CONCURRENT ENGINEERING METHOD WITH NEW MANUFACTURING REFERENCE MODELS SUPPORTED BY STRATEGICAL TECHNOLOGIES

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1 Technology, 12(1), 41-56, (2009) TECHNOLOGY CONCURRENT ENGINEERING METHOD WITH NEW MANUFACTURING REFERENCE MODELS SUPPORTED BY STRATEGICAL TECHNOLOGIES Abstract *Özdoğan KARAÇALI *CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, Avcılar - Istanbul/Turkey The application of computer aided concurrent engineering is a strategical technology in competition for restructuring of industrial business enterprises and organizations. The critical subject of concurrent engineering is to provide a harmony in working together with design, engineering and manufacture (CAD/CAM/CAE). Such system, in new product development, should increase the productivity and quality while decreasing the production costs and shortening the goods delivery times in respond to changing market needs. In this approach, the answers for (1) foundations and theoretical study of new computer aided reference models which is restructuring of the manufacturing factory, (2) applications in design for manufacturing of new products, (3) a concurrent engineering metodology applied to manufacturing cell system is investigated. Keywords: Concurrent Engineering, Design for Manufacturing, Functional Modelling, 1. Introduction CE may be evaluated as a systematic approach which takes the lifecycle of the product that integrated and harmonic processes form, into consideration in design, engineering and manufacture. To manufacture new products by an efficient CE approach, organizations that support the idea of a product cycle from a perfect design to manufacture are needed. In every phase of cycle in developing new products, designers, engineers and manufacturers are to make complex decisions. As a result of this, decisions will be made about the product, manufacture, design and manufacturing information. With the purpose of a better success in CE, the information is to share the harmony in working together with design, engineering and manufacture to optimize the usage of factories sources in manufacturing. Recently, the conditions of the product, design and manufacture have changed a lot. Computer aided systems (e.g Computer aided design-manufacture-engineering) haven t been standardized and enough CE applications haven t been seen yet, although those systems which integrated by the main system and used to work independently have started to become more rationally and efficiently managed computer systems. In the following part, the details of the concurrent design and the effects in developing new products will be studied in a theoretical way. Concurrent Engineering Method in Developing New Products Concurrent Engineering (CE) has become an important password for the defense industries of the states and also industrial manufacturing factories worldwide and even for the middle and small companies. As a systematic method, CE is a concurrent and integrated design of the product. All the process and the manufacture are included. As a matter of fact, this makes the designers consider the points like the quality, cost, manufacture order, the processes and customer requests by taking all the parts of the product life into consideration. With the philosophy of this method, the main purpose is to shorten the product development times, raise the quality and decrease the cost of the lifecycle of the products. CE s being a systematic Corresponded Author;

2 42 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models approach may be defined by the information about the life cycle s giving feedback to the design in aconcurrent way, applying the principals that include the cultural, humanistic values and carrying out the projects and the organization change in the factory. The theoretical study of the concurrent definition that used in this research is seen in the following diagram: Motivation for Research Figure 1. The components that constitute the theoretical basis of the research. Generally % 80 o f manufacturing cost is identified during the design. For that reason, to generate the manufacture, the decisions taken during the design are much more effective than the decisions taken during manufacture. With regard to developing new products, the concurrent design process instead of the classical method, manufacture data is presented to the designers in a systematical way which showed in Figure 2. In many researches of CE applications that will be showed below, production costs, shortening the time upgrading the quality are formulized in the figure[6]: CE Min ÜÖÇ CE TM, C CE MQ Time, P d life _ cycle CE Max Quality d life _ cycle 0 TM = Total Product Life-Cycle Time Minimization, MK = Maximum quality, PLC = Product Life-Cycle, C = Cost In 2005, Gayretli has developed a CE prototype for the cost optimization of manufacturing process and its evaluation by using the mathematical methods [10]. During the design process, by presenting the problems about the manufacturing limits, the decision processing is supported by a professional system that helps the designers choose the processes. In this research, the database consists of the design needs, manufacture processes, evaluation, optimization modules and user interface. In 1999, Park has developed a method that supports the CE for the entegration of production and the process modelling frame[11]. By this method, a good structural system has been realized with the design that performs a syntheses-analysis-presentation for manufacturability. In 2003, Mohole stated that during the process of developing the product, the thought of doing the right things could be enhanced in a factory by CE and for that reason, standard processes in the factory should be identified and software programmes(portal project) should come into use[2]. Anderson, also developed a platform in which the designs that permit the data share in realizing a product[12]. ÜÖÇ 0

