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1 Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

2 If natural disasters (earthquakes, cyclones, etc.) regularly cause large numbers of casualties throughout the world, their strength and consequences are not so severe in France. However, those events that have taken place recently (the Xynthia storm of February 2010, that of Christmas 1999, flooding in the Pyrénées, Somme, Languedoc- Roussillon and Var regions, forest fires in the South and the explosion at the AZF factory in Toulouse) show that in these sorts of situations human and material damage can be considerable. Two thirds of the towns and villages in France are at risk from at least one natural disaster and 15,000 of them are at risk of flooding, the main hazard in France for the number of victims and the economic cost of the disaster. In the Antilles, the sismic hazard is the most feared risk for the forseable number of victims. French policy on managing major hazards aims to make persons and property less exposed and less vulnerable and has three main objectives: y to prevent damage, reduce its impact and then make good; y yto inform citizens in order for them to play a part in this management; yto manage crises and disasters effectively when they occur. Planning taking account of hazards is necessary at all levels of government and local authority decision making. France s experience in the areas of understanding and preventing hazards and in the management of disasters has allowed it, for a number of years now, to consider a number of ways in which it can cooperate internationally in order to respond to requests for support and help from foreign partners. Preventive information: pictograms a b c d e f be careful informations flood sea flood dam flood downstream refuge g h i j k l highest known water position landslides underground, cavities marl pit earthquake plan earthquake volcanic activity m n o p q r nuclear plant industrial activity underground storage pipe of toxic materials shelter s t u v w cyclone avalanche, snowstorm wildfire ground movement due to drought toxic materials transportation storm Ministère Ministry de l Écologie, of Ecology, du Développement Sustainable Development durable et de and l Énergie Energy

3 What constitutes a major hazard? The various types of hazards can be divided into five main categories: y natural hazards: flooding, forest fires, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, avalanches, cyclones and storms; yman-made technological hazards: industrial, nuclear, biological accidents, dams failures etc.; y transportation hazards (persons, dangerous substances) are technological hazards but they are included as a separate category because the risks they pose vary depending on where the accident takes place; y hazards associated with daily life, domestic accidents, road accidents etc.; y hazards linked to war 1. Major hazards have two main criteria: y infrequency: because they do not happen very often society is more inclined to ignore them; y serious consequences: large numbers of victims, large-scale damage to property and the environment. A major hazard is therefore the combination of an unexpected event and a major challenge. For example, an earthquake in the middle of the desert is not a hazard, but an earthquake in San Francisco is a major hazard. In a general way, a major hazard is characterised by large numbers of victims, a high cost in terms of material damage and impact on the environment and heritage - it is vulnerability that measures its consequences. Society as well as the individual needs to organise to cope. A scale showing the seriousness of damage has been drawn up by the Ministry of Sustainable Development. The table below classifies natural events into 6 main categories, from an incident to a major disaster. In France, all these hazards could be forecast. Planning for major hazards implies research into: ywhat might happen; ythe threats that are present; y the preventative measures to be put in place; yhow the various levels of management should act; yprocedures for informing persons concerned. The management of hazards works on two levels: y preventative measures designed to remove or reduce the effects of a possible event on persons or property; these measures are part and parcel of sustainable development since prevention tries to reduce the economic, social and environmental consequences of an imprudent development as opposed to restoration which, obviously, follows on from a crisis; yintervention when the damaging event occurs. The two levels are complementary; for if not enough preventative measures are taken then society will need to agree to large-scale spending to ensure the management and then the restoration of damage that may be severe and might include mourning the loss of human life. Levels of seriousness of damage Category Human damage Material damage 0 Incident No injuries Less than 0.3M 1 Accident 1 or more injured Between 0.3 and 3M 2 Serious accident 1 to 9 deaths Between 3 and 30M 3 Very serious accident 10 to 99 deaths Between 30 and 300M 4 Disaster 100 to 999 deaths Between 300 and 3,000M 5 Major disaster 1000 dead or more 3,000M or more 1 Only the first three categories count as what we call major hazards and are examined in this present work. Hazards linked to conflicts are related to major hazards. 3

