1 Evaluation of Alternatives to Domestic Ion Exchange Water Softeners Mara Wiest Dr. Peter Fox Dr. Lee Wontae, HDR Tim Thomure, HDR April 26, 2011
2 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
3 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US Freshwater sources in the Southwest US are considered very hard ranging from 80 to 280 mg/l.
4 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US Hard Water Effects in the Home Spotted dishes from the dishwasher An inability for soap to lather and soap scum deposits Scale formation on faucets and showerheads Scale accumulation in pipes Scale fouling in water heaters increasing energy usage by up to 24% Scale formation on appliances Calcium carbonate becomes less soluble at higher temperatures.
5 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US Consumers try to mitigate the effects of hard water by using water softening devices in their homes. The most common domestic water softening device uses ion exchange technology which releases additional salts to the waste stream. Consumers are reducing hardness in their homes but increasing TDS levels in reclaimed wastewater! (Not a sustainable practice)
6 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US TDS (salinity) is a measurement of total dissolved solids in water including inorganic (hardness, salts) and organic substances (pesticides, herbicides, etc.). Sources of Salinity Natural minerals in rocks found in lakes, rivers, streams and aquifers Water from natural salt springs that enters into rivers, lakes and streams Agricultural fertilizers that drain from fields into rivers, lakes, streams and aquifers Water treatment chemicals such as chlorine that make water safe for human consumption Home water treatment systems, like water softeners, that treat water for hardness Cleaning chemicals Foods Water Source Salt River Verde river Central Arizona Project (CAP) Groundwater Reclaimed Water TDS in milligrams per liter 580 mg/l 270 mg/l 650 mg/l 200-5,000 mg/l Typically mg/l higher than source water
7 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US Water Reuse A water conservation practice in which reclaimed water is used for a direct beneficial purpose.
8 Water Quality and Reuse in the Southwest US TDS effects on water reuse (examples) Agriculture Crop salt tolerance, reduction of crop yields Additional water may be needed to flush salts from root zone Cooling Tower Increased water usage Possible equipment damage due to scaling
9 Study Objective Provide technical data to identify credible alternatives to ion exchange water softeners that would provide consumers with the ability to reduce the impacts of hard water without creating the negative salinity impacts.
10 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
11 Ion Exchange Water Softening System The ion exchange unit removes hardness by exchanging sodium ions for the calcium and magnesium ions present in the water. It does this using resin beads that periodically need to be regenerated with a highly concentrated salt solution. There are two basic types of self-regenerating water softeners (SRWS): Timer Based and Demand Based.
12 Ion Exchange Water Softener Systems Discharge brine into wastewater systems These unnatural quantity of salts find their way into the environment and affect reuse applications. The use of no-salt water conditioning devices to reduce scale formation on domestic water heaters and other home appliances is one way society can improve the quality of remediated water.
13 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
14 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Capacitive Deionization Electrically Induced Precipitation Template Assisted Crystallization Electromagnetic Water Treatment
15 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Capacitive Deionization Regeneration: Voltage potential turned on Backwash: Voltage potential turned off or reversed Electro-chemical Treatment
16 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Electronically Induced Precipitation Tijing et al, 2007 Physical Water Treatment
17 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Template Assisted Crystallization
18 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Electromagnetic Water Treatment Physical Water Treatment
19 No-Salt Alternatives to Ion Exchange Other possible mechanisms for magnetic treatment Reduction of the effect of the double layer When the electrical double layer is reduced, more suspended coagulation can occur resulting in a light sludge that is easily wiped off of the surface. This can be tested by measuring the zeta potential of a particle before and after treatment.
20 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
21 Experimental Procedure DVGW-W512 Protocol
22 Heating Baths Tanks Experimental Procedure Biostat2000 Next ScaleStop Plan View
23 Experimental Procedure SideView
24 Experimental Procedure Once the 21 days of testing is over, the bath and heating element are cleaned using a 1N HCl solution. The solid scale is weighed and the scale dissolved by the HCl solution is measured using a Hach kit which utilizes the EDTA complexing method. This procedure will be repeated for all alternative devices using 3 different water qualities.
