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1 Lecture 30, 06 December 2005 Metabolism (Chapter 5-7), Thermal Physiology (Ch 8-9) Miscellaneous, Wrap-Up, Last Lecture, Oral Presentations Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 (aka MCB 437, VetSci 437) University of Arizona Fall 2005 instr: Kevin Bonine t.a.: Kristen Potter 1 1. Metabolism 2. Thermal Physiology 3. Etc. Text: (skim 5-7) (skim 8+9) - Oral Presentations (PPT files to KEB) (most on 07 Dec, four on 06 Dec in lecture) -Wrap-Up 2 1

2 World Class Human Runners (Hill et al. 6.9) 3 Metabolism -Chemical reactions in the body -Temperature dependent rates -Not 100% efficient, energy lost as heat (not lost if used to maintain Tb) 1. Anabolic -creation, assembly, repair, growth (positive nitrogen balance) 2. Catabolic -energy release from complex molecules (carbos, fats, proteins) -energy storage in phosphate bonds (ATP) and metabolic intermediates (glucose, lactate) 4 2

3 Chemical Energy (Eckert 16-1) 5 Metabolic Rate -measurable conversion of chemical energy into heat -used to understand: -energy budgets -dietary needs -body size implications -habitat effects -costs of various activities -mode of locomotion -cost of reproduction 6 3

4 Metabolic Rates -Basal Metabolic Rate, BMR -minimal environmental and physiological stress (appropriate ambient temperature, post-digestive, resting etc.) -Standard Metabolic Rate, SMR -similar to BMR, but at a given Tb -Field Metabolic Rate, FMR -average metabolic rate of animal in natural setting -hard to measure 7 Metabolic Rates Basal Metabolic Rate, BMR -important components: 1. Membrane form and function maintenance of electrochemical gradients -proton pumps in mitochondrial membranes -Na/K-ATPase pumps in plasma membrane 2. Protein synthesis 3. ATP formation 8 4

5 Oxygen Debt -repay anaerobic contribution to elevated metabolism -oxidize anaerobic products (e.g., lactate) (16-2) 9 VO 2 Measurement - Before, during, and after exercise Desert Iguana Thomas Hancock: data and slides 10 5

6 Activity and Associated Oxygen Consumption EEOC: Excess Exercise Oxygen Consumption EPOC: Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption VO 2 EXERCISE RECOVERY Time (min) 11 Activity and Associated Oxygen Consumption TEOC = Total Excess Oxygen Consumption = EEOC + EPOC EEOC EPOC VO 2 EXERCISE RECOVERY Time (min) 12 6

7 Muscle Lactate Lactate (mm) Gastrocnemius RIF WIF Exercise, Recovery Time (min) 13 Energy Budget Implications Costs for Exercise and Recovery: - A Single Bout: 15 seconds at Maximum intensity Traditional Estimates: 0.7% of daily energy expenditure Inclusion of EPOC: 4.6% of daily energy expenditure 14 7

8 Length of Bout is Important: VO 2 Time (min) 15 VO 2 Time (min) 16 8

9 VO 2 Time (min) 17 VO 2 Time (min) 18 9

10 EPOC is now a large fraction of the net metabolic expenditure. VO 2 Time (min) 19 Phylogenetic Effects FMR (kj/day) 100g reptile 100g mammal 100g bird (Nagy, Girard, Brown 1999) Energy Budgets Ecological Role 20 10

11 Scaling Effects Allometry - changes in body proportions as animals get larger (mouse vs. elephant) Metabolic Rate - mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with increasing body mass (16-6) linear cubed squared 21 Knut Schmidt_Nielsen mg/kg 0.2mg for 70 kg (a) = elephant freaked out and died (1960 s) in a study of musth [elephantine fallacy] -What is the correct dose? -Importance of Scaling! 22 11

12 (16-8) MR = am b b = 0.75 logmr = loga + b(logm) (slope) 23 (16-7) Mouse-to-Elephant Curve 4g shrew eats 2g/day elephant is 1 million x larger 24 12

13 (16-7) 25 Hemoglobin dissociation curves and body size Knut Schmidt_Nielsen

14 Bohr effect and body size Knut Schmidt_Nielsen bat Capillary density and body size rat Knut Schmidt_Nielsen

15 logm skeleton = loga + b(logm) Isometry is rare b = 1.13 (slope) Knut Schmidt_Nielsen Thermal Neutral Zone 30 15

16 Thermal Neutral Zone Within TNZ: -Vasomotor -Posture -Insulation fluff fur/feathers Critical Temperature Upper Lower (17-21) Below TNZ: -Increase metabolism above basal Above TNZ: -Cool via evaporation 31 Thermoregulation Cardiovascular control of heating and cooling Pough et al., Cardiac Shunts - Peripheral Vasodilation Pough et al.,

17 Pyrogens Fever Dipsosaurus dorsalis (17-36) 33 Endotherms in the COLD Countercurrent Heat Exchange 34 17

18 Knut Schmidt_Nielsen Hot Body, Cool Brain Keep brain cool during prolonged increased organismal activity: -Countercurrent -Carotid Rete (17-33) 36 18

19 Much more difficult for water breathing animals to maintain body temperatures above ambient because rate of heat transfer is greater than rate of O 2 transfer in water (high specific heat) Amblyrhynchus cristatus Knut Schmidt_Nielsen Thank you all for working hard to learn physiology this semester. Kristen and I have very much enjoyed working with you all. I would like to thank Kristen for being an exceptional TA, an outstanding colleague, and a talented scientist and educator

20 END Oral Presentations: Tom Amir Shahin Brooke 39 20

1. Metabolism 2. Thermal Physiology 3. Etc. Text: (skim 5-7) (skim 8+9) Lecture 30, 06 December 2005

1. Metabolism 2. Thermal Physiology 3. Etc. Text: (skim 5-7) (skim 8+9) Lecture 30, 06 December 2005 Lecture 30, 06 December 2005 Metabolism (Chapter 5-7), Thermal Physiology (Ch 8-9) Miscellaneous, Wrap-Up, Last Lecture, Oral Presentations 1. Metabolism 2. Thermal Physiology 3. Etc. Vertebrate Physiology

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