4 FRENCH POLICY for disaster risk prevention Summary The seven principles of french prevention policy Understanding of phenomena, unexpected events and the risks they pose Greater knowledge of hazards posed leads to a better understanding of the consequences of phenomena and an appropriate response can therefore be made, one that takes account of the level of vulnerability of the area under consideration: y understanding past events, using historical research and the drawing up of data bases of events and of sites, such as, for example the data base of subterranean cavities, the list of floods, the atlas of areas liable to flood, the standing enquiry into avalanches, the map of avalanche phenomena or the forest fire data base; y the various arms of the State, the French meteorological service, large numbers of French and European laboratories undertaking research that tries to understand the way these phenomena operate and to anticipate their behaviour whether it is earthquakes, forest fires, hazards involving water or technological hazards; y using technical studies to enable the preparation of maps to show the extent and intensity of these phenomena. Studies that will sometimes enable certain phenomena to be foreseen, hours or even minutes before they occur. It is vital that these areas of research are developed and that all of this knowledge is made available to the greatest number, in particular using the Internet, or in cooperation with other organisations. Since 2012, the Ministry of sustainable development, the central reinsurance fund (CCR) and the Mission of insurance societies for awareness and prevention of hazard risks (MRN) have established the national observatory of natural disasters (ONRN). Monitoring Monitoring means people can be alerted to a danger using efficient methods that suit each type of phenomenon: y Meteorological monitoring, for example, is one essential part of the measures for forecasting storms, avalanches or forest fires. y Geophysical monitoring is also very useful in certain geographical areas. y Water monitoring is essential for forecasting flooding. Large-scale earth movements, volcanic phenomena are, also, monitored round the clock. Safety information and public education The citizen needs to be the main actor in their own safety and that of their family. In France, there are a number of easily accessible ways available to make this happen : ymany documents about the major hazards and their consequences for people, their property and the environment are available at council offices in every town and village and, often, on the internet. These documents also give information on safety measures that have been put in place to limit the effects of an event. They also explain to the population the best reaction to follow in case of emergency. The Ministry of Sustainable Development website for the prevention of major hazards can be viewed on It makes available to everyone complete files on hazards, the information available on the state of the major hazards in each French local authority area, a web TV, the list of declarations of natural disasters and, on the Cartorisques Interface, a maps of natural or technological risks and the plans for the prevention of natural disasters (PPRN). y Information for citizens also includes keeping alive memories of past events. Since 2003, to remind people of how high floods can reach, the putting in place of standardised markers showing the highest known water and the maintenance of those already in place has been mandatory for all authorities where floods have occurred. y Since 2006 the law requires information on a purchaser or tenant of any property (IAL), whether built or not, situated in an unsafe area and/or within the perimeter of a plan for the prevention of natural or technological hazards, to be made available. y Specific information on technological hazards is also made available to citizens. Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

