Graduate Diploma in Optometry. Related modules Pre-requisites Satisfying requirements of second year BSc (Hons) Optometry examination board

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1 Posterior Eye & General Ophthalmology School and subject group Module code Module title Module type Module replaces (where appropriate) Life and Health Sciences / Optometry OP3PEG Posterior Eye & General Ophthalmology Taught OP3PE and OP3GO Date of introduction of new module October 2009 Level 6 Credit value 5 Programme(s) in which module is available Involvement of other schools BSc Optometry Graduate Diploma in Optometry None Resource split - Name of module co-ordinator Associate module tutors Dr Doina Gherghel Prof J Gibson Related modules Pre-requisites Satisfying requirements of second year BSc (Hons) Optometry examination board Minimum and Maximum Intake Sizes Max 30 Aims of the module The optometrists are becoming increasingly involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with different abnormal ocular conditions. This course examines the diagnosis and management of various diseases of the posterior ocular segment. Many of these disorders appear as a direct consequence of some systemic disturbances. In some instances, education beyond current optometric practice is introduced in an effort to prepare the students for different clinical challenges that could appear in this ever-changing profession. Furthermore, the module intends to give the student the necessary knowledge for their future postgraduate assessments..

2 Summary of content/lectures Primary glaucomas: definition, diagnosis, risk factors, IOP measurement and fluctuations, optic disc examination, other examination techniques, POAG: epidemiology, risk factors, mechanism, POAG suspect, evaluation of potential glaucoma, NTG: characteristics, confirmation, differential diagnosis, PACG: definition, risk factors, classification, manifestation, differential diagnosis, primary congenital glaucomas Secondary glaucomas: OAG: definition, risk factors, CAG: definition, risk factors, pigmentary glaucoma (clinical features), PEX glaucoma (clinical features), inflammatory glaucoma (clinical features), P-S syndrome (clinical features), neovascular glaucoma (clinical features), post-traumatic glaucoma, lens induced glaucoma, glaucomas associated with eye surgery, glaucomas associated with drug use, secondary congenital glaucoma Glaucomas, management: POAG: factors to consider, aim, when to treat, target IOP, the glaucoma suspect, targets, treatment options (medication, laser, surgery), systemic management; PACG: immediate intervention, follow-up; secondary glaucomas: management, prevention Non-glaucomatous OD abnormalities: congenital, refractive errors-related, papilloedema, drusen, optic atrophy, challenges, differential diagnosis Neuro-ophthalmology: Signs of ON dysfunction, Neuro-ophthalmic history and examination, Vision loss in neuro-ophthalmology, Diplopia, Pupillary abnormalities, Optic neuropathies, Papilloedema, Nystagmus, Nerve palsies Diabetic eye disease: Changes in refraction, Colour vision dysfunctions, Corneal changes, Cataract, Diabetic papillopathy, AION, Glaucoma, CN palsies, Hyalosis Diabetic retinopathy: risk factors, diagnosis, management Retinal artery and venous disorders: occlusions, ROP, sickle cell disease, coats disease, aneurysms, investigations, management, differential diagnosis Pigmentation in the fundus diagnosis and significance Hypertensive retinopathy: diagnosis, risk factors, management Age-related macular degeneration: diagnosis, retinal imaging and treatments Retinal detachment: forms, risk factors, diagnosis, management Other vitreoretinal and macular disorders: Vitreous haemorrhage, Retinitis pigmentosa, Pathological myopia, Cystoid macular oedema, central serous retinopathy, macular holes, epiretinal membranes, macular haemorrhages, inherited retinal and macular dystrophies, Trauma Intraocular tumours: tumour of the iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina; diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management Ocular emergencies: most common ocular acute condition encountered at the A&E Respiratory disorders: respiration, asthma, sleep apnoea, TB, sarcoidosis, respiratory emergencies: relevance to eye-care practice ENT: Nasolacrimal duct obstruction, Horner s syndrome, Sinus inflammation, Cavernous sinus trombosis, Tumours, Trauma, Cogan syndrome: relevance to eye-care practice Neurology: Headaches, Tumours, Stroke, Epilepsy, Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, CN palsies, Coma: relevance to eye-care practice Endocrine diseases: Acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, Diabetes mellitus, Thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism, Graves): relevance to eye-care practice Cardiovascular diseases and abnormal blood pressure: arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, angina, heart attack, heart failure, ATS, blood pressure measurement, low and high BP: relevance to eye-care practice The patient with additional deeds: communication, general consideration, Alzheimer s, autism, cerebral palsy, Down s, multiple impairment, stroke patient: relevance to eye-care practice.

