FOREST PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING. Focus Report on Preventing Injuries to Workers

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1 FOREST PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING Focus Report on Preventing Injuries to Workers

2 About the WCB Preventing on-the-job injury and disease is the first priority of the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) of British Columbia. WCB officers inspect worksites in B.C. to make sure they comply with the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, which sets out minimum workplace standards for health and safety. The WCB also investigates serious workplace accidents and consults with employers, supervisors, and workers to promote health and safety in the workplace. Under the requirements of the Workers Compensation Act, a worker must report an injury or a disabling occupational disease as soon as possible to the employer. The employer must report work-related injuries, occupational diseases, and work-related deaths to the WCB within three days. A worker may not make an agreement with the employer to give up WCB benefits. If a worker suffers a work-related injury or illness, the WCB provides fair compensation that may include medical costs, loss of earnings, physical rehabilitation, and pensions. The WCB also works with employers to help injured workers return to work. If a worker is killed on the job, counselling and financial help are made available to the victim s family. For more information on requirements or eligibility for WCB coverage, contact the WCB office nearest you. WCB Prevention Information Line The WCB Prevention Information Line can answer your questions about workplace health and safety, worker and employer responsibilities, and reporting a workplace accident or incident. The Prevention Information Line accepts anonymous calls. Phone in the Lower Mainland, or call SAFE (7233) toll-free in British Columbia. To report after-hours and weekend accidents and emergencies, call

3 FOCUS FOREST PRODUCTS REPORT ON MANUFACTURING PREVENTING INJURIES TO WORKERS

4 WCB Publications To obtain additional copies of this booklet or other WCB publications, contact: Films and Posters Section Workers Compensation Board of B.C. PO Box 5350 Stn Terminal Vancouver BC V6B 5L5 Phone: in the Lower Mainland , local 3068, toll-free in B.C. Fax: Workers Compensation Board of British Columbia. All rights reserved. The Workers Compensation Board of B.C. encourages the copying, reproduction, and distribution of this document to promote health and safety in the workplace, provided that the Workers Compensation Board of B.C. is acknowledged. However, no part of this publication may be copied, reproduced, or distributed for profit or other commercial enterprise, nor may any part be incorporated into any other publication, without written permission of the Workers Compensation Board of B.C. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data Main entry under title: Forest products manufacturing : focus report on preventing injuries to workers ISBN Forest products industry Accidents - British Columbia. 2. Industrial accidents - British Columbia - Statistics. 3. Industrial safety - British Columbia. I. Workers Compensation Board of British Columbia. HD C32B C

5 Highlights of this report From 1993 to 1997, the WCB paid more than $325 million for claims in forest products manufacturing. (See page 7.) Type of claims Number Cost Health-care-only 41,932 $11.5 million Time-loss (STD and LTD, including amputations) 23,800 $297.4 million Fatalities 35 $10.9 million This report highlights the need for improved occupational health and safety programs in forest products manufacturing industries. Employers should review the orientation, training, and supervision of workers in their operations (particularly for workers new to a job) to determine if they are effective in preventing injuries. They should also ensure that they are preventing musculoskeletal injuries. Industry, labour, and the WCB are working together to identify potential engineering and other controls (for example, better safeguarding devices and lockout training) to prevent amputations. Improving health and safety programs in these areas as discussed in Parts 8 and 9 of the report will also help prevent fatalities, the most tragic outcomes of accidents in the workplace. The most common accident types in forest products manufacturing in B.C. from 1993 to 1997 were overexertion, struck-by, and caught-in accidents. (See pages 16, 28, 42, 54, and 66.) Overexertion 27% Other 47% Struck by 16% Caught in 10%

