WP WP Regional studies in renewable Energy supplies. Programma Central Europe - Progetto MANERGY. Territorio Energia Ambiente

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1 WP Programma Central Europe - Progetto MANERGY Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources WP Regional studies in renewable Energy supplies Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

2 Project Partner/ Contracting body Treviso Province Head of building and Housing Department Mr. Antonio Zonta, engineer Energy Manager Mr. Maurizio Tufaro, engineer International Relations Department Miss Rossella Cendron PP5 Project Manager Working group Venetoprogetti s.c. - ECUBA Marcello Antinucci, physicist Andrea Claser, architect Raffaele Gerometta, spatial planner Valeria Polizzi, spatial planner Michele Brombal, environmental engineer Giuseppe Segno, spatial planner

3 Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

4 1 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH GENERAL FEATURES OF TREVISO PROVINCE ENERGY POLICIES General overview Italian energetic combination ENERGY MARKET AND AUTHORITY The energy market stakeholders in RES incentives ENERGY SUPPLYING: FROM NATIONAL TO PROVINCIAL SCALE Energy demand Fossil and renewable sources Big boiler/combustion plants RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: AUTHORIZATIONS RENEWABLE SOURCES-DERIVED ENERGY IN THE PROVINCE TERRITORY Wind Power Hydroelectric source Photovoltaic Thermal solar Geothermal source Biomass source Waste-to-energy technologies BEST PRACTICE TECHNOLOGIES Local case study District heating systems and cogeneration LOCAL ARCHIVES Commune level data collection Data collection on Province Departments CONCLUSIONS DATA COLLECTION: SITUATION ON DATABASE AND SUGGESTION FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENTS STATE OF ART ON RES SUPPLIES BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 1 - legal sources APPENDIX 2 Maps and data tables Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili - 3 -

5 Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

6 The present document was elaborated in the frame of the MANERGY - Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources project, financed by the CENTRAL EUROPE programme of the European Union. Duration of the project: 1 May Apr Output number: wp The Kyoto protocol, the EU 2020 Strategy and several further commitments force the states of CE to rationalize their energy consumption and reduce the fossil energy sources in their energy mix in favour of renewables. MANERGY assists the CE area in achieving these goals by setting its general objective: supporting the responsible use of the environmental potentials of CE by promoting sustainable approaches to environment friendly energy source management, including an increase in renewable energy use and significant reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. As urban areas represent more than two thirds of the energy consumption of the EU, the role of local authorities in energy saving is significant. This tendency is fostered by the central governments in all countries, urging the public authorities to cut their expenses by rationalizing their overhead costs. MANERGY partners aid local authorities to answer this challenge and pave the way for the self sufficient regional energy supply. Therefore the project has set the specific objectives of elaborating innovative transnational method for local authorities to raise their energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable sources; setting up transnational network to assist the implementation of this process; transferring the elaborated tools for enhanced renewable energy use to regional/local levels and support preparations of practical energy applications; providing a clear picture for decision makers and transferring the energy concepts to regional/national policies; raising awareness on the benefits of renewable energy supply and energy efficiency. Based on the similarities in the energy supply of the partners, transnational cooperation offers the opportunity for direct exchange on the needs and future aspirations related to these topics. In the CE area currently there is no such official transnational level forum which would deal with these issues. The regions and local authorities are mostly the ones who implement the different approaches of energy use, on the other hand they in themselves separately are not strong stakeholders to have their voice heard in order to shape the system. By its transnational approach the project will transfer its results to other CE cities and also support the forming EU s energy policy. Besides, transnational cooperation gives that chance for local authorities - which would not have otherwise the possibility to access to a wide range of know-how - to improve their energy management by benefiting from best practices of other CE countries. MANERGY involves institutions with the competence and capacity to the specific objectives. The development agencies and the province have the capacity to develop and implement local/regional policies to support the efficient public energy consumption and increased use of renewables. The scientific and expert institutions have expertises in the research and evaluation of the use of the regenerative energy sources, in these cases the implementation of the elaborated tools will be ensured also by associated institutions. WP1 ensures the smooth cooperation and manage all project activities; WP2 spreads the results at 3 interregional conferences, 2 EU events, 1 website, 2 brochures, 6 newsletters and several media appearances. In WP3 energy consumption of local authorities and the renewable energy sources is mapped and supported by a digital map. Regional energy concepts will match the demand and supply optimally, a comparative study and a transnational tool of defining energy concepts will be worked out and illustrated by a case study booklet. To amend the organisational structure of implementing the concepts, WP4 analyses the requirements of setting up energy agencies that will be compared in a transnational study. Partners also deliver business plans for the EAs. WP5 will test the transnational tool and implement regional concepts in practice by local concepts and action plans. [WP: work package, that is a set of coherent activities] Further information: The project