3 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 43 Figure 2. Application of CE to the development of new products by DFM approach In DISCS project, by using the BDT solid model and modelling the data structure, the frame that supports the CE has been formed. I n 2001, Tianfield has also developed the SICODEL model which carries out CE process of a factory in the steps of the product life-cycle that makes the process data which is based on design and planning and includes the physical -source manufacture[13]. In 1999, Park has developed a method that supports the CE for the entegration of production and the process modelling frame[11]. By this method, a good structural system has been realized with the design that performs a syntheses-analysis-presentation for manufacturability. In 2003, Mohole stated that during the process of developing the product, the thought of doing the right things could be enhanced in a factory by CE and for that reason, standard processes in the factory should be identified and software programmes(portal project) should come into use[2]. Anderson, also developed a platform in which the designs that permit the data share in realizing a product[12]. In DISCS Project, by using the BDT solid model and modelling the data structure, the frame that supports the CE has been formed. I n 2001, Tianfield has also developed the SICODEL model which carries out CE process of a factory in the steps of the product life-cycle that makes the process data which is based on design and planning and includes the physical -source manufacture[13]. This model involves the design for manufacturing, planning and CE values. In 2000, in his study, Hong explained the sample applications about the relation between CE and organization of the research, the strategy and the environmental factors[14]. In 2001, Pham has carried out the data managing of the product and data collecting-integration-protection in virtual environment by product documentation model in CE [5]. In 1996, Prasad argued that group work is one of the most important factors of organization structure. The necessity of planning and the harmony among the techniques in solving problems has been observed as an essential condition of CE. Prasad classifies the computer aided modelling support for CE in an integrated and seperated systems. While the seperated systems specializes in specific product, integrated systems specializes by using the data models. Prasad [6] stresses that modelling methods (e.g human behaviour, organization, lifecycle model methods), computer aided decision-making unit and data structure are important tools of CE. In the following part, the place of manufacturing referance models in new product design. Research Basis of Manufacturing Referance Model and Its Application in CE

4 44 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models Technological competence identifies the whole activities of an enterprise using, choosing and developing the required Technologies to prepare the strategical competition advantage[15]. When the technological competence is mentioned in terms of production, investment and innovation of technology, it seems that it has different levels from possessing the machines to r&d competence. Manufacturing reference models are important signs of how a factory uses and comprehends this technology. Turkey has just started these researches by TUBITAK 2023 vision studies[16],[17],[18]. These strategical technologies haven t reached the required maturity all around the world, either. When the researches of the last decade are evaluated, for example, AMICE [17] resarch community CIMOSA, GRAI and Purdue-PERA in GRAI laboratory and IFIP/IFAC researchers have developed the GERAM reference systems[19]. These researhes, if summarized in short, CIMOSA(Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open System) is the reference system project realized by the joint venture of the factories doing research in Europe in line with ESPRIT programme. By analyzing the structure of the computer integrated manufacturing systems, CIMOSA intends to identify the rules and the concepts required for these systems. In this Project, the frame of modelling is a subsystem for integration and the fundementa structure for identifying the enterprise model. The framework of modelling in Figure 3 can be applied to all phases of the life-cycle of Computer Integrated Manufacturing system. From identifying the needs and design properties to the daily operations of the enterprise and identifying the application; in each phase, this modelling can be used[20]. CIMOSA defines enterprise with a single entegration model from all aspects with a function and process modelling approach. An enterprise can be described basically from the aspects such as functions performed in the enterprise, used resources, information background and organisational formation. Enterprise can be modelled from these different aspects. This becomes possible with model s being independent from each of enterprise processes [17]. CIMOSA offers a formal ontological language for modelling. Moreover, CIMOSA provides not only modelling of enterprise processes but also provides their applications. Bakış Açıları Genel Kısmi Özel Tanımlama Kavram Gereksinimler Ön tasarım Detaylı tasarım Uygulama Operasyon Ayrıştırma Örneklendirme Müşteri servisi Yönetim ve kontrol Kaynaklar Organizasyon Enformasyon Fonksiyon Organizasyon Enformasyon Fonksiyon İş Tezgahı İnsanlar Aktivite amacına yönelik bölüm Fiziksel varlıklar amacına yönelik bölüm Model İçerik Software amacına Hardware yönelik bölüm Uygulama araçlarına yönelik bölüm Referans Yapısı Ömür Çevrimi Tanımlama Kavram Gereksinimler Ön tasarım Detaylı tasarım Uygulama Mühendislik Projeleri GERAM Yeniden tasarım/ sürekli gelişim Projeleri Operasyon İş Operasyonları Projenin Üretilmesi Ayrıştırma Zaman Figure 3. Manufacture reference models: CIM-OSA and GERAM