6 iv

7 CONTENTS 1. Introduction... 1 About this report... 3 Types of WCB statistics available... 3 Work covered under forest products manufacturing classifications Basic information... 5 Employment trends in forest products manufacturing... 7 WCB claims in forest products manufacturing... 7 Injury rates in forest products manufacturing... 8 Types of accidents in forest products manufacturing Pulp and paper industry Injury rate in the pulp and paper industry Cost of claims in the pulp and paper industry Claims in the pulp and paper industry by occupation Types of accidents in the pulp and paper industry Overexertion Falls from elevation Other-bodily-motion accidents Struck-by accidents Caught-in accidents Fatalities in the pulp and paper industry Sawmills Injury rate in sawmills Cost of claims in sawmills Claims in sawmills by occupation Types of accidents in sawmills Overexertion Struck-by accidents Caught-in accidents Falls from elevation Falls on the same level Fatalities in sawmills Plywood and panel board mills Injury rate in plywood and panel board mills Cost of claims in plywood and panel board mills Claims in plywood and panel board mills by occupation Types of accidents in plywood and panel board mills Overexertion Struck-by accidents Caught-in accidents Falls from elevation Falls on the same level Fatalities in plywood and panel board mills Shake and shingle mills Injury rate in shake and shingle mills Cost of claims in shake and shingle mills Claims in shake and shingle mills by occupation v

8 Types of accidents in shake and shingle mills Struck-by accidents Overexertion Struck-against accidents Caught-in accidents Repetitive-motion claims Fatalities in shake and shingle mills Value-added wood products industry Injury rate in the value-added wood products industry Cost of claims in the value-added wood products industry Claims in the value-added wood products industry by occupation Types of accidents in the value-added wood products industry Overexertion Struck-by accidents Caught-in accidents Struck-against accidents Falls from elevation Fatalities in the value-added wood products industry Preventing accidents and injuries Overview Overexertion Falls Lockout Safeguarding Amputations Creating and maintaining a safe workplace Overview Occupational health and safety programs Supervision and training Responsibilities of supervisors Orientation of new workers A positive approach to health and safety Resources WCB resources Forest Products Manufacturing Advisory Group of British Columbia Employers Advisers Workers Advisers WCB Offices vi

9 1. INTRODUCTION 1

10 About this report Forest products manufacturing in British Columbia as defined by the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) of B.C. encompasses a variety of companies and employers, mostly those who manufacture or work with forest products. The diversity of work in forest products manufacturing means that many different occupations are involved, such as mill labourers, plywood and panel board makers, sawmill sawyers, packaging workers, papermakers, carpenters, and millwrights. The nature of the work done by workers in these occupations and the types of equipment and materials they handle present many on-the-job hazards. Injuries and fatalities in forest products manufacturing result from such things as: Being caught in or struck by machinery Falling from a height Heavy lifting or repetitive movements Twisting or reaching Breathing in noxious or toxic chemicals This report provides employers, supervisors, workers, and health and safety personnel with information about accidents in the forest products manufacturing industries and how to prevent them. Part 1, the introduction, provides a general overview of the purpose of the report, information on the sources of the statistics, and information on the WCB industry rate classification system. Part 2 contains basic information about the forest products manufacturing industries as a group. Part 3 offers information about the pulp and paper industry. Part 4 offers information about sawmills. Part 5 offers information about plywood and panel board mills. Part 6 offers information about shake and shingle mills. Part 7 offers information about the valueadded wood products industry. Part 8 discusses how to prevent common accidents in the forest products manufacturing industries. Part 9 describes how to create and maintain a safe workplace. Part 10 tells how to obtain WCB assistance, information, courses, publications, and videos. Types of WCB statistics available Accident statistics at the WCB are based on accepted injury claims from workers. The following terms are used in this report. Injury rate calculation The WCB compiles average injury rates for various industry groups as well as a provincial average for all industries. Injury rates are based on short-term disability claims and estimated person-years of employment. Person-years are estimated by dividing the gross payrolls submitted by employers by the matching Statistics Canada wage-rate data. Injury rate is then calculated by dividing the number of shortterm disability claims by the estimated number of person-years and multiplying that by 100. This results in a rate expressing the number of claims per 100 person-years of covered employment (100 person-years is the equivalent of 100 full-time employees). Injury rate = Number of STD claims accepted estimated person-years x 100 Health-care-only claims Health-care-only (HCO) claims are claims for which the WCB paid medical expenses but did not replace lost income. These claims are paid through B.C. medical insurance; very little information about these claims is available. Unless otherwise specified, in this report the statistics for claims costs do not include HCO costs. Introduction 3