7 1 INTRODUCTION The document proposal is to point out the state of art of renewable energies in Treviso Province. The report is included into the wider context of Manergy project. Manergy, made within Central Europe financial program, is a project whose aim is Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable concepts and renewable energy sources. The partners for this transnational study are: - Lead partner: South Transdanubian Regional Development Agency Nonprofit Ltd. (Hungary); - Partner 2: Maribor University (Slovenia); - Partner 3: Saxon Energy Agency (Germany); - Partner 4: ARLEG S.A. Regional Development Agency (Poland); - Partner 5: Treviso Province (); - Partner 6: EU Regional Management East Styria (Austria). Project activities are divided into Work Packages: - WP1: ensures the smooth cooperation and manage all project activities. - WP2: spreads the results at 3 interregional conferences, 2 EU events, 1 website, 3 brochures, 6 newsletters and several media appearances. - WP3: energy consumption of local authorities and the renewable energy sources is mapped and supported by a digital map. Regional energy concepts will match the demand and supply optimally, a comparative study and a transnational tool of defining energy concepts will be worked out and illustrated by a case study booklet. - WP4: analyses the requirements of setting up energy agencies that will be compared in a transnational study. Partners also deliver business plans for the EAs (Energy Agencies). - WP5: will test the transnational tool and implement regional concepts in practice by local concepts and action plans. This document is part of WP 3; in particular, it s a production concerning WP Regional studies in renewable energy supplies. The whole WP 3.1 final aim is to make a Regional Energy Concept (classified as WP 3.1.4); therefore, this report has been made to constitute the basis for the further developments, through a Province-level overview of energy topics and with special regard to Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili - 5 -

8 2 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH The report follows the guidelines written in the Terms of Reference provided by European WP3 Leader, Maribor University. It is also integrated by local scale requests of Treviso Province, in order to properly show some peculiarities of the territory and to provide useful suggestions for possible further developments. Followed methodological approach has been: General scale investigation for problem introduction and for the determination of stakeholders roles (this research has also included the analysis of in-force laws, both national and regional or eventually provincial level); National Public Data collection. This phase has mainly included the search of all the documents issued by main energy stakeholders at a national level, either regarding a general overview of energy topics or going through detail for a deeper level on renewable energies. Among all, these publications are: o Statistics from Ministry of Economical Development; o Statistics from Terna S.p.A. (National company for the management of high voltage electricity network); o Statistics from GSE (Gestore Servizi Energetici Energy Services Manager); o Material issued by ENEA (Ente Nazionale Energie Alternative National Agency for Alternative Energies). Local Working group consulting. The proposal of this phase was to indentify all the possible sources of information on a province-based scale for final data collection; this has been made through a kickoff meeting and different ways of further contacting (e.g. s); Choosing of the most reliable and project best fitting sources, both considering the kind of needed data and the short-term project deadlines. Among these sources, Environment office of Treviso Province has to be pointed out for the good amount of information. As no data have been found for some topics, a sample of 17 communes in the province has also been contacted. These contacts have also been kept into account to evaluate general data availability for a very local scale. Data collection through cooperation of the several offices/agencies/bureaus, e.g. using: o General meetings; o Vis-à-vis meetings; o delivery with questionnaires to be compiled; o Direct data collection. Writing of the report. The document includes: o Overview of energy sources (national scale); o Energy supply and consumption in Treviso province; o Description of authorization procedures for renewable energy plants; o State of art for renewable energy supplies in Treviso Province, divided by sector; o Best practices; o Conclusions, about both the state of art for RES and the data availability on a province-based scale. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

9 Because of the kind of work and being the situation of RES on a continuous evolution general suggestions for future investigations and statistical data collections have been included. In fact, the report aims to be a basis to implement an easy-to-read and easy-to-update database. Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili - 7 -

