Global Skills for the Environment

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1 Global Skills for the Environment Industrial activities: reducing the environmental impact 12/2006

2 1 Introduction All sectors of industry and business leave an imprint on the environment as a result of their use of energy or raw materials and the production of waste or effluents that will be found in the natural environment. Such impacts can occur at the local, cross-border or global level and have implications for health. They vary depending on the phases in a product s life cycle according to the raw materials used, the design of the product, the technology and research involved in its manufacture, the processing and manufacturing processes used, the type of goods produced, the product s packaging, its mode of distribution to the consumers and, finally, the ultimate fate of the product, which can be disposed of, re-used or recycled. Prior to 1980, most companies had an uncoordinated technical approach to environmental protection. Plant and processes were planned paying only vague attention to their impact, with an «end-of-chain» technology simply to meet regulatory requirements. During the 1980s, the leading companies generally shifted toward a more comprehensive approach, based on prevention, and taking environmental factors into account as of the initial stages of equipment planning. These changes took place in response to internal and external pressures: increasingly stringent and better applied legislation, increased awareness among the population and lobby groups, green consumerism and staff attitudes in industry. The first companies targeted were those operating in industrial sectors considered as «dirty» such as the chemical, oil and gas industries. The large companies adopted environmental management systems providing for the monitoring and measurement of emissions, employee training, integrated waste management, risk prevention, and audit programmes for regular evaluation of environmental performance (Source: The Dobrís assessment, the first report devoted to the state of the pan-european environment published in 1995 by the European Environment Agency - EEA). Nowadays, industrial firms must face up to numerous challenges in the environment area: protection of resources, optimisation of consumption, cost control, providing security for production facilities, and waste traceability. By entrusting to the specialists the challenges relating to the water and waste cycles, they can devote themselves entirely to their business and ensure that they succeed in their undertakings. 2

3 2 European regulations Background The Industry Council report on environmental integration, presented to the European Council in Helsinki, discusses climate change, employment, changing production and consumption models, eco-efficiency and integrated product policy. May The strategy of allowance for environmental aspects in industry is adopted at the Industry Council meeting. June The Industry Council adopts the conclusions concerning the contribution of corporate policy to sustainable development: economic growth is a prerequisite for sustainable development because it ensures the additional resources essential for dealing with environmental pressure and for strengthening social cohesion. December The Paper on «Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe» (COM(2002)714 final) recognises the need to develop and strengthen policies in the area of sustainable production. April 2004 Directive on environmental responsibility. Main European Directives and initiatives The Directive on Environmental Responsibility is the first Community legislation having as part of its main objectives the application of the «Polluter Pays» principle. It establishes a common framework of responsibility with a view to preventing and repairing the damage caused to animals, plants, natural habitats and water resources, and damage affecting the soil. It is up to the public authorities to make sure that the operators responsible take or fund the necessary prevention or repair measures. The «IPPC» Directive (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) is one of the foundations of European Union legislation relating to industrial installations with a high potential for pollution. This type of installation can only be operated if the operator owns a permit showing the requirements for protection of the air, water and soil, for maximum reduction of waste, accident prevention and, if necessary, site decontamination.

4 The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER), which gives the public access to information concerning emissions from industrial installations. The impact of major industrial installations on the environment is undergoing an evaluation in the draft stage, in accordance with the Directive on evaluation of the environmental effects of certain public and private projects. The Directive on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (SEVESO II) is designed to keep to a minimum the risks and consequences of industrial accidents. The Product Integration Policy (PIP) endeavours to reduce the environmental impacts of products by examining all the stages in their life cycle and undertaking actions where they are most effective. In the area of waste, the European Union has well-established principles on which it has based its approach to waste management: Principle of prevention: waste production should be minimised and avoided whenever possible; Principle of the producer s responsibility and Polluter Pays Principle: those who produce waste or contaminate the environment must pay the price of their acts; Principle of precaution: we should anticipate potential problems; Principle of proximity: waste should be disposed of as close as possible to the place whereit is produced. The EU general strategy of 1996 recommends a hierarchy in waste management operations: waste prevention, recycling and re-use, optimum ultimate disposal and improved monitoring. To encourage European industry to implement environmental policies, the European Union has launched several initiatives: The European Awards for the Environment are made every two years for four categories: products, processes, management and international cooperation. The winners are selected by an independent jury of 12 environmental experts representing industry, public organisations, non-governmental organisations for the environment and universities. The Commission established the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS), a management tool that helps companies and other organisations evaluate, report and improve their environmental performance. The European Eco-Label allows consumers to identify more easily those products having less impact on the environment. Its easily recognisable flower logo is used throughout the European Union. Alexandra Vakrou, Assistant to the European Commission Head of Unit, Directorate General for the Environment: «It is in the interest of Member States to apply this legislation correctly to avoid penalties, sanctions and problems in general. Because if an accident occurs in a plant, then the matter as a whole will backfire against Industry and it will not be because of politics; it will also be because of public interest in the environment and that will be detrimental to society s image of the industrial world.»