11 Time-loss claims Time-loss claims include claims where time at work is lost due to a workplace injury that results in a short-term disability (STD), a long-term disability (LTD), or a fatality. STD claims are those where a payment is made for lost income and the worker is expected to return to work. STD claims involve injuries such as broken arms or legs and back strains or sprains. STD claims are used to determine injury rates. LTD claims are those where a pension is awarded for a permanent disability, such as the loss of a limb or finger. Fatality claims are those where a survivor benefit is paid. Period covered in this report Parts 2 to 7 of this report cover the statistics for forest products manufacturing industries for the five-year period from 1993 to 1997, the most recent year for which data were available. Because statistical breakdowns by occupation were unavailable for 1997, the proportions for claims by occupation within each industry sector (expressed as percentages) were derived from data for instead of In forest products manufacturing, the relative rates of claims by occupation do not vary significantly over time. Note: In some tables, charts, and graphs, the percentages do not total 100 due to rounding. Industries covered in this report The industries covered in this report are based on the classification system used for determining WCB assessments for employers. The forest products manufacturing classifications, , , , and , along with the value-added grouping of eight classbins, cover a diverse group of employers. They mostly include companies that manufacture or work with forest products for example, companies that make primary wood supplies (such as pulp, plywood, panel board, shingles) and companies that make secondary wood products (such as doors, pallets, pails, barrels). A detailed list of the work covered under this subclass is shown in the box below. Work covered under forest products manufacturing classifications Pulp and paper mills Sawmills, manufacturing of wood chips (chipping) Manufacturing of flakeboard, hardboard, plywood, and veneer (panel board) Shingle or shake mills Value-added wood products includes the following eight classbins:* Planing mills Manufacturing of fence posts or wooden poles, and log peeling when conducted as a separate industry Lumber remanufacturing, where not part of a sawmill operation Kiln drying Manufacturing of sashes and doors, or moulding Manufacturing of laminated beams Wooden box works, or manufacturing of wooden pallets Manufacturing of excelsior (wood wool), staves or heads, or wooden pails, tubs, pipe, or barrels made of staves * Claims in these eight classbins were combined to provide the information in Part 7. Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 4

12 2. BASIC INFORMATION 5

13 Employment trends in forest products manufacturing In 1997, the equivalent of about 49,000 fulltime workers were employed in the forest products manufacturing industries. This means that about 2.7 percent of the 1.8 million workers in B.C. in 1997 worked in forest products manufacturing. As shown in the graph on the right, employment in this group of industries declined from 1993 to 1997, particularly between 1993 and Number of full-time equivalent workers Employment trends in forest products manufacturing, ,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 WCB claims in forest products manufacturing The table below summarizes information about accepted claims in the forest products manufacturing industries from 1993 to It shows that the cost of health-care-only claims is much lower than the cost of timeloss claims, though there are almost twice the number of health-care-only claims. Time-loss claims resulted in 932,856 days lost from work during this five-year period These claims costs do not include other costs of workplace accidents and disease that employers must pay, such as the costs of hiring replacement workers, overtime, and retraining. The pain, suffering, and disability experienced by injured workers are of even greater importance than the financial costs Accepted claims in forest products manufacturing, Number Total Type of claim of claims claims cost Health-care-only claims 41,932 $11.5 million Time-loss claims: 23,800 $297.4 million* STD and LTD, including amputations Time-loss claims: 206 $13.0 million* amputations only Fatality claims 37 $10.9 million *This includes all costs associated with short-term and long-term benefits for time-loss and permanent disability awards. It does not include costs for rehabilitation and health-care benefits. Basic information 7

14 The graph on the right shows the trend of both health-care-only and time-loss claims for the forest products manufacturing industries from 1993 to Claims trend for forest products manufacturing, Number of time-loss claims Number of health-care-only claims 10, Number of claims Injury rates in forest products manufacturing From 1993 to 1997, the average five-year injury rates in the various forest products manufacturing industries ranged from 3.4 (pulp and paper) to 33.2 (shake and shingle mills). During the same period, the average rate in all workplaces in B.C. was 5.4. These figures highlight the hazardous nature of work in forest products manufacturing and the need for safety programs and initiatives. The graph on the right compares the injury rates in forest products manufacturing with the provincial average in all industries for 1993 to More detailed discussion of injury rates is provided in the part for each industry involved in forest products manufacturing (Parts 3 through 7). Injury rate Average injury rates in forest products manufacturing industries and all B.C. industries, Pulp and paper industry Sawmills Plywood and panel board mills Shake and shingle mills Value-added wood products industry All B.C. industries Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 8