5 Under Article 13 of the European Directive Seveso II owners of upper tier sites classified Seveso with constraints are obliged to provide information for the local population. Although coordinated by the State the production of this information is entirely financed by the generator of the hazard and should be re-issued every five years. After the 1st June 2015, the directive Seveso 3 will renforced the public information by the obligation to give some information, on a specified website, for each Seveso site. The Law of 30 July 2003 strengthened the provision of safety information and created different local, departmental and national coordinating bodies.at national level, the Advisory Board on the Prevention of Major Natural Hazards (COPRNM) has been charged with giving advice and making suggestions for the prevention of natural hazards. It includes elected representatives, State services, experts and qualified persons from other walks of life. For the county, a comittee for major natural hazards (CDRNM) meet all the local partners. Since 2004, making schoolchildren aware of major hazards is officially part of the Education code. It is part of the curriculum in both primary and secondary schools and is tested. As part of the measures agreed in the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (SIPC-ISDR) a body created by the UN in 2000, every october 13th, the international day for disaster reduction, which leads to local awareness actions. (PAPI), contracting tool between government and county, is an important item for the intervention of environmental and land planning policies. The flooding comittee (CMI) which conducts the management of the flooding hazard policy and ensures the consistency of all of the actions, is in charged to label these programs.the comittee establishes a permanent dialog with the counties, by using local government for each watershed. Reducing vulnerability The objective of mitigation is to reduce damage by reducing either the intensity of certain events - flooding, mudslides, avalanches etc. or vulnerability to the risk - homes, commercial and industrial buildings, historic monuments, tourist sites, telecommunications networks, water, electricity and communication systems etc. Above all mitigation requires all persons concerned to be trained - architects, civil engineers, entrepreneurs etc. in the areas of design and planning for climate and geological phenomena as well as the building regulations. Insurance cover for disasters is included in Damage to Homes and is guaranteed by the State. For example, actually, for the earthquake hazard in Antilles, a programm is committed for the earthquake hazard reduction of the existing building, the Antilles earthquake plan. Planning for hazards when making spatial decisions and designing cities In order to reduce damage from natural disasters there is a need to control planning, the uses to which the natural habitat and rural spaces are put and to safeguard the development of fragile urban environments, in order to avoid increasing the challenges faced in areas at risk and to reduce vulnerability in those areas that are already urban environments. The plans for the prevention of foreseeable environmental hazards (PPRn) aim to fulfil this. After a public enquiry and approval from the Prefect, the PPRn is declared to be of public utility and is annexed to the Local Development Framework (PLU) which has to adapt to it. From then on, planning decisions that to take account of these documents whose provisions rank above all other considerations. The same measures apply to technological and mining hazards (PPRt). To promote the integrated managment of flooding hazard, the action plan for flooding prevention Preparing Public bodies have a duty to organise all necessary safety measures. Organising this requires a balanced sharing of competences between the State and local authorities. When a rescue organisation is of a certain size or is of a certain type, in each département, defence or maritime area, it becomes a part of the Civil Defence Response (Law on the modernisation of Civil Defence of 13 August 2004). The organisation of a Civil Defence Response (ORSEC) This response, on the orders of the Prefect, determines, given the hazards that exist in the département, the general organisation of any rescue and draws up a list of all the public and private bodies able to be deployed. It will include all general measures applicable in all circumstances and others that are proper to specific identifiable hazards. 5

6 FRENCH POLICY for disaster risk prevention Summary The measures in the ORSEC plans also anticipate those measures that need to be taken and the rescue plans to be implemented to counter threats from particular hazards or that are linked to the existence and operation of specific installations and works. Special Intervention Plans (PPI) particularly for those sites classified as Seveso, hydroelectric dams and nuclear sites might also be drawn up. Local Disaster Plan (PCS) Within their area the Mayor is responsible for providing a first response. A Local Disaster Plan (PCS) is mandatory in local authority areas where there is a Plan for the Prevention of Foreseeable Natural Disasters that has been approved, or where it falls within an area where there is a particular intervention plan. If there is a disaster it will list the means available to a local authority for use alongside other bodies intervening, rescue services, charities etc. Particular Safeguarding Plan (PPMS) In educational institutions that might be exposed to one or more major hazard the head of the establishment is obliged to draw up, in the name of (and in cooperation with the local mayor and the rescue services) a Particular Safeguarding Plan (PPMS). This plan should take into account each of the major hazards to which the establishment might be exposed. Regular simulation exercises should then take place. Feedback After the crisis, there should be time for analysis. Every natural disaster and each technological accident means looking again at practices and certainties. It is a time to examine what went wrong and to find out how to create the conditions necessary for the lessening the risk in the future. At national level in France, the Department of Ecology, Sustainable development, Transport and Housing has the staff and organisational structure to analyse this feedback. a The list of the main bodies dealing with the prevention of major hazards can be consulted on and in particular annex 3 of the document La démarche française de prévention des risques majeurs which can be downloaded under the heading catalogue. This document introduces the objectives, methodological principles, the means and bodies associated with the prevention of major hazards in France. A glossary and a directory of the actors of knowledge, management end prevention of natural hazards in France are available at at Annuaire and Glossaire pages. Each year the Director in Charge of Major Risks publishes an annual report which is submitted to the Advisory Board on the Prevention of Major Natural Hazards (COPRNM) for their comments.this report is online on the website of the Department of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing: The main public actors of prevention The expertise and experience of the different actors make France a referral country for disaster risks prevention, managment and reduction. This expertise focus on a reasonable and adapted use of the caution principle. The aim of responsible and sustainable development is based on the development of the life environment, preservation of properties, equipments, environment and the purpose of social evolution for people accomplishment. The disaster risks prevention concerned different ministries, local authorities, and puclic organisations. Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