5 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 45 CIMOSA, PERA and IFAC/IFIP introduces the structures of which projects are generalized over a factory structure. GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) is the reorganisation of all of the data whose project belongs to a business/operation. GERAM is a method which analyses various observation of continuous development and adaptation of conglomerates in integration of engineering ( like ergonomical factories and reorganisation) [17]. GERAM is an application that supports methods of information technology, communication, control engineering, management science and industrial engineering. Combination of CIMOSA and PERA reference models integrates operation and production models that are two different models of one aspect of GERAM frame. It enables the integration of strategic activities and deepens the relationship between them. Another significant aspect of this project is feedback cycle. This feedback cycle occurs among task, meaning and levels of job perfomance within products. To achieve this at measuring the change in organisation and process, performance signs and assessment criteria of internal and outer environment are required. The general and partial levels of three-dimensional modelling frame are shown in Table-3. These areas present definitions of concepts which turns out at the end of process modelling. Kavramsal Gerçek Dönüşüm Planlama Detaylı Fiziksel İmalat Figure 4. Overview of Production Reference Model Production-Installation-storage environment simulation of a plant under the control of material flow of the production reference model defined in the study showed in Figure 4, was analysed with the models showed in Figure 5. This study is trying to find answers for questions such as, "can production models be improved by modelling and simulation?", "do these processes improve the productivity?" Strategically, in production reference model design intended for restructuring, following items was taken into consideration for this study: a. Making databases defining the data with regard to engineering processes such as design specifications, model formation accessible within the plant b. Controlling and monitoring of the applications based on models c. Available communication media between plant manager and engineers d. Delivering actual operation processes in new personnel recruitment and training e. Decision support mechanism to consider operational alternatives in engineering processes for obtaining results, ensuring the analyses to be performed f. Supporting design and engineering activities This study shows that the industrial plants collaborating with international corporations and manufacturing spare parts should follow the ISO standards closely. In addition, customer communication which takes an important place in the market and gives priority to the technologically and strategically important values such as fast and more inexpensive production" and "quality" has become important [21]. The headings inserted in the structure of production reference model developed such as organizational development requirements, human control, project implementation rules, financial issues and technological activities was taken into account in transformation model and planning stage. The aim of the reference model system set as the focus of this study supports the integration infrastructure forming the general scope and the structure of the plant production model. For this study, applicability of a common reference model to Turkish manufacturing industry was taken into consideration as well as the reference models in the literature such as CIMOSA, PERA, GERAM. The reference model showed and studied in Figure 5 includes all data for production of the manufacturing plant and product model for the product that they manufacture. The reference model developed was supported with data modelling and

6 46 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models functional modelling. A method was developed for the detailed structure of the corporation with the functional models EXPRESS [22] and IDEFO [23]. In this study, it is tried to find a solution to engineering problems by using conceptual scope and production reference model in order to support the small and middle sized enterprises. The reference model that can be used in production engineering was structured when presenting the general structure of both conceptual scope and production reference model. The Conceptual Scope shows the structure involving the design of the products to be manufactured in production system. The structure defines the data flow, presentation and functional elements within the system. Production reference model provides the control of structural engineering architecture of the product in every step of manufacturing (e.g. checking every kind of events during processing on the bench) and the function and the function structure regarding production in every step. The modules developed in this system perform their functions individually as well as they serve as a interface interactively with the models and the designer. The modules developed based on expert system are operated by rules. These modules with dynamic structures are predefined and thus, increase the problem-solving power by using the functions (Figure.5.) required during designing. Gerçek Depo Kavramsal Çerçeve Kavramsal Fiziksel Dönüşüm İmalat Planlama İmalat Dönüşüm İş Atölyesi Ofisi CNC Tezgahları Geri_Bildirim Gerçek İş Atölyesi Planlama Detaylı Fonksiyon Ontolojisi Generic Entity Class: _Yerleşim_ Entity Class:_Ofisi Entity Class: İş Atölyesi Planlama Entity Class: Üretilmiş_İşparçası_Depo Entity Class: Kavramsal_ Entity Class: İmalat_Planlaması Entity Class: İnsan_Kaynakları_ Dönüşüm Figure 5. Application of manufacture reference models