10 3 GENERAL FEATURES OF TREVISO PROVINCE Treviso province is sited in the northern-eastern part of and it s included into Veneto Region, being its central-eastern part. Its area is 2.476,68 sq.m. its population is inhabitants (updated to ). It is divided into 95 communes, being Treviso the most populate one ( inhab.). In addition to the capital, the province counts 5 major towns (Conegliano, Castelfranco Veneto, Montebelluna, Vittorio Veneto, Mogliano Veneto) that count around inhabitants each. It is characterized by a high population density (358,65 inhab./sq. m.), due to a system of average-small villages and towns close to each other. This pattern of settlements is very typical of North-Eastern. It s one of the Italian provinces with the highest percentage of foreign residents (96.127, being 11.5% of local population, updated to ). Unemployment rate in 2010 was 6,5%. Workers per sector in 2007 were: 3,2% agriculture, 44,0% industry, 52,8 tertiary. GNP per capita (2007) was euro, respecting the national average. On an economic level, the historical agricultural tendency of the area has been recently replaced by a small-sized factories system, being many of them family businesses too. Agricultural sector stands still but it evolved into a more structured and modern factory farm system, that produces, in addition to usual crops, also typical products such as wine (e.g. Prosecco), asparagus, radicchio. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

11 4 ENERGY POLICIES The energy topic in its overview can t find any exhaustive discussion only within National borders. Therefore, in the paragraphs to come a wider discussion will be given, useful to evaluate the interest and the needing of developing local scale energy policies also by elaborating province Energy Concepts, as in this case. 4.1 General overview As known, global primary energy consumption raised at an exponential rate in the latest century. In the latest years, in particular, there was a peak of the demand due to the high demand by developing countries. Historical trend of primary energy use(bottom up: coal, oil, gas, nuclear power, hydro, other renewable sources) On the left: Global demand of primary energy (1973). On the right: global demand of primary energy (2006). [Source: GSE 2010] There have been clear increases of oil prices, with some direct consequences on primary energy sources costs: 1. Increase, as a result, of gas price Price of gas is established depending on the oil one 2. Increase of electrical power cost Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili - 9 -

12 Power is often produced by using gas. For example, in, estimations say that at least 60% of the power put into the network is generated by using gas. Synthesizing a possible reference scenario defined starting from International Energy Agency (IEA) publications: World primary energy consumption will rise with an approximate rate of 1,7% per year in the next years considering the decades between 2000 and 2030 because of the economical and demographical growth. 60% of the energy demand increase between 2000 and 2030 will come from developing countries, especially from Asia. World energetic system will continue to be ruled by fossil fuels; it is forecasted that they will satisfy almost 90% of total amount of energy demand. Oil will still be the main source (37%), followed by natural gas (26%) and coal (24%). There will still be wide odds in accessing the electrical power People without access to electric power in the developing countries: estimation for 2030 says 16% will be not in the condition to use electric power. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

13 In addition there s the oil question: Even though its amount is definite and subject to an end, availability of sources is still capable of satisfying the demand for some decades. Existing reservoirs, now considered as non profitable, will depend on price tendencies, on stakeholders estimations on these tendencies and on the development of more evolved drilling techniques. The effective feasibility for most of the sources is limited by geopolitical problems: more than 56% of the known resources is concentrated in the Middle East countries and in the long term the dependence from these area of Countries utilizing oil will rise. Global oil reserves [source: British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy, 2009] Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

14 4.2 Italian energetic combination Composition of Italian energy sources combination shows a definite unbalance with regard to oil products and natural gas, that in 2006 represented almost 80% of energetic mix. Source:elaboration of ENEA data on Ministry of Economical Development data, 2006 Energetic cost for in 2006 was 48 billion Euros, 10 billions more than 2005: in 2008 there was an increase of more than 10 billion Euros compared to 2007, by reaching 56,7 billion Euros (+21,7%). According to data issued by ENEA, in 2009 price of energy in was 41,4 billion Euros, with a save caused by decrease of consumptions of 18,4 billion compared to 2008 and an incidence on GNP of 2,7% (in 2008 it was 3,8%). In 2010, according to Unione Petrolifera (Oil Union, association of Italian oil producers), cost of energy for has been about 51,7 billion Euros. Analyzing the composition of Italian electrical power offering (graph shown above), it can be seen that, in addition to imported amount, there s about a 68% of energy production from Thermo electrical power plants that, as known, produce electricity mainly by using gas. Source: Terna 2009 Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