7 What? Who? How? Hazard risks awareness Monitoring Information Ministry of sustainable development Ministry of agriculture (forest) Ministry of sustainable development Ministry of agriculture Ministry of interior Ministry for research Ministry of sustainable development Ministry of interior City mayor Financing scientific and technologic studies Equipment of the area of monitoring devices for floods, volcanoes, landslides, earthquakes and tsunamis The prefet establishes, financing by the Ministry of sustainable development, the DDRM. The city mayor establishes the DICRIM. The Ministry of sustainable development provides a national diffusion of the information via internet. Education Ministry of national education Ministry of sustainable development Ministry for research Registration in the education programs (TPE) Coordinators network with the education chief National day for risk prevention Urban planning and risks Ministry of sustainable development Establishement of the disaster risks prevention plans (PPR) National reglementation for earthquake risk prevention (map of earthquake activity zones, seismic resistant construction rules) controls of compliance Mitigation Crisis preparedness Feedback Ministry of sustainable development Ministry of interior City mayor Involved peoples in the emergency plans preparedness Professionnal training (architects, engineers, builders) Depend of the emergency gravity, the civil protection services or the city mayor manages the crisis Disasters analysis missions (REX) Emergency management Compensation Ministry of interior (prefet) City mayor General council (firemen) Natural disaster comittee (Ministry of economy, Ministry of sustainable development, Ministry of interior, Reinsurance central fund) Mobilization of ressources (officers, public services, and sometimes the army) When the state of natural disaster is decided, the insurances proceed to a special compensation procedure 7

8 FRENCH POLICY for disaster risk prevention Summary The different stages of decision and intervention The french public policy for the management of natural an technological disasters includes different stages of decision and intervention. The national level Three ministries take a major role: y Ministry of sustainable development for the prevention, protection and disaster risk reduction and preventing information; y Ministry of interior for preparedness and crisis management; y Ministry of economy supervises the insurances 2 in charge of the compensation for disasters. Aside from these three main ministries, the ministries of research, agriculture, health, foreign affairs and education contribute in their area of expertise to the disasters risks prevention. Directorate-General for Risk Prevention (DGPR) department of ministry of sustainable development, lead by the delegate for hazard risks, linked four departments: ydepartment of technological risks; y department of nuisance prevention and environmental quality; ydepartment of natural and hydrological disasters; y desk of general affairs and information systems. The ministry of sustainable development implements actions in legislative, regulatory, technical and organizational areas to enhance the didasters risks prevention and mitigation and the information and protection of populations. It is an important program with technical, economical and regulatory crucial issues for the government, local authorities, industries and population. Directorate for Civil Security department of the ministry of interior prepares and implements the emergency rules needed for the populations protection at national level. Its director is a member of the executive comittee of the national council for civil security. A cross and coherent approach involving different administration was needed. It leads the government to established an interministerial crisis center (CIC) connected to the ministry of interior. His charge is to organise the emergency intervention in case of disaster and to support the action from the prefet authority in each county. Since february 2010, this center replace the operationnal center og interministerial crisis management (COGIC). Moreover, the orientation council for natural disasters risks prevention (COPRNM), founded the 30th August 2003, associates parliamentaries, local elected and qualified experts to enrich the reflexions of makers. The defense zone level The zonal operations center (COZ) has the same rôle as the interministerial crisis center (CIC) in each defense zones of the national territory. The local level The city mayor and prefet are in charged of the risks management, but the local authorities are increasingly involved in this management. The role of the city mayor As the manager of his city urban planning and security, the mayor has to informed his population about he disaster risks and to organized the emergency actions. He could use several tools: ythe general code of local authorities (CGCT); ythe county information file about hazard risks (DICRIM); ythe local disaster plan (PCS); y The plan for the prevention of forseeable environmental hazards (PPR); ythe local development framework (PLU). The role of the county prefet As the government representative, the prefet leads the local government politics establishement, receives and oversees applications for authorization. He has an inter-ministeries service for defense and cicil protection (SIDPC). He relies on files for classified buildings inspection and advices from the departemental council for hygiene. The prefet is the leader of the emergency organisation under the operation center of the county (COD) for civil security if the disaster concerned more than one city. For the disaster risks management, the prefet: y Heads the departemental comittee of natural disasters (CDRNM). As such, he uses tools like the departemental file for hazard risks (DDRM) which informed the cities about the existing risks, the specific plan for intervention (PPI) for industries and the plan for the prevention of forseeable environmental and technological hazards (PPR) which is a complement of the local development framework; y establish and leads the ORSEC emergency organisation. 2 The French federation of insurance societies (FFSA) and the Group of mutual insurance companies (GEMA) created in 2000, a mission about natural disasters for the knowledge and prevention of disaster risks. This mission (MRN) represents the insurance profession from the partners of disasters risks management in France (public authorities, local authorities, associations...). This mission leads the working group of natural events of the European comittee of insurances. Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