7 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 47 In the reference model presented in this study, two modules having a parametrical structure and developed simultaneously can be summarized as follows: 1 (Automatic module) The designer enters all detailed data for product to product model structure through Design for Production media. 2 (Dialogue Module) The designer checks production cell based on functional requirements and the production cell selected for the required bench and its equipments and the required changes are made. Obtained data for the product whose product structure has been formed and workpiece design parameters are selected and subjected to manufacturability analysis and answers are sought for the questions considered for the production such as 'Which production cell can be used fort he production of selected elements?, Cutting tools? by applying a set of rules such as 'surface quality', 'tolerances', 'physical limits. As shown in Figure 5, for creating the target production cells, a way for calculating the data of the production process which is a machining process as an example in this case, mathematical approach was used. In literature, there are shown many factors fort he optimization of manufacturing operations [24], [25], [26]. Six factors were considered to performed this optimization. These factors are material, cost of bench processing, tool changing cost, general expenses, tool cost and labour cost. The general purpose is to keep the production cost and time low and increase the profit rate. Total cost for a workpiece at minimum costs is given below [27]: Here: Cm = production cost, a = index and N = number of activities. This technique has a compatible data requirement and coefficient and variants required a high CPU time. Literature Study for Production Cells There are many studies on production cells in literature. However, there was not found any study considering the design method for production as a field of application in production cells by using production reference models. Korves made a study for a systematic layout planning (SLP) by using virtual reality approach in planning and application of production cells [28]. SLP planning is considered as a cycle process and is a general and detailed circular arrangement. Korves made the detailed planning by using CAD. Rao was structured based on workpiece data by using the Syntactic Pattern Recognition of the production cells and the neural networks approach [29]. Monfared made a study fort he reusability of integration and modelling along with production cells based on CIM-OSA, Petri nets, EXPRESS, STEP and CIM-BIOSYS plant modelling methods in his study for Cell control systems [30]. As the most close study to design for production approach in this study, Akturk's study can be given as an example [31]. In addition, Dereli provided the solution controlling the availability of tools and corrosion of cutting tool with an approach deciding synchronically in selection of optimum machining and cutting tool on CNC benches at minimum costs [32]. In this study, s/he provided an important data support for cutting tool selection, determining the operating life of cutting tool depending on workpiece depth of cut during machining. S/he developed a system supporting creation of production environment, production planning and design and based on data exchange between these systems [33]. In 2005, Usta developed an expert system which performs the production cell creating operations and specifies the alignment that workpieces are placed on the benches and the time and operations required for these transferring operations [34]. In this study, information was not provided about how the data was modelled. In the next chapter, the impacts of simultaneous engineering and an application of it in production cell structuring will be discussed.

8 48 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models 2. Experimental Study 2. 1 Application of Reference Models in Production Cell for Prismatic Workpieces This study provides a Feature Based Design' and a new computer aided engineering- CAE system concept under the scope of a production cell. Furthermore, this is formatting on computer form and modelling of the information which is called as machine operation on CNC milling machine by providing an application of a prismatic product design and production. This model includes a general configured source of information for a set of IIT applications and the product model supports the activities concerning the product with product definition and planning data, as well. These applications provide manufacturability of the product as a suggestion for the system and produces feedback for production resources. Besides, it helps the users who make decisions on design during designing process. These applications give advisory feedback in advance about production base and availability of manufacturing for the system. Also they help the users who decide upon design during design process. Figure 1. Design management system for manufacturing cell The periods below are carried out in the information plan in order to back up DM (Design for Manifacturing) activities illustrated in Figure 6 : (1) Identifying a new information category in order to build up interaction and data models ( product model and manifacture model) in this function. This research is carried out according to information needs in order to back up manifacturing prismatic tracks ( for instance design for manifacturing activities ). (2) For prismatic tracks, as a part of product model, modern DM and geometric design definition plan serve in order to build up a structure which contains specific information. (3) A new method which analyses design data of work piece by using information models developed. For instance this method enables giving feedback about limits of machine operations and manufacturing a professional software in this field. This wil constitute the content of contemporary strategy interations under the light of data model. (4) Evaluating experimental system. For instance, by applying a prismatic product in this system, some evaluations such as definitions of filling parameters, choosing cutting edge, defining hack, work piece grippers, defining machine, manufacture limits and defining cells are done. Many design process circles- iterations can be needed before achieving acceptable design of prismatic work pieces. At every turn there is contradiction in different opinions like design for manifacturing and design for function. In order to solve this contradiction another iteration can be needed. Thus, (1) mathematic modelling (2) computerised advisory systems through AI techniques are used. There are many studies containing all activities in order to back up prismatic work piece DFM techniques through the computer. For instance, design for manifacturing [35], an expert system for prismatic work pieces [36], a rule-based expert system