5 3 Water The impact of industry on the aquatic environment is chiefly due to the use of water in manufacturing processes and the release of effluents into the natural environment. Numerous industrial activities use large quantities of water for manufacturing their products. Industry is responsible for slightly more than half the water consumption in Europe. The use of water for industrial purposes increases in proportion to a country s revenues. From 10% in the low-income and medium-lower income countries, it increases to 59% in high-income countries. Source: World Bank, Water is chiefly used for cooling processes, which account for between 70% and 80% of the volume of water consumed by industry, most of this water being used for the production of electric power. Some industries, such as microelectronics, pulp and paper, metallurgy, iron and steel and oil and petrochemicals, are the main consumers of water for their production process (cases of consumption of more than 15% of the water planned for their activity). Industry generally uses surface water, although the quality of water required depends on the type of product. For example, the quality of cooling water can be low, but the manufacture of paper and pulp requires water of better quality (Source: The Dobrís assessment, the first report devoted to the state of the pan-european environment published in 1995 by the European Environment Agency - EEA) The industrial water cycle Industries, due to their differences, have different water requirements, but the major categories of water used remain the same: Supply water and water for utilities, cooling towers, boilers and use in processes; purified water, used in microelectronics, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics; effluents, sludge management and disposal; re-used or recycled water. Water as a resource and its use This water represents the largest water consumption item in industry. It is used in cooling systems, boilers, in the process or the product itself, as water for carbonated drinks and for paper production for example. The quality and volume requirements vary enormously from one industry to another and from one plant to another. Most of the systems currently in place use filtration, clarification, softening, demineralisation and degassing equipment to treat the raw water and give it the desired characteristics. The membrane technology is also used as an alternative to or in combination with the equipment mentioned above. Pre-treatment: pre-treatment is used to prepare and protect downstream equipment which removes finer pollutants. It is often designed to remove suspended solids, colour and chlorine. 5

6 Softening/Demineralisation: Softening and demineralisation form the basis of feed water and process water production. They are used to remove salts, which can be prejudicial to heating or cooling cycles or to product manufacture. A more refined quality of water for certain industries: purified water The production of pure water is important for those industries that need a high quality of water. This type of water is generally used in the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, where it is called ultrapure water, and in industries such as pharmaceuticals or cosmetics, where a distinction is made between purified water, highly purified water and water for injections. The standard technologies for producing this water are ion exchange resin and reverse osmosis. Today, highly efficient systems include electrode ionisation, which offers a greater degree of efficiency, combined with ease of use. Industrial water cycle O Mobile Ondeo Industrial Solutions In this area, Ondeo Industrial Solutions has developed: UCM («Unité Compacte Membranaire») - a compact membrane unit for demineralising contaminated water The UCM is an innovative modular facility, developed and patented by Infilco (a subsidiary of Ondeo IS), which brings together on a single frame the functionalities of an ultrafiltration unit with those of a reverse osmosis unit. It is used to economically exploit water with a high silt density index that is usually neglected, because it is considered too difficult to treat. O Mobile is used to obtain water of demineralised quality without any capital investment for a period of several days or several months. It avoids interrupting plant production during maintenance or renovation operations on the existing station, in the case of peak demand, in case of damage to the existing facilities, for pilot tests and for start-up, in the event of a deterioration in the quality of feed water. It is available for flow rates ranging from 25 to 50 m3/h/unit. 6