25 Experimental Procedure Water Qualities Included Salt River water (Tempe tap water) Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal water Scottsdale groundwater TDS (mg/l) Hardness (mg/l as CaCO 3 ) Salt River water (Tempe tap water) Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal water Scottsdale groundwater
26 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
27 Results Water Type Treatment device used No Treatment Scale scraped off of heating element (g) % Ca in scale formed Ca formed in solid scale precipitate (g Ca) Scale from bath and heating element dissolved with HCl (g Ca as CaCO 3 ) Total calcium formed during test (g Ca as CaCO 3 ) - NA Photo of heating element with scale TAC 0.00 NA Tempe tap water EIP MAG CDI 0.00 NA
29 Results Mass Balance Treatment Device Total Initial Ca as CaCO 3 (g) Before Treatment* Ca as CaCO 3 Found on Heating Element and Bath (g) Total effluent Ca as CaCO 3 exiting the system (g) % Scale Formed on Heating Element and Bath No Treatment % TAC % EIP % MWT % CDI % *Initial Ca indicates the average calcium content in 700gal Tempe tap water
30 Results Water Type Treatment device used Solid calcium collected from element (g Ca) Scale from bath and heating element dissolved with 0.18N HCl (g Ca as CaCO 3 ) Scale from bath dissolved with 1N HCl (g Ca as CaCO3) Total calcium formed during test (g Ca as CaCO 3 ) Photo of heating element after 21 days of testing No Treatment TAC Tempe tap water 60 C EIP MAG
31 g Ca as CaCO3 formed during test Results Scale Collected for Tempe Tap Water Tests C 60 C
32 Results Percent Removal Compared to Untreated Case Tempe Tap 80 C 60 C No Treatment 0 0 TAC EIP MAG CDI 83 To pass the DVGW-W512 test, a percentage of 80 or higher is required.
33 Results Rapid Test Due to the length of time and volume of water needed for the DVGW-W512 protocol, a more rapid testing protocol would be highly desirable. Some routes were explored in order to develop a more rapid testing protocol for the scale inducing technologies.
34 Intensity Intensity Results X-Ray Diffraction XRD Untreated Angle XRD Magnetic Treatment Angle Both untreated and magnetically treated cases have calcite patterned peaks
35 Surface Tension (mn/m) Results Surface Tension Tempe Tap DI There wasn t a significant reduction in surface tension for any of the magnetic devices.
36 Results RAMAN Spectroscopy 532nm Laser (excitation wavelength), Max Power = 70mW Magnetic Treatment Untreated
37 Total Hardness mg/l as CaCO3 Results Acidification/Filtration Lines indicate the No Treatment values Before acidification After acidification After Filtration Mag Sleeve Mag Sleeve Mag Sleeve Aqua Rex Treatment Device
38 Conclusions All alternative devices were effective at reducing scale. The most promising technology is the template assisted crystallization with scale reductions of over 90%. Further study is needed to look into the mechanisms at work for the magnetic treatment and a rapid testing protocol.
39 OUTLINE Water Quality and reuse in the Southwest US Ion exchange water softening system process and effects on remediated water quality No-salt alternatives to ion exchange and the mechanisms by which they reduce scale formation Experimental procedure Results Future Work
40 Future Work Complete testing of CAP canal and Scottsdale groundwater Continue exploring possibilities for a more rapid testing protocol Consider other no-salt water conditioning devices Develop guidelines for consumers such as a rating system to compare water conditioning devices
41 Aknowledgements WateReuse Foundation HDR, INC. Dr. Peter Fox Dr. Paul Westerhoff Emmanuel Soignard Cities of Phoenix, Scottsdale, and Tempe
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