3 Topics Posterior Eye Series Presenter Week Time, day and date Diabetic eye disease JG 8.30 Wed 6/0/0 Diabetic eye disease 2 JG Wed 3/0/0 Glaucoma diagnosis DG Thurs 4/0/0 Retinal vascular disorders (including hypertensive retinopathy and haematology) JG Wed 20/0/0 Glaucomas: screening, monitoring, referral DG Thurs 2/0/0 Vitreous and retina JG Wed 3//0 Glaucomas: management DG Thurs 4//0 Vitreous and retina 2 JG Wed 0//0 Neuro-ophthalmology DG Thurs //0 Retinal dystrophies JG Wed 7//0 Neuro-ophthalmology 2 DG Thurs 8//0 Age-related macular degeneration JG Wed 24//0 Abnormal looking optic discs DG Thurs 25//0 Age-related macular degeneration 2 JG Wed /2/0 Abnormal retinal pigmentations JG Wed 8/2/0 II. General ophthalmology and systemic pathology series Intraocular inflammation DG Thurs 2/2/0 Ocular emergencies DG Thurs 9/2/0 Diabetes and other endocrine disorders DG 0.00 Thurs 6/2/0 Grand rounds DG 2 3/0/ Respiratory and ENT disorders DG Thurs 20/0/ Neurology DG Thurs 27/0/ Cardiovascular diseases and abnormal blood pressure DG Thurs 03/02/ Special needs patients DG Thurs 0/02/ Revision : Posterior eye series DG Thurs 3/03/ Revision 2: General ophthalmology and systemic pathology series and sessional exam DG Thurs 0/03/

4 Summary of methods and frequency of teaching Summary of methods of assessment LEARNING METHODS HOURS 24 Directed Learning 20 Student Managed Learning 04 Examination 2 NOTIONAL STUDENT EFFORT 50 Sessional exam (2hr) 00% MCQs (35%) Short answer questions (35%) One long answer question - essay (30%) Module outcomes what the student should gain from successful completion of the module: Learning and teaching and assessment strategies to enable outcomes to be achieved and demonstrated Knowledge and understanding A theoretical knowledge of the most common abnormal posterior segment conditions A detailed understanding of the role of optometrists in patient care and education Intellectual skills Ability to draw on technical information and research evidence to inform clinical practice Professional/subject specific skills Ability to diagnose different posterior eye that may present to them in the optometric practice Skills in patient care Initiate the appropriate management in emergency cases Learning and teaching methods Assessment methods

5 Transferable skills Independent study Patient management Knowledge acquisition Problem solving Clinical skills Role in a health care team Introductory learning resources Core texts Lectures and notes on BlackBoard A. Kansky JJ. Clinical Ophthalmology A. Sundaram V et al. 2009: Training in Ophthalmology. Oxford University Press, 2009 A. Pane A, Simcock,P: practical ophthalmology: a survival guide for doctors and optometrists, Elsevier 2005 A. Palay, DA, Krachmer JH: Primary Care Ophthalmology, Elsevier/Mosby, 2005 A. Denniston A, Murray P: Oxford handbook of Ophthalmology. Oxford University Press, 2006 A. Kanski JJ, Phyllis Jones: Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Diseases: Clinical Signs and Differential Diagnosis. Butterworth-Heinemann A. Oxford medical dictionary

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