15 Types of accidents in forest products manufacturing This report often reviews claims by the types of accidents that caused them. Accidents here include not only sources of claims that happen at a definite point in time (e.g., when a worker is struck by a piece of equipment) but also those involving a longer period (e.g., when a worker develops a repetitive motion injury from continually performing the same task or becomes deaf after exposure to hazardous noise levels for many years). From 1993 to 1997, claims in the forest products manufacturing industries were most often: Overexertion claims, caused by lifting, pushing, pulling, and/or carrying objects Repetitive motion claims, caused by repeated motions where no individual motion was likely to have caused injury Other-bodily-motion claims, caused by reaching, twisting, running, walking, slipping, or tripping without falling Fall-from-elevation claims, due to falls from any height Fall-on-same-level claims, due to tripping on rough or uneven surfaces Struck-by claims, from being struck by moving objects such as equipment, machine parts that break or fly off, or materials handled (e.g., logs, lumber) Struck-against claims, from striking against objects such as equipment or machinery Caught-in claims, from being caught in machinery, equipment, or materials handled Toxic, noxious claims, caused by touching, inhaling, or ingesting toxic or noxious substances Noise exposure claims, caused by a single or repeated exposure to noise Matter-in-eye claims, due to foreign material entering the eye and causing superficial damage (if more serious damage results, the claims are classified as struck-by claims) Motor vehicle accident (MVA) claims, from accidents to or movement of highway or non-highway vehicles Amputations Amputations which often result from caught-in and struck-by accidents, for example are a particular concern in the forest products manufacturing industries. The Prevention Division of the Workers Compensation Board and the forest products manufacturing industries are investigating the potential of engineering and other controls to prevent amputations. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 206 amputation claims in the forest products manufacturing industries, at a total cost of more than $13 million. The table below shows the number and cost of claims for each of these five years. More detailed information on the causes of and strategies to prevent amputations in forest products manufacturing can be found on pages of this report, in the sections on lockout, safeguarding, and amputations. Amputation claims in forest products manufacturing industries, Year No. of claims Cost of claims $ 3,135, $ 3,056, $ 1,948, $ 1,764, $ 3,127,212 Total 5 yrs. 206 $ 13,032,314 Basic information 9

16 3. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY 11

17 Injury rate in the pulp and paper industry From 1993 to 1997, the average injury rate in the pulp and paper industry was 3.4. For the same period, the provincial average in all workplaces in B.C. was 5.4. Injury rates in the pulp and paper industry and all B.C. industries, All B.C. industries Pulp and paper industry The graph on the right compares the injury rate in the pulp and paper industry with the provincial average in all industries for each year from 1993 to The injury rate in the pulp and paper industry dropped from 4 in 1993 and 1994 to 3 in 1995, 1996, and This is a 25 percent decrease. Injury rate Injury rates are also available for individual companies for a given year. The table below shows how the injury rate in the pulp and paper industry in 1997 varied with the size of the company Injury rate in the pulp and paper industry by company size, 1997 Company size Percentage Number Percentage by number of Injury Number of of all of of all workers rate companies companies workers* workers < 50 < % 148 1% 51 to % 146 1% % 16,560 98% All companies % 16, % *full-time equivalent Pulp and paper industry 13

18 Cost of claims in the pulp and paper industry From 1993 to 1997, the total cost of time-loss claims (STD, LTD, and fatalities) in the pulp and paper industry was about $56.4 million. The amount for each of the five years is shown in the graph above right. In 1997, the cost of these claims was about $14.5 million. This was about 2.0 percent of the $740 million total claims costs for all of B.C. Claims costs increased in 1997, due partly to a court decision that reinstated widows benefits. The cost of time-loss claims from 1993 to 1997 can also be broken down by accident type, as shown in the graph below right. Claims costs in millions of dollars Cost of time-loss claims in the pulp and paper industry by year, Cost of time-loss claims in the pulp and paper industry by accident type, Claims costs in millions of dollars Overexertion Fall from elevation Other bodily motion Struck by Caught in Fall on same level Toxic, noxious exposure Struck against Repetitive motion Other Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 14

