CERT Seminar March, 2010

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1 CERT Seminar March, 2010 Presenter: Paul Sop, Chief Technology Officer These materials may not be used or relied upon in any way other than under a written agreement with Prolexic Technologies

2 Agenda - Who is Prolexic? - In-The-Cloud Attack Mitigation - DDoS attack trends - IP Reputation feed - Research server hosting

3 Who is Prolexic?

4 DDoS Evolution February 2010: The number of politically motivated attacks we fight is up over 500% from same period last year

5 Prolexic Timeline Prolexic Founded One Hundred Customers European Scrubbing Center Asian Scrubbing Center > 100 Gigabits Capacity National Critical Infrastructure Protection Services Prolexic appears on WIRED Cover in January 2005 Prolexic won Red Herring's 2005 Top 100 Private Companies in North America I thought you might like to know that the three defendants (including MAKSAKOV) who were at the heart of the extortion against the gaming community, were yesterday found guilty and sentenced to 8 years in Prison in the Russian Federation. July 28, 2008: Prolexic easily mitigates >80 Gigabit Attack Prolexic protecting the world s largest industries and infrastructure from cyber attacks Prolexic recognized in Gartner s 2005 Cool Vendor Report England and the Queen Thank You. Bob Lewis, Serious Organized Crime Agency Oct 4 th, 2006 August 11, 2009: Prolexic easily mitigates >100 Gigabit Attack

6 In-The-Cloud Mitigation

7 The hardest way to fight DDoS is when it concentrates at one point

8 In-The-Cloud Mitigation Greatest advantage to cloud mitigation is to intercept attack traffic close to its source

9 Locating Global Scrubbing Facilities Scrubbing Centers: - San Jose, CA -Miami, FL - London, UK - Hong Kong, China Have the carriers: Multiple Tier 1 Carriers Have the peers: Over 500 peers Have the bandwidth: Over 160 Gigabits dedicated for attack traffic Scrubbing Center Head Quarters & SOC Offices Botnet Concentration

10 Distributed Mitigation A global botnet attack distributed across multiple scrubbing facilities

11 Attack-Mitigation Mapping Appropriate mitigation depends upon the nature of the attack. Threshold, Statistical, Reputational, Protocol Validation, Challenge/Response, Behavioral,... Also, the protocol, HTTP, HTTPS, DNS, SIP,...

12 Why Cloud Based? Technology Appliance ISP Cloud Limitations Bandwidth limited Least attacks mitigated (about 15 to 20%) Operational expertise (infrequent use?) Likely to black-hole to avoid collateral damage Only commercial, off-the-shelf hardware Generally poor at targeted application attacks Inconsistent response across ISP s More complex setup On-demand

13 DDoS Attack Trends

14 What s old? Standard DDoS attacks Technology: Bandwidth or Application Philosophy: Extortion, Industrial Sabotage

15 What s new? New Developments Technology: Increasing sophistication to avoid automatic mitigation, targeted application attacks, encrypted attacks, router attacks Philosophy: Political/Ideological Attacks, State Sponsored/Complicit, Activism, Stock Pump and Dump, Combined Phishing

16 Sponsor Evolution Old days: Extortion, western-union mules. Now: DDoS attacks cheap. DDoS combined with Phishing, short selling, market manipulation. Political, state sponsored, activism increasing.

17 Layer-7 Attacks Hardware Solutions

18 Example 1: Targeted attacks

19 Application Attack: Database

20 Identifying anomalies Layer-7 Flow Model Clustering k-means clustering across 22 dimensions extracted from Layer-7 analysis

21 High Dimensional Clustering Hardware Solutions

22 Score based Clustering Hardware Solutions

23 Other recent app attacks August silence pro-georgian blogger Cyxymu (Сухуми) Attack also featured randomized user names (celebrity names) from a dictionary. Also impacted Facebook and Google Blogger. Activating local mitigation technology stopped the attack, but broke the application API s (RSS feeds, web services). April 1st, 2009, Dec 23, 2009 A negative-cache-hit DNS attack affected Salesforce.com, Amazon.com, Wal-mart and others.

24 Example 2: E-Commerce Online Retail / E-Commerce: Sephora sells beauty products through 750 stores in 21 countries, as well as an online presence. Customer of Akamai and Verizon Business. Both were unable to restore services to Sephora for many days. Attacker Strategy: Avoid Akamai caching by targeting back-end application server directly. Each Bot using a low-request-rate to avoid threshold mitigation. Employ HTTPS to avoid IPS and most mitigation systems. Construct queries which peg CPU and overload back-end databases.

25 Restoring Services Hardware Solutions The botnet that hit Sephora also attacked several other fragrance companies

26 Was Sephora unique? The botnet that hit Sephora also attacked several other fragrance companies Hardware Solutions

27 Example 3: Traceroute Attack 100 s of megabits of spoofed traceroute (ICMP type 30) packets can peg the CPU of many routers as the CPU typically modifies the TTL of the packet. Traceroute works by increasing the time-to-live of each successive batch of packets sent.

28 Example 4: DDoS + Phishing Large UK based global bank Russian branch of global bank Hardware Solutions Russian targeted Phishing "Веб-банковская вниз, пожалуйста использовать альтернативный сервер" Fraud was >80,000 Euro per day

29 Prolexic Outreach

30 IP Reputation Feed Hardware Solutions We can make available IP Reputation Information of bots that launched DDoS attacks (mostly Layer-7 DDoS)

31 Research Server Hosting Prolexic invites research groups who would benefit from sensors/servers hosted in our facilities

32 For further information contact: Prolexic Asia Contact Oliver Kwan

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