7 Re-used or recycled water The recycling and re-use of water have become topical issues for industrial plants. This is due to several factors: the savings relating to the cost of water, the cost of effluent treatment and the cost of disposal; an increase in production capacity without having to install additional effluent treatment capacity; recovery of raw materials; reduction in the hydraulic load on the effluent treatment plant; establishing compliance with increasingly strict regulations; reduction of sludge production. According to Michel Carpentier, manager of the Owens-Illinois plant in Béziers, «The environment is more than ever a daily source of concern for our plant. Since its creation six years ago, we are capable to guarantee, among other things, optimised water management, in terms of both internal recycling and the water released into the natural environment for the town of Béziers. It is essential that this should continue thanks to an appropriate technology that has proved itself. Effluents Effluent treatment allows industries to ensure that their production process does not cause damage to the environment, and thus gives them the right to operate while complying with local waste discharge constraints. Most synthetic organic chemical pollution comes from industrial sources such as chemical and petrochemical plants, refineries, the pharmaceuticals industry, the iron and steel industry, wood treatment, paper and pulp manufacture and the food industries. The industrial sources of heavy metals include the dumping of solutions charged with heavy metals and metal treatment; use of metals and metallic compounds for the manufacture of paints, plastics and batteries, and tanneries (Source: Meybeck et al, 1989). Depending on the quality of the effluent, it is necessary to establish treatment capable of processing these kinds of waste discharges to meet the standards in force. The treatment methods can be divided into three major stages: primary treatment (screening, clarification and flotation), secondary treatment (aerobic and anaerobic treatment and sludge separation), tertiary treatment (finishing stage which may include advanced oxidation, flotation, lamellar settling or filtration). Industrial effluent treatment at the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park (SCIP) in Shanghai, China - Sino French Water Development Off-site treatment of effluents Small and medium-sized production plants do not always have enough effluents to justify the need for a sewage station on site. Large industrial plants, for their part, can have peaks in their effluent waste outflow, and need to have a temporary disposal solution. For both these cases, Ondeo Industrial Solutions has introduced Ecoflow, a complete off-site treatment service, which ranges from storage of effluents on the waste emission site through to complete characterisation and treatment of effluents on the receiving site. It can be easily adapted to biodegradable effluents for volumes of up to 100 m3 per day. Régis Laffont, Manager of the Ahlstrom LabelPack site, La Gère plant: «For the last three years we have obtained excellent results regarding the quality of water leaving the plant with ratios of less than one to nine relative to the standards to be complied with. The outsourcing of the plant s operation is therefore a success and thus enables us to focus fully on our core business.»

8 Sludge management Due to the increase in the cost of sludge treatment and disposal, industrial plants are designing and applying methods for the treatment and reduction of sludge coming from effluent treatment. Sludge management aims at a reduction at each stage in the sludge generation chain: in the production process, reduce waste and thereby reduce sludge; on the effluents treatment plant, use appropriate technologies which reduce the volume of sludge produced and treated; on the sludge treatment line, reduce the water content; in the ultimate disposal processes, select the most sustainable and economical process, while protecting the environment The various sectors of industry Water for the aeronautics and automotive industries In a highly competitive environment, the automotive and aeronautics industries must, apart from production, take into account three main factors: Health, Safety, Environment, improvement of performance and new technologies. In this context, these industries require, on the one hand, a specific water quality depending on their production (process water, demineralised or softened water) and on the other hand a water treatment process adapted to the pollutants present (metals, hydrocarbons, surfactants). All these processes generate hazardous industrial waste, especially sludge, subject to specific treatment obligations. Supply water: The water used for the process, for surface treatment, painting workshops, cooling systems and boilers is vital for the transport industry. It must meet suitable quality and quantity parameters. Effluents: To comply with local regulations concerning effluent waste released into the natural environment, the plant must ensure complete treatment of effluents and/or partial treatment of a specific effluent. Recycling: All industries are looking to recycling to reduce their water consumption and their costs. This is especially worthwhile for the transport industry, because of its ability to treat surface treatment effluents simply for re-use. Sludge: Sludge is not only a burden, it also represents a cost for operations. Sludge management includes the installation, operation and maintenance of dehydration equipment and treatment lines, until the sludge has been disposed of. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references AIR FRANCE, DASSAULT, EADS AIRBUS, FAURECIA, FIAT, FORD, JOHN DEERE, MEFRO ROUES France, PSA, RENAULT, SAFRAN. 8