9 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 49 programming for design form of functions of prismatic tracks and integrated engineering. [37],[33],[38] are among the studies done in this field. These systems format the design and manifacturing data with the view of relative perspective design in a software application instead of regarding the data as the core or the kern of the system. In this article some critic subjects which are required to be solved in order to constitute a suitable design tool are listed: (1) What kind of a data system should be built up in a software application, which is data compatible and backs up the decisions of design and manifacturing simultaneously? (2) In designing a track, is it possible to present alternative points of view for alternative items? (3) How can manufacturing data creation and product model structure be built up? (4) The use of product model in creation of manifacturing cells and deciding upon functions for manifacturing in a design system. DM (Design for Management) setting is a part of BDM system which includes design activities for manifacturing. As a part of BDM system offered in this research, some demands constituting a manifacturing cell in DM setting are met (1) According to information in a product model, a part of which is illustrated in Figure 7, with the help of suitable data, encouraging DM activities of work pieces having prismatic shapes. (2) As it is shown in Figure 8, offering the most suitable manifacturing source list for these work pieces. (3) Analising main shape elements which were defined beforehand in order to define the list of necessary manifacturing operations. (4) Providing geometric data and size of the product which includes some steps in its life line. (5) Achieving the match of the ideal set and the decive or set available. (6) Providing the user with information to enable him/her to modify the design and supporting manifacturing cells with this information. (7) Constituting cell lists and choosing stands to compose suitable manifacturing cell. Figure 7. DFM user interface Figure 8. Manifacturing Cell User Interface Information and functional modelling in application, a common table is composed to support concurrent engineering. IDEFO functional modelling which is explained in the other part [23], is used with Booch method in order to define the correlation between information models and the engineering application of

10 50 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models plant-based design, while IDEFO functional modelling is used as a method of illustration in supporting DM activities. In figure 8, automatic İU-İstanbul University manifacturing cell which was developed by İstanbul University İ-U being one of the processes and sources connected to four management cells is illustrated. Todays modern cell management systems are more flexible than common classical cell systems. İU management cell was written through SQL database. In figure 8, processes and sources which are accepted according to the anaylsis belonging to İU cell and presented to the user in order to be checked are illustrated. As it is illustrated in figure 8, CNC router, turning centre and a grinding machine are included into the manifacturing cell developed in this research. A product transport system is illustrated in İU manifacturing cell in order to fasten the workpiece on the stand. The interactive dialogue interface seen as a screen output in Figure 8 shows the user the manifacturing cells which are in the system or occurred as planned. When the user choses one of the cells in the system which is included as an example, cutting tools which were selected among data models automaticly for this manifacturing cell, processes and detailed data are presented. The data presented visually can be accepted by the user thorugh the enter key or can be cancelled. Also the user can make the system ready to run through apply key. The data and the information through help key is introduced to the system in order to encourage the user. Figure 9. Experimental Manifacturing cell in CIM laboratory 3. Dynamic Functional Modelling Enabling Reference Models IDEF0 is used in configuring reference models, modelling data in manifacturing cells and defining functions [23]. IDEF0 (Definition for Functional Modelling) is used in concurrent engineering for manifacturing processes of an industrial factory which performs a dynamic presence and undergoes change for manufacturing new products. IDEF0 is a system modelling tool based on activities. IDEF0 introduces the modelling language (semantics and syntax), related rules and techniques. The use of this Standard enables to organize models which include system functions ( activities, performances, processes, operations) and data enabling functional relations and system harmony. In reference models, modeling scheme supports the various modeling tools being related to running factory system and these tools are also related to a wide range of area beginning from defining the institutions of the factory to defining the processes among the institutions. This scheme provides the integration of the components of the factory by using the modeling languages. Modelling scheme supports the processes about the analysis, design and usage of the models used to improve the factory. The diagrammatic illustration of the modeling scheme presented in Figure 9. And the information about application steps is given below.