9 He replaces the city mayor of a damaged city if the disaster goes beyond the city territory, in case of mayor inability or in case of launching emergency actions plans. He could enrolled further humans and materials capacity, at the zonal or national level if it is needed; y Conducts, for the county, several reflexions and actions for disaster risks prevention. The role of local authority council The local authority council establish the investment policy and finances the differents specialised departemental desks. For the victims help,the county fire and emergency department (SDIS) are under the prefet authority and are in charged with the SAMU ( health emergency service) to help the victims. Each SDIS establish with the prefet the county plan of analysis and risks covering (SDACR). The increased role of local authorities The local authorities have a rôle more and more important for the management of the crisis management services. They could provide to the city some devices to know more about the risk, the preparedness plan, some technical vehicles and the training of emergency action staff. About 200 comissions of site monitoring (CSS) have been developped in industrial areas since the decree of the 1st february Unique in Europe, this device is supported by many partners like public institutions, research center, spécialized organisations... International cooperation for the reduction of natural disasters - France s contribution Acknowledged and shared expertise France is active in a number of areas around the world and its international activity is wide ranging in the fields of climate, water, biodiversity, civil defence, heritage and environmental protection, meteorological knowledge, seismic, geophysical and spatial observation. a French experts actively participate in several international projects: yunesco s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) tsunami warning systems; ythe World Meteorological Organization (WMO) forecasting, monitoring and early warning systems, part of the natural disaster prevention programme; yseismic activity monitoring; yheritage protection, to extend to natural disasters those objectives of the Hague Convention (1954) that apply to the protection of cultural property. Concerned about responding to the expectations of other countries, especially developing countries, France is anxious to develop partnerships that bring together government departments, public bodies as well as non-governmental and private operators in order to offer global and transparent cooperation, expertise and engineering skills. These partnerships would take into consideration the particular nature of a partner country and adapt to local conditions in order to encourage the appropriation and acculturalisation of skills and thereby achieve a true shared approach to hazards and the reduction of risk from disasters. Disaster risks reduction has to be integrated to all the strategies and policies of sustainable development at the national, european and global levels. France s scientific and operational expertise allows it to cooperate in a number of fields: y understanding events and the challenges and techniques available for the reduction of major hazards; y planning and urban development; y construction; y informing populations; y training, research and scientific education; y education in schools; 9

