related related Hazards. Reducing Development In These Areas Reduces Hazard Losses and, Simultaneously, Protects a Variety of Functions and Values Inland Flooding Due to Runoff Inland Floodingand Basement FloodingDue to Long Term Fluctuations in Ground Water Levels Erosion Coastal/Estuarine/InlandWave Action Storm Surge (Coastal and Estuarine) Liquefaction Subsidence Earthquake Wave Propagation Floodingand PressureDamage FromHydrostatic Pressures

10 Hydrostatic Pressures

11 2. Flood plains and the wetlands and riparian areas provide important flood loss reduction functions. 1. Wave attenuation and erosion control 2. Storm surge and tsunami reduction 3. Flood conveyance 4. Flood storage

12 Wave Attentuation and Erosion Control. A Band of Floodplain Vegetation May Cause Waves to Break by Increasing Friction and Absorbing Energy

13 Hurricane Camille, Foot Storm Surge and Waves

14

15 Extensive Wetlands Reduce Surge and Tsunami Elevations. 1 Foot per 1.0 to 2.7 Miles of Wetland

16 December, 2004 South Asian Tsunami

17 Flood Conveyance (Zero Rise Floodway in Tulsa) Tl

18

19

20 3. Development in flood areas increases flood hazards on adjacent, upstream, and downstream properties p and this results in disputes between landowners and lawsuits.

21 The lawyers are, of course, waiting to help you.

22 4. Floodplains Provide A Variety of Other Natural and Beneficial Functions Wave reduction. Flood storage. Flood conveyance. Erosion control. Habitat for fish, shellfish, waterfowl, many types of endangered species. Sediment reduction in lakes, reservoirs, streams, estuaries, and coastal systems. Pollution prevention and treatment: prevent pollution from entering a water body. treat (remove) pollution in a water body. Natural crops and timber: cranberry, blueberry, saltmarsh hay, aquaculture species, wild rice, forestry, other natural crops. Groundwater recharge.

23 Scenic beauty, aesthetics. Recreational opportunities, ecotourism. Historical, i archaeological, l heritage, and cultural l opportunities. Education and research. Trapping of carbon, carbon stores important to moderation of global warming. Micro climate modification.

24 Protect Floodplain Natural and Beneficial Functions While Reducing Flood Losses: Will The Twain Ever Meet? Floodplain managersaretypically are engineers and water resource planners; wetland managers are biologists and botanists. The two groups have different vocabularies, interests, and drinking habits. Management practices sometimes conflict. For example, fill is often used in floodplains to reduce flood losses by elevating houses, roads, other activities. But fill also destroys wetlands and broader aquatic ecosystems.

25 Make Protection of Natural and Beneficial Functions an Explicit itgoal

26 Address Erosion as Well as Flooding

27 Put NonStructural Floodplain Management Projects on An Equal Footing With ihstructural Projects

28 Undertake Multiobjective Pre flood Planning With Protection of Natural and Beneficial Functions As One Component

29

30 Undertake Post Disaster Response Reflecting Natural And dbeneficial i lfunctions

31 Lower National Flood Insurance Rates for Communities Which Protect Natural and Beneficial Functions Pursuant to the Community Rating System

32 Acquire Wetlands and Floodplains As Flood Storage And Conveyance Areas: Example: Charles River Wtl Wetland dacquisition iti

33 Clear Structures in Floodways, Floodplains to Reduce Flood Losses, Protect tnt Natural and Beneficial i lfunctions

34 Integrate Wetlands, Riparian Areas Into Flood Control lprojects

35 Create Multiobjective Greenways For Floodplain, Wetland, Riparian Areas

36 Construct Setback Levees

37 Create Habitat Restoration Beads Along Rivers

38 Provide More Accurate Floodplain Maps Reflecting the Full Range of Hazards (e.g., Erosion) andhazardfactors (e.g., Watershed Development, Erosion, Waves, Climate Change.)

39 Restore Floodplains, Wetlands and Riparian Areas to Reduce Flood/Erosion Losses, Restore Natural and Beneficial Functions

40 Adopt Local Setbacks, Buffers, Conservancy Zoning As Part of Comprehensive Planning, Smart Growth, Green Infrastructure Initiatives

41 Strengthen Floodplain Regulations Strengthen the ecologicalelementelement offloodplain floodplain regulatory permitting Tightly regulate fills Adopt a no adverse impact standard for floodplain regulations Adopt zero rise floodways; y; reflect storage in flood calculations Protect wetlands and riparian areas

42 SUMMARY: NEEDED FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE, MORE INTEGRATED APPROACHES Require: Creative out of the box thinking Willingness to go beyond FEMA minimum standards Multiobjective planning and management Building upon and utilizing floodplain, wetland and riparian natural and beneficial functions in projects Multi agency and multi group involvement Communication and cooperation

43 Thanks! Assessing the Natural and Beneficial Functions of Floodplains Report available at: pdf

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