11 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 51 Figure 9. IDEF0 Graphic Notation Used in Functional Modelling. In Appendix-1. processes about manifacturing new product of high quality are transformed in line and illustrated by using IDEF0 rules.thus high range activity models are generated. Each high range process/ activity/ function continues till one or more than one usage is deducted. Reference model provides information about functional definition and important processes of the system and it defines the boundaries of the problem to be solved. Also it provides a graffic presentation about the users who are going to take part in the reference system and the possible kinds of interpersonal relationship. To conclude, The scope of the system which focuses on the activities and the user of the system is defined in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM).This enables a general overview of the whole reference model. During the analysis process, the system developer bearing the application of manufacturing for design, carries out the system analysis in a way that meets the needs of the system. During the design process, the finished works are modified when necassary and the system is configured physically. During code process, codes are written within the frame of fulfilled system modules. Then the system is tested regarding design for manifacture and other issues. Within the frame of this modelling, IDEF0, functional model are generated as illustrated in Appendix Conclusions In this study, the theory of manifacturing reference models related to generating new product in small and medium-sized enterprises and the practical application of design for manifacturing are examined. It is aimed that advanced manifacturing systems will stop new age mass production and be successful in small-scaled optional manifacturing. In order to maintain that generating integrated manifacturing system frame being convertible, adaptable and able to work with intelligent machine stands has strategical importance. In this study the literature review is presented for new advancement related to concurrent engineering and design for management. A modern manifacturing reference model supporting this literature review is configured paying regard to the applicability of it in Turkish businesses. An applied manifacturing model is presented. In this article, the effect of the approach of manifacturing reference models in machining on increasing efficiency of businesses and the relationship between produced material, process, the work piece and generating the high-quality work piece is explained. References 1. Kurt, M., Karaçalı, Ö., Structured product design for manufacture system Supported by information modeling, 6 th İnternational conference on engineering systems design and analysis, Proceedings of ESDA 2002, July 8-11, Istanbul Turkey, Mohole, A., Wright, P., WebCAD: a computer aided design tool constrained with explicit design for manufacturing rules for computer numerical control milling Mechanical engineering, Part B vol.216, , Büyüközkan, G., Baykasoğlu, A., Dereli, T., Integration of Internet and web based tools in new productdevelopment process, Production Planning and Control, 18(1), 44-53, Dereli, T., Baykasoğlu, A., OPPS-PRI 2.0: An open and optimized process planning system for prismatic parts to improve the performance of SMEs in the machining industry, International Journal of Production Research, 43(5), , Pham, D., T., Gologlu C.A., Computer aided process planning system for concurrent engineering, Proc.

12 52 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models Instn. Mech Engineers Part B Volume 215 (2001) ISSN Prasad, B., Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals, Volume I: Integrated Product and organisation, Prentice Hall Gillen, D., Fizgerald, E.M., Expanding knowledge and converging functions J. of concurrent engineering May, 1(3), 20-28, Baykasoğlu, A., Dereli, T., Daş, S. E., Project team selection using fuzzy optimization approach, Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal, 38, , Giachetti, R.E., A Standard Manufacturing Information Model to Support Design for Manufacturing in Virtual Enterprises, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 10, 49-60, Gayretli, A., "Constraint-Based Conflict Management in a Cooperative Design Environment", Electronic Journal of Machine Technologies, (3) 1-9, Park, S., Kim, G., An economic evaluation model for advanced manufacturing systems using activity based costing Journal of Manufacturing Sytems, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp , David, M., Design for Manufacturability & Concurrent Engineering; How to Design for Low Cost, Design in High Quality, Design for Lean Manufacture, and Design Quickly for Fast Production, 432 pages; CIM Press , Tianfield, H., Advanced life-cycle model for copmplex product development via stage-aligned informatiom-substitutive concurrency International Journal of CIM V 14, N 3, Hong, S., Schiederjans, M.J., Balancing concurrent engineering environmental factors for improved product development performance Int. J of Production Research V 38, N 8, ( ) 16. Abdmouleh, A., Spadoni, M., Vernadat, F., Distributed client/server architecture for CIMOSA based enterprise components Computers in Industry, Vol. 55, Issue 3, Pages , December Fox, M.S., Huang, J., "Knowledge Provenance in Enterrprise Information", International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 43, No. 20, pp , Gunasekaran, E., Knowledge management in 21st century manufacturing International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 45, No. 11, , June Williams T. J., A handbook on master planning and implementation for enterprise integration programs based on Purdue Reference Model Chapman & Hill, Qianfu, N. W., Feng, L., Prasad, K.D.V., Yarlagadda, X., Business information modeling for process integration in the mold making industry Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, , Chincholkar, M., Jeffrey, W., Yu-Feng. W., Applying design for production methods for improved product development, DETC2003/DFM-48133, Proceedings of the ASME Int. Design Eng. Tech. Conf. and Computers and Information In Engineering Conf., Chicago, Illinois, Sept. 2-6., ( ) 23. ( ) 24. Boothroyd, G., Design for manufacture and assembly, the B & D experience edited by Huang, G. Q., Design for X, concurrent engineering imperatives Chapman and Hall, Akkurt, M., Talaş kaldırma yöntemleri ve takım tezgahları , Birsen Yayınevi, Degarmo, E. P., Black, J. T., Materials and processes in manufacturing McMillan Publishers, Park, H., Cutcosky, R.M., Framework for modelling dependencies in collabrating engineering process J. of engineering Design V. 11, Taho, Y., Chao-Ton, S.,, Yuan-Ru, H., Systematic layout planning: a study on semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities International Journal of Operations & Production Management Volume: 20 Number: 11 pp: ISSN: , Rao M.A., Rao, M.S., Srinivas, J., Krıshna, P.V.G., Recognition of machine cells in a group technology layout using self-organizing neural networks Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. Part B, ImechE, Vol. 215, Monfared, R.P., Weston, R.H., The-engineering and reconfiguration of manufacturing cell control systems and reuse of their components Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. Vol. 211 Part B, ImechE Aktürk, S.M., An exact tool allocation approach for CNC machines International Journal Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 12. No , Dereli T., Baykasoğlu, A., OPPS-PRI 2.0: An open and optimized process planning system for prismatic parts to improve the performance of SMEs in the machining industry, International Journal of Production Research, 43(5), , Dereli, T., Filiz, I. H., Baykasoğlu, A., Optimising cutting parameters in process planning of prismatic parts by using genetic algorithms, Int. Journal of Production Research, 39(15), , 2001.