15 Comparing this data with the percentage of imported gas (graphs above), it s clear that is a country with a lack of traditional primary energy sources; therefore, it s strongly dependent on importations: in 2010 the net import/gross internal consumption ratio was almost 90%. Imported gas from Russia in 2005 percentage per country [Source: international Energy Agency Eurostat, British Petroleum] f External dependence: net importing on gross internal consumption [Source: Eurostat 2010] Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

16 The energy concept that will be defined as the last output for WP 3.1 of Manergy project will then be forced to keep into account this overall situation, that eventually leads to a series of risks: Geopolitical factor a strong dependence from foreign countries; Economical factor continuously rising cost for energy; Environmental factor a high environmental risk given by a high unbalance of energy offer powered by fossil fuels. The objective that already appears to be fixed is, then, imagining the increase of percentage of RES powered energy and, meanwhile, the growth of energy efficiency that is equal to energy saving together with a predictable prosecution of market liberalization process and supplying diversification, most of all in a bottom up approach that can be persecuted also in our energy concept. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

17 5 ENERGY MARKET AND AUTHORITY Under the profile of energy politics, 2011 has been characterized by a strong acceleration of the action for the National energy markets. For example, the ACER (Agency for the cooperation of energy regulators) issued the first guidelines for the integrations of National energy markets. By summarizing, the nowadays national energy markets in Europe have been knowing years of relevant evolutions, with positive consequences on national economic systems. 5.1 The energy market stakeholders in In the last decade the Italian energy market saw an impressive process of changing and restructuring of the old monopolistic system, replaced by a free energy market (2003) and gas market (started in 2007 still in progress) that lead to the installation of the Authority for Electrical Power and Gas (AEEG). The AEEG defines the RULES for all the stakeholders involved into the energy chain, from production to distribution, granting the competition between the operators, the efficiency (standard of services), a clear bill system, protection of final customers and, as a substantial aspect, it regulates the process of administrative and accountancy separation of the electrical power and gas different phases (production transmission distribution). Another important element of Italian energy market is the Energy Services Manager (GSE). Being active since 2005, it has the duty of promote and incentivize the Renewable Energy Sources through a system explained afterwards. Moreover, the GSE is the administrator of other two societies: 1. The Electrical Market Manager (GME) Organizes the exchange market on Italian Power Exchange (IPEX) 2. The Only buyer (AU) It has the role of grant for the supply of electrical power to minor users, such as families and small companies that didn t choose the free market, staying in a more protected market. It has to be underlined that the Italian market of electrical power is an important model in the European panorama, being recognized very high levels of efficiency and liberalization. Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

18 Italian electric market (Source: AEEG) 5.2 RES incentives In order to meet the aims fixed by Kyoto Protocol (the so-called ) in, a system of incentives to the use of RES and to energy efficiency has been made, through AEEG and the other agencies described above. Since 1992, the Italian legislator has actually introduced a particular form of incentive (CIP6) that every Italian customer paid in the electricity bill. However, part of the funds collected using this system has been voided by several reasons. The form of incentives in is doubled: in fact, both a premium tariff and a quote system (Green Certificates) is active, unique case in Europe together with United Kingdom. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

19 RES promotion (GSE taken from Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) Going through details, the different forms of incentives to RES usage are reported to be: 1. Green Certificates Incentives to the production of electrical power by using RES How it works: A percentage of production from fossil fuels to renewable sources is requested to the producers to be transformed; if this percentage can t be reached, the producers have to buy Green Certificates in the amount corresponding to the non-transformed one and deliver it to the Manager. A Green Certificate for every MWh produced is released to the producers from RES. They can sell it to the producers from fossil fuels that aren t matching the results. These certificates last for 15 years. Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

20 2. All-inclusive fare It s a money incentive, different by source, that is released alternatively to Green Certificates for the electrical power going to the network. It s an incentive developed for small plants (<1MW), make procedures simpler and granting a fixed and predictable payback. It s made for all the renewable energies but solar and it s released for a 15 years period. 3. Energy account (specific for photovoltaic) Incentive on the whole energy produced by the photovoltaic plant, counted by a dedicated electricity meter, different from the distributor s one. It s valid for 20 years. Beside these kind of incentives, it s possible to point out the stream linked to Structural European Funds for possible help of developing RES technologies, made through Regional Operative Program and Agricultural Development Program. In particular, the ROP for energy sector provides three main actions: Action 2.1.1: Increase of RES-based production; No active calls Action 2.1.2: Urban systems requalifying interventions: district heating systems and energetic improvement for public buildings; No active calls Action 2.1.3: Rotation fund for energy saving aimed interventions; No active calls Moreover, Veneto Region finances interventions on energy proposed by public administrations (e.g. wood biomass plants, solar thermal plants, district heating systems), with its own funds yearly established for Regional direction projects (pilot projects, as written in article n.4 of Regional Law 25/2000). Since 2010, though, this financing program has been interrupted. Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