10 FRENCH POLICY for disaster risk prevention Summary y safeguarding heritage; y tools for surveillance, forecasting and vigilance; y putting in place techniques and procedures for feedback; y dynamic and evolving hazard management; y research into new emerging hazards linked to deteriorating biodiversity, an increase in the frequency and/or seriousness of extreme events, etc. International agreements and cooperation with other countries France develops its various efforts to reduce risk and to prevent disasters, wishing, at one and the same time, to make its actions in these areas complementary to and consistent with its international and EU commitments and its own policies in these areas. Today, France thinks thet the Disaster risks prevention policy has to be integrated at the European council, in order that the 47 members could appropriate this dimension for their population safety. France s action is in line with the implementation of Hyogo Framework for Action ( ) whose focal point is the Secretariat of The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (SIPC-ISDR) based in Geneva. The country takes part at the etablishement of a new framework after Founded in 2000 by the United Nations, this organisation s objective is, through sustainable development: yto build the resilience of nations and communities to disasters by making them aware of the importance of preventing disasters; y understanding problems at world level y involving each individual person and each population group in efforts to reduce all the different types of damage caused by natural hazards. nation for international strategy. y Corporate all the public, private or associative organisations which are involved in France in the reduction of health damages, economic, environmental or cultural issues and to the resilience renforcement to disaster risks. y Meet for the national meeting for natural hazards (ANRN). The COPRNM has drawn up a international action strategy in order to strengthen France s ability to offer expertise and cooperation internationally. a Beyond France s borders its embassies and local offices of the French Development Agency (AFD) are the intermediary through which offers for French cooperation for the prevention of risk are made. y France is also committed to the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), a partnership founded in 2006 by the World Bank, the United Nations and other stakeholders that aims to help developing countries to strengthen their capacity to prevent disasters, adapt to climate change and rebuild capacity post-disaster. The programme has three financing tracks: y one track supports the international strategy for disaster reduction; y one track supports countries mainstreaming disaster reduction in their development strategies; yone track is the rapid financing of post-disaster reconstruction in developing countries. The French national contribution: y is built around the Advisory Board on the Prevention of Major Natural Hazards (COPRNM) under the aegis of the Director in Charge of Major Risks; y animated by the French Association for the Prevention of Natural Disasters (AFPCN). y Its secretary is in charged of the general director of the risk preparedness, delegate to disaster risk, focus point of Hyogo framework and national agent at the inter agency of united Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

11 Links for further information Ministère du Développement durable - Portail de la prévention des risques majeurs - Prévention des risques majeurs - Observatoire national des risques naturels (ONRN) - Ministère des Affaires étrangères - Ministère de l Intérieur - Association française pour la prévention des catastrophes naturelles (AFPCN) - Association française du génie parasismique (AFPS) - Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières (BRGM) - Bouclier bleu - Centre méditerranéen de l environnement - Croix-Rouge française - École des ingénieurs de la ville de Paris - Haut comité français pour la défense civile - Information nationale sur la vigilance crues - Institut français des formateurs - Risques majeurs et protection de l environnement (IFFO-RME) - Institut national de l environnement industriel et des risques (INERIS) - Institut de physique du globe de Paris - Institut des risques majeurs (IRMA) - Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) - Météo-France - Réf. DICOM-DGPR/BRO/ November 2013 Design and editing: METL-MEDDE/DICOM Writing: J.-M. Dedeyan - DAEI - DGPR - DICOM Photo credits: cover: METL- MEDDE/L. Mignaux (x2) - Emag - IPR - Mike Page/Flickr - 1 suisse/flickr Page 3: L. Mignaux (x2) - Fotolia/R. Villalon Pages 4-5: METL-MEDDE/A. Bouissou (x2) - L. Mignaux (x3) - NASA Earth Observatory Collection Pages 6-7: A. Bouissou (x2) - L. Mignaux (x3) - B. Suard Pages 8-9: A. Bouissou - METL-MEDDE/Edheline Bourguemestre - METL- MEDDE/G. Crossay - METL-MEDDE/T. Degen - L. Mignaux (X2) - Page 10: A. Bouissou - Pressmaster/Fotolia - UN/ISDR Printing: SG/SPSSI/ATL2 - Leaflet printed on European eco-label certified paper - 11

12 Ministère de l Écologie, du Développement durable et de l Énergie Direction générale de la Prévention des risques Arche paroi nord La Défense cedex Tél

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