13 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) Usta, Y., Robotlu bir imalat hücresindeki taşıma İşlemleri için modele dayalı bir uzman sistem geliştirilmesi J. Fac. Eng. Arch. Gazi Univ. Cilt 20, No 2, , Wysk, A., Hsu-Pin, W., Computer-Aided Manufacturing, Second Edition, Tien-Chien chang Richard. Pages 596 to 598. Prentice Hall Jietong, L., Alternative Design Specifications of Prismatic Parts for Manufacturability in Adv. in Manuf. Tech. - XVII: Proc. of the First Int. Conf. on Manufacturing Research, Sept Smith, C.S., Web Based Process and Material Selection, PhD thesis, Uni. of California, CA, Gologlu, C.A., Constraint-Based Operation Sequencing For A Knowledge-Based Process Planning, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, vol. 15, no 4, pp , 2004.

14 54 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models Appendix-1. Functional Modelling in Manifacturing New Product through IDEF0 Ürün Proses Dış Kaynaklara Bağlı Kısıtlar Tolerans Standartları Üretim İhtiyaçları İmalat Takvimi Ürün Gereksinimleri Pazar Verileri Ürün Standartları Kısıtları Değerlendirme Kriterleri Planlama Şartnameleri Ürünler Müşteri Siparişi Durumu Ürün Envanteri Maliyet Raporları Raporları Ürün Siparişleri Toplanan Raporlar Aletler/Malzem eler Yeni ürünü gerçekleştir A0 Üretim Maliyet Tahminleri Yerleşim Planı Planlama Maliyeti Personel Hareketleri Tesisat Değişim İstekleri Ekipman Siparişleri Ekipman ve İşgücü Proses Tasarim İmalat Proses İşlenebilirlik Zaman ve Maliyet Referans Verisi Alet/Malzeme Siparişleri Parça Katalogları Malzeme Bilgileri Değerlendirme Kaynak Tanımları Malzeme Stok Tanımları Proses NODE: A0 TITLE: Generate the new product NO:OK000 Dış Kaynaklara Bağlı Kısıtlar Ürün Standartları Kısıtları Değerlendirme Kriterleri Tolerans Standartları Üretim İhtiyaçları Planlama Şartnameleri İmalat Takvimi Ürün Proses Ürün Gereksinimleri Ürünü Tasarla Pazar Verileri A1 İş Akışlarını Yönet A5 Ürün İmalatı İçin Gerekli Mühendislik Çalışmalarını Yap Üretim Maliyet Tahmini Maliyet Tahmini Ürün Talebi Toplanan Raporlar Aletler/Malzem eler Ekipman ve İşgücü Proses A2 Üretim Sistemi İçin Gerekli Mühendislik Çalışmalarını Yap A3 Ürünleri Üret A4 Yerleşim Planı Ekipman Siparişleri İçi Siparişler Personel Faaliyetleri Aletler/Malzem e Siparişleri Değerlendirme Malzeme Parça Katalogları Malzeme Stok Tanımı İşlenebilirlik Verisi Kaynak Tanımları Zaman ve Maliyet Referans Verisi İmalat Proses Proses Ürün Stoğu Müşteri Sipariş Durumu Maliyet Raporları İşletme Raporları Ürünler NODE: A1 TITLE: Plan the design and the production of the new product NO:OK001