21 6 ENERGY SUPPLYING: FROM NATIONAL TO PROVINCIAL SCALE 6.1 Energy demand National energy demand has risen following the level of economical and demographical development of the Country. The internal gross energy consumption for primary sources has almost tripled in the latest 50 years ( ), going from 68,9 to 197,8 Mtoe in the 2005, peak of consumption. In the same period, the electrical power consumption has risen from to GWh in 2008 (consumption per capita in 2010 is kwh/ab.). In the latest years, after a short period of decrease in 2009 due to world economical crisis, energy consumption has come back to an increase in 2010 and The national forecast for the years to come varies from a development scenario that would lead to an average +1,8% growth rate and a base scenario with a 0,7% growth rate. Gross internal consumption of energy from primary sources: Total energy and electrical energy (Source: Terna) In the same period Veneto Region saw a consumption increase from to GWh, highly above the National average (demanded energy was ,4 GWh); yearly consumption per capita is kwh/ab., 18% more than national average. Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

22 In 2010, Treviso province consumed 4.899,3 GWh 1 of electrical power, of which 131,4 were used by agriculture (2 nd in the region), 2.670,5 in the industry, 1.114,3 in the tertiary and 983,1 in the domestic sector, for kwh/ab., slightly above regional average. 2 National gas consumption from 2003 to 2009 has slightly increased, from to mil scm (with a peak of smc in 2008). The growth is evident in the residential and tertiary utilize, where consumption increased from to mil. scm (some more than 2008 data) and in the thermal power plants sector (from to , with a peak of in 2008). 3 On a province level, 2010 methane gas consumption has been 759,10 mil scm, of which 180,7 for industrial use. Total consumption diminished compared to 908 mil. Scm of 2004 and 918 of Fossil and renewable sources As shortly said before, considering energy sources, has always been, historically, dependent on oil-derived fuels and from foreign countries, since the country hasn t reservoirs enough for the self-maintenance. In the latest years the use of methane gas has also increased, both on electricity production and on general energy production (heating systems and industrial production). The use of renewable sources for electrical energy production is rapidly increasing; this is clearly due to the system of incentives for renewable sources usage and to the increasing cost of raw materials (fossil fuels). Installed power has risen from to MW (+65%), with a more evident increase in years 2009 and 2010 (respectively, +11% and +14% compared to the previous year). 5 1 Not considering power consumption for railways 2 Source: Terna (2012) 3 Source: Ministry of Economical Development Energy Department Energetic and mineral statistics and analyses 4 Source: Ministry of Economical Development, as above. 5 Source: GSE. Statistical report on renewable sources, Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

23 National electric balance in 2010 (Source: GSE statistical report on RES in ) Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

24 Gross total production of electric power in per type between 2000 al 2010 (Source: GSE) National electric power production from RES between 2000 and 2010 (Source: GSE) Progetto Manergy Paving the way for self-sufficient regional energy supply based on sustainable energy concepts and renewable energy sources

25 As it can be seen from statistics, the sources that have mainly increased in their use are solar energy ( ), wind power ( ), biomasses ( ). Hydroelectric source also saw an increase, that GSE mainly leads to positive climate conditions. In 2010, Veneto had 5,2% of total National installed power and 6,5% of renewable sources production, in view of 4,9% and 7,1% in Installed power passed from 1.301,8 MW (7.118 plants) to 1.579,3 MW ( plants). Production slightly increased, going from to GWh. On a supply level, the province territory on its central-southern part (indicatively, from Spresiano to Roncade in north-south direction and from Montebelluna to San Polo di Piave in east-west direction), for a total area of 529,75 sq km, is under investigation for the search of liquid and solid hydrocarbon compounds. The permit started in 2010, July 9 th, will expire in the same day of Still considering supplies, Province is crossed by some important high voltage power lines. In 2005, Treviso was crossed by 890 km of high voltage power lines. High voltage power lines in Treviso province (Source: ARPAV, 2005) 6 Source: National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Resources Incentivare la fornitura autonoma di energia a livello regionale basata su energy concepts sostenibili e fonti di energia rinnovabili

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