19 Claims in the pulp and paper industry by occupation As shown in the graph below, the occupations with accepted accident claims in the pulp and paper industry were: Pulp and paper maker (40 percent) Millwright (11 percent) Plumber, pipefitter (6 percent) Other equipment operator (4 percent) Metal-shaping worker (4 percent) Janitor, cleaner (3 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (3 percent) Heavy-duty mechanic (2 percent) Carpenter or related worker (2 percent) Other (25 percent) Examples of other occupations are packaging worker, stationary engineer, truck driver, and hoist operator. Although pulp and paper makers had the most accidents that resulted in claims, we cannot conclude that pulp and paper making is the most hazardous occupation. Because we do not know the percentage of workers in the pulp and paper industry who are pulp and paper makers, we cannot determine if pulp and paper makers injury rate is higher or lower than the rates of workers in other occupations. Claims in the pulp and paper industry by occupation Electrical installation and repair worker 3% Janitor, cleaner 3% Metal-shaping worker 4% Heavy-duty mechanic 2% Carpenter or related worker 2% Other equipment operator 4% Plumber, pipefitter 6% Pulp and paper maker 40% Millwright 11% Other 25% Pulp and paper industry 15

20 Types of accidents in the pulp and paper industry From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 3,341 time-loss claims (STD, LTD, and fatalities) in the pulp and paper industry. As can be seen in the graph below, these claims resulted from a broad range of accident types. Most claims were due to the following five types of accidents: Overexertion (28 percent) Fall from elevation (12 percent) Other bodily motion (11 percent) Struck by (9 percent) Caught in (7 percent) These types of accidents are discussed in more detail on the following pages. Claims in the pulp and paper industry by accident type, Struck against 4% Toxic, noxious exposure 5% Fall on same level 6% Repetitive motion 3% Overexertion 28% Caught in 7% Struck by 9% Other bodily motion 11% Other 15% Fall from elevation 12% Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 16

21 Overexertion Overexertion accidents are caused by lifting, pushing, pulling, and carrying objects such as paper and pulp items, reels and rolls, and metal objects. Most of these accidents resulted in strain and sprain injuries. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 915 overexertion claims in the pulp and paper industry. This represented 28 percent of the total number and 18 percent of the total cost of time-loss claims in this industry. The occupations with the most overexertion claims were: Pulp and paper maker (42 percent) Millwright (12 percent) Plumber, pipefitter (7 percent) Metal-shaping worker (4 percent) Carpenter or related worker (3 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (3 percent) Overexertion claims in the pulp and paper industry, Overexertion 28% Paper, pulp item 7% Reel, roll 6% Other metal object 6% Other object 81% Pulp and paper industry 17

22 Falls from elevation Many falls from elevation involve workers slipping on steps or stairs, or falling from ladders, ramps, platforms, or stationary vehicles. Walking on and getting off of vehicles and equipment (e.g., climbing down from a load) are common activities that workers often do several times each work day and do not perceive as being high-risk. Nevertheless, these activities result in many accidents and injuries. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 400 fall-from-elevation claims in the pulp and paper industry. This represented 12 percent of the total number and 17 percent of the total cost of time-loss claims in this industry. The percentage of cost (17) is almost onethird higher than the percentage of incidents (12) because injuries were more severe in falls from elevation than in some other types of accidents. The occupations with the most fall-fromelevation claims were: Pulp and paper maker (41 percent) Other equipment operator (9 percent) Millwright (6 percent) Plumber, pipefitter (6 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (5 percent) Fall-from-elevation claims in the pulp and paper industry, Falls from elevation 12% Falling on steps, stairs 18% Falling from ladder 15% Falling from stationary vehicle 12% Other 55% Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 18