15 Technology, Volume 12(1), 41-56, (2009) 55 Dış Kaynaklara Bağlı Kısıtlar Ürün Standartları Değerlendirme Kriterleri Kısıtları Tolerans Standartları Ürün Gereksinimi Ürünleri Planla A11 ürün kısıt. değerlen. kriter. Maliyet Zaman Kısıtları Pazar Verileri Ürün Spesifikasyonlarını Oluştur A12 İlk ı Yap çıktıla r altsistem özel. ilk geribesleme A13 Ürün Değiştirme İstekleri Detay Geribes. Detaylı ı Üret A14 Ürün Ağaçları Fiziksel Model Fonksiyonel Kalite Sağlama Metodu Parça Katalogları Malzeme Değerlendirme İmalat Proses Kütüphanesi NODE: A11 TITLE: Generate the Design of New Product NO:OK011 Tolerans Standartları Ekipman Kullanılabilirliği Pazar Verileri Kısmi Ürün Ağacı Kaynak Kullanılabilirliği İmalat Metodunu Belirle A21 yeni proses talebi imalat özellikleri malzeme seçimi Zaman/Maliyet Kısıtları metot seçimi Yeni Prosesleri Oluştur A23 Değiştirme Talebi Proses Spesifikasyonl arı İmalat Özellikleri Ürün Fiziksel Modeller İmalat İşlem Sırasını Belirle A22 ilk maliyet tahmini Üretim Maliyet Tahminleri operasyon değişiklik talebi Aletler/Malzem eler Proses Değiştirme İstekleri alet değ. talebi Alet Kullanımının Planını Geliştir A24 Ekipman Kullanım Yönergelerini Geliştir A25 İmalat İçin Gerekli Verileri Tamamla A26 Alet Kullanım Planlanması Onaylama İsteği Operasyonlar Kontrol Programı Kaynak İstekleri Çizelgeler plan kütüphanesi NODE: A2 Hammadde Stok Tanımlamaları TITLE: Proses Modelleri Kaynak Tanımlamaları İşlenebilirlik Generate Engineering work for the New Product Zaman/Maliyet Referans Verisi NO:OK002

16 56 Concurrent Engineering Method with New Manufacturing Reference Models Ürün Üretim İhtiyaçları Zaman ve Maliyet Kısıtları Üretim Kısıtları İmalat Özellikleri Pazar Verileri Proses Spesifikasyonlar ı Üretimdeki Mühendislik Problemlerini Tanımla A31 üretim probleminin tanımlanması imalat kısıtları Üretimi Özelleştir ve Prosesleri Geliştir proses spesifikasyonlarını n entegrasyonu malzeme taşıma talebi Proses Değiştirme Talebi A32 fabrika planı Üretim Sistemini Tasarla A33 Kaynakların Kullanılabilirliği Üretim Sistemleri Kütüphanesi Sistemi Modelle ve Değerlendir Üretim Maliyet Tahmini A34 Çizelgeler Proses Modelleri Sistem Kütüphanesi Kaynak Tanımlamaları Zaman ve Maliyet Referans Verileri NODE: A3 TITLE: Carry out the engineering study required for manufacture System Uygulama Planını Tanımla A35 Maliyet Yerleşim Planı NO:OK003 Ekipmanlar/ İşgücü Planlama Şartnameleri Kaynak Gereksinimi İmalat Takvimi Çizelgeleme İş Emirleri Kontrol Programı Üretim Gereksinimleri Uygulama Planı Ekipman Kullanılabilirliği Üretim Kısıtları Ürün Talebi validation Üretim Panını Geliştir ana üretim çizelgesi A41 üretim sip. Üretim Görevini Tanımla A42 gerçekleşt. gör. Görevleri Çizelgele kapasite gereks. görev çizelgesi Üretim İmkanlarını Sağla A47 ekipman Siparişleri Personel Faliyetleri Tesisat Siparişleri Ürün Stoğu Alet/ Malzeme Siparişleri Müşteri Siparişleri Proses Değişim Talebi Değişikliklerin Onayı alet/malzeme kullanbilirliği A44 Ürünler Toplanan Raporlar operasyon siparişleri Üretimi Kontrol Et A45 Üretimi Yönet üretim kaynakları İçi Raporlar Maliyet Raporları Malzeme ve Aletleri Yönet A46 A43 alet kullanımı Şekillendirme Şekillendirme ı Alet/Malzeme Stoğu NODE: A4 TITLE: Manufacture new products NO:OK004

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