1 OBESITY AND YOUR DIGESTIVE HEALTH Do You Know Your GI Risks? A Patient Education Resource from the American College of Gastroenterology GI Specialists Committed to Quality in Patient Care Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD) Erosive Esophagitis Barrett s Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Cirrhosis Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pancreatic Cancer Gallstones Colorectal Adenomas Colorectal Cancer Decreased Quality of Life Early Death AMERICAN COLLEGE OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
2 DO YOU KNOW? Nearly 65 percent of adult Americans are overweight and almost 40 percent are obese. Do you know if you are overweight or obese? The best way to determine your level of obesity is a measure called Body Mass Index or BMI. You can calculate it yourself from your height and weight, or look up your BMI on a BMI table. Body Mass Index WEIGHT IN LBS NORMAL OVERWEIGHT Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference It is important to know your BMI because if your BMI indicates you are overweight or obese there are serious health risks that you should think about. The health risks associated with an increased BMI in the overweight or obese range are compounded by excess abdominal fat. Measuring your waist circumference can estimate your abdominal fat and help you and your doctor understand the effect of obesity on your health. Women who have a waist circumference greater than 35 inches and men who have a waist circumference of greater than 40 inches have a higher risk of disease and additional risk severity. An abnormal waist circumference alone is a risk factor for obesity related disease even if BMI is normal.
3 WEIGHT IN LBS OBESE 40+ SEVERELY OBESE Used by permission of the Cleveland Clinic Bariatric and Metabolic Institute. How to Measure Your Waist To measure your waist circumference, place a tape measure around your bare abdomen just above your hip bone. Be sure that the tape is snug, but does not compress your skin, and is parallel to the floor. Relax, exhale, and measure your waist. BMI = weight in pounds x 703 or weight in kg Height in inches 2 height in meters 2 What is your BMI? What is your waist circumference?
4 Do you know the general medical risks of being overweight or obese? Some of the most common, general medical diseases and risks associated with being overweight or obese include arthritis, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer and premature death. Do you know the gastrointestinal diseases that are associated with obesity? You won t be surprised to know that many of the common gastrointestinal diseases that are seen in individuals with a normal BMI are seen up to 2-3 times more commonly in individuals who are obese. Many of these gastrointestinal diseases like GERD, liver disease and cancer significantly reduce the quality and longevity of your life. Digestive Disorders Associated with Obesity Esophagus Gallbladder Pancreas Colon Liver GERD Symptoms Erosive Esophagitis Barrett s Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Gallstones and Cancer Cancer Precancerous Polyps and Cancer Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Advanced Hepatitis C-related Disease Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer
5 Management Strategies for Weight Stabilization and Loss Today is the first day to prevent further weight gain and improve your health. Did you know? The essentials of maintaining a lifelong healthy weight are to eat the appropriate amount and type of calories (energy in) and exercise daily (energy out). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain may occur. WEIGHT GAIN When energy expenditure is greater than energy intake, weight loss can occur. In general, the primary steps to successful weight loss include: WEIGHT LOSS Step 1) A Moderate Reduction in Calories Calories should be reduced by about 500 to 1000 kcal/day. Diets containing kcal/day for women and kcal/day for men should be chosen for those that weigh over 165 pounds. The goal for weight loss is no more than 1 to 2 pounds / week. Additional measures that have helped patients reduce their caloric intake include the use of a food diary and portion control. A food diary is a record of all the food and drinks that are consumed each day. In fact, a recent study has shown that people who write down what food they eat lose almost twice as much weight as people who do not.
6 FOOD DIARY FOR: TIME AMOUNT FOOD SELECTION Activity (10 minutes per circle) Water (8 oz per circle) Fiber (5 grams per circle) Sleep (1 hour per circle minimum 7) Multivitamin Calcium Supplements
7 DATE: / / SUN MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT (circle one) HUNGER LEVEL MOOD GI SYMPTOMS Photocopy these 2 pages for everyday use of this food diary. Food diaries often provide an area to document mood and level of hunger to help get a handle on the emotional attachment that drives our bad eating habits which can lead to obesity. BMI Waist Circumference
8 Portion Control Understanding a normal portion size can help control excess caloric intake. 1/2 cup serving of canned fruit, vegetables, or potatoes... 3 ounces of meat, fish, or chicken looks like half a tennis ball sitting on your plate... is about the size of a deck of playing cards or the palm of your hand 1 ounce serving of cheese is about the size of your thumb 1 cup serving of milk, yogurt, or fresh greens... is about the size of your fist Step 2) Increase in Physical Activity Increasing physical activity increases energy expenditure in addition to other healthy benefits. A goal of at least 30 minutes of daily moderate activity is recommended (use the physical activity guide below.) Physical Activity Guide Approximate Calories per Hour Light gardening/yard work 330 Dancing 330 Bicycling (<10 mph) 290 Walking (3.5 mph) 280 Weight lifting (light workout) 220 Stretching 180 Standing 81 Step 3) Medications or Surgery These may be indicated for obese individuals or overweight individuals with additional medical problems related to obesity. These options can be discussed with your physician based upon your special situation.
9 Maintaining Your Gastrointestinal Health While gastrointestinal diseases and disorders are seen more commonly in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight individuals, there are no current recommendations for extra testing of organs in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms or pre-existing laboratory abnormalities. Weight loss is a recommended strategy to prevent the symptoms related to some gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) and hiatal hernia, and to decrease the risk of progression of diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recurrent colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer. The American College of Gastroenterology recommends that all average risk Americans age 50 and older undergo colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy. African Americans should begin screening at age 45. Since colorectal cancer and precancerous polyps are more common in overweight and obese individuals, extra efforts should be made for these individuals to have colonoscopy at the age of 50 years, if not sooner. Talk to your doctor.
10 Helpful Links to Learn More American College of Gastroenterology Great tools including a food tracker, portion size information, tips on physical activity and healthy eating National Heart Lung and Blood Institute lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from the federal government National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases The Weight Control Information Network offers many resources and links
11 Questions for your Doctor
12 American College of Gastroenterology GI Specialists Committed to Quality in Patient Care Your Physician s Contact Information:
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