23 Other-bodily-motion accidents Other-bodily-motion claims result from accidents in which an injury is caused by a free bodily motion such as bending or reaching, or when a person slips but does not fall to the ground. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 376 other-bodily-motion accident claims in the pulp and paper industry. This represented 11 percent of the total number and 6 percent of the total cost of time-loss claims in this industry. The occupations with the most otherbodily-motion claims were: Pulp and paper maker (40 percent) Millwright (24 percent) Plumber, pipefitter (7 percent) Metal-shaping worker (5 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (5 percent) Other-bodily-motion claims in the pulp and paper industry, Other bodily motion 11% Slipping on floor (inside) 20% Slipping on ground (outside) 22% Slipping on steps, stairs 18% Other 40% Pulp and paper industry 19

24 Struck-by accidents Struck-by claims result from accidents in which workers are struck by moving objects, such as lumber, wooden items, equipment, and machine parts that break or fly off. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 307 struck-by claims in the pulp and paper industry. This represented 9 percent of the total number and 8 percent of the total cost of time-loss claims in this industry. The occupations with the most struck-by claims were: Pulp and paper maker (36 percent) Millwright (22 percent) Plumber, pipefitter (8 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (4 percent) Struck-by claims in the pulp and paper industry, Struck by 9% Metal pipe 8% Other metal object 8% Reel, roll 6% Other 78% Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 20

25 Caught-in accidents Caught-in claims represent accidents in which workers are caught in a machine, a piece of equipment, or materials they are working with. From 1993 to 1997, the WCB accepted 231 caught-in claims in the pulp and paper industry. This represented 7 percent of the total number and 12 percent of the total cost of time-loss claims in this industry. The percentage of cost (12) is almost twice as high as the percentage of incidents (7) because injuries were more severe in caughtin accidents than in some other types of accidents. The occupations with the most caught-in claims were: Pulp and paper maker (50 percent) Millwright (23 percent) Packaging worker (4 percent) Electrical installation and repair worker (3 percent) Caught-in claims in the pulp and paper industry, Caught in 7% Other machinery 28% Conveyor 9% Sawmill machinery 5% Other 58% Examples of caught-in accidents A worker was trying to thread paper ends onto rolls. While his left hand was jogging the control switch, his right hand was holding the paper end in place. He accidentally jogged the paper end rolls and caught his right hand in the nip area. A worker was cleaning spilled chips at the crossover belt when the handle of his shovel was caught in a nip-point between the return belt and the return roller. The handle of the shovel drew the worker s right arm and left hand into the nip-point, causing the dislocation of his right elbow and lacerating his right arm and left hand. Pulp and paper industry 21

26 Fatalities in the pulp and paper industry The table below summarizes the fatality claims the WCB accepted in the pulp and paper industry from 1993 to Although some of these accidents occurred before 1993, the claims were accepted from 1993 to Fatalities in the pulp and paper industry, Date of Accident Age Occupation Summary Injury October 2, Insulator Exposure to asbestos and other Asbestosis industrial chemicals. January 12, Supervisor Worker opened pressure vessel and Burns sustained severe burns to more than 50 percent of his body. April 29, Machinist Exposure to asbestos at the worksite. Mesothelioma August 31, Insulator Exposure to asbestos at the worksite. Asbestosis/lung cancer September 9, Mechanic Exposure to asbestos at the worksite. Mesothelioma October 9, Fireman Worker went through port in a Burns recovery boiler and collapsed. December 8, Superintendent Run over by a front-end loader. Severe crushing injuries of upper legs and abdomen November 15, Mechanic Exposure to asbestos at the work site. Mesothelioma January 21, Utility worker Run over by loader. Severe crushing of the chest area February 23, Spare board Worker was standing near a Amputation of right arm worker conveyor-belt mechanism when his arm got caught and pulled into belt. July 21, Repulper Worker was crushed in pinch-point Crushing of torso resulting operator between 2,200 pounds of pulp and a in a broken clavicle and steel wall. death by asphyxiation October 21, Maintenance Worker was found dead in a confined Asphyxiation as a result worker space. of breathing nitrogenenriched atmosphere October 21, Maintenance Worker was found dead in a Asphyxiation as a result worker confined space. of breathing nitrogenenriched atmosphere Forest products manufacturing: Focus report 22

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