9 Water for the food & beverage industry Feed water and pure water: This industrial sector needs a great variety of equipment and services for boilers, cooling towers, pre-treatment, cutting water and beverage water. Process water treatments are performed according to the required water quality: by ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, demineralisation. Effluents: Dairy produce, pig farms, stock raising farms, slaughter houses, meat packing industries, breweries, fruit and vegetable canneries, starch industries, cane and beet sugar refineries, distilleries, oil mills and soap factories are as diverse as their effluents. In these cases, the biological treatment must be adapted to the characteristics of the effluents and to their variability. Examples include methanisation, exploiting the energy of waste released into the natural environment or sludge, and even membrane bioreactors. Recycling: In the food processing industry, it is possible to find smart solutions for recycling and re-using effluents in the process without detracting from quality. BioControl technique - Ondeo Industrial Solutions Ondeo Industrial Solutions offers industries a new patented technology, BioControl,especially suitable for reducing the production of biological sludge (up to 80%) for the food processing industries, resulting in substantial savings. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references 3A-SODIAAL, ANDIA LACTEOS, BONDUELLE, DANONE, GROUPE BEL, GROUPE ENTREMONT, MARS- MASTERFOODS, SÜDZUCKER, UNILEVER, YOPLAIT. Mr. Serre, Yoplait Plant Manager in Moneteau, France: «We have invested in an effluent treatment plant which works and enables us to fulfil our commitments with regard to our operating permit. We can monitor our pollution and achieve optimum management of our waste released into the natural environment. Today, the results are perfect, far below the stipulated norms.» Water for the chemicals, oil and petrochemicals industries Water is an important raw material in the chemicals sector. Efficient management of the water cycle can have an impact on production performance, operating costs and the environment of each plant, often Seveso classified. Operations must cope with the variability and concentration of effluents, while complying with very stringent quality, health and safety constraints. Feed water and pure water:water for boilers and cooling is vital for operating a chemicals or petroleum plant. The solutions for supply optimisation involve improving drainage, installing recycling systems, the detection and repair of leaks, equipment for pre-treatment, ion exchangers, reverse osmosis and other membrane systems. Effluents: Oil deposits, refineries and petrochemical and chemical plants produce a lot of effluents. For storm water, process water, ballast water treatment and the disposal of greases in the oil industry, 9

10 solutions for optimisation via flotation, biological purification, grease disposal and tertiary treatment enable the industries to comply with local regulations and improve their profitability. Recycling: In the chemicals and oil industry, the quantities of water consumed for cooling make them candidates for water recycling. Ondeo Industrial Solutions references In the oil and petrochemicals sector, Ondeo Industrial Solutions has designed exceptional solutions to manage hydrocarbon sludge and considerably reduce the costs of removal. Chemicals: Petrochemicals: AJINOMOTO BP ARKEMA CONOCO PHILIPS DEGUSSa ENI R&M SPA INEOS naphtachimie HUNTSMAN-TIOXIDE INEOS SOLVAY Water for the energy industry Electricity producers are constantly looking for ways of optimising their efficiency and reducing their costs. For this purpose, creative water management is the subject of continual thinking. Utilities: Thermal and nuclear power stations have various sources of water supply such as seawater, surface water, groundwater, and machinery and process condensates. The quality of water used varies depending on its source and its location. Treatment stations can range from 10 m3/h to 10,000 m3/h. Equipment for the energy industry includes flocculation, sedimentation, membrane filtration (ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis), ion exchange resins, electrode ionisation and condensate polishing systems. Effluents: The effluents produced by electric power stations may contain the greases of pollutants coming from gas stripping and air cleaning and boilers. In the nuclear industry, elements such as uranium are also found. Pollutants can be disposed of with physico-chemical and biological treatment equipment. Recycling: In the energy industry, the quantities of water consumed for cooling permit water recycling. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references CEA, COMURHEX (AREVA Group), CPCU, EDF, IBERDROLA, SCOTTISH POWER, UNION FENOSA, UTE BAIA, VATTENFALL, TARRAGONA POWER 10

11 Water for the metallurgy and iron and steel industries Highly capitalised, operating in markets that are both global and cyclical, the steel and metal industries have to fight fiercely to improve their competitiveness from the viewpoints of both costs and quality, and economic performance. In this context, the conservation of water resources and the control of water treatment are two requisite conditions for sustainable development and at the same time a way of improving their competitiveness. Effluents: As regards the effluents from metallurgical production plants, it is necessary to perform complete treatment of effluents and/ or partial treatment of a specific effluent. Recycling: In the metallurgy industry, it is possible to find smart solutions for recycling and re-using effluents in the process without detracting from quality, by establishing recycling schemes that are both innovative and reliable. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references ACERALIA, ACERINOX, ARCELOR, CEZUS AREVA, EUROPICKLING, RADIUM FOAM, RENCAST, SAINT- GOBAIN-PAM SEVERSTAL, VALLOUREC Water for the microelectronics industry Microelectronics is a key industry in the global economy, with faster development requirements and capacity than in any other industry. The sector is becoming increasingly aware of its environmental responsibilities, and is choosing production processes that take these issues more into account. Feed water and ultrapure water: The complete range of systems includes pre-treatment by UV systems, reverse osmosis, electrode ionisation and degassing. Effluents: The treatment of effluents requires expertise in acid/alkaline neutralisation, the elimination of heavy metals, and the collection and release of concentrates into the natural environment. Recycling: Optimising separation systems in waste outflows enables direct re-use, return of ultrapure water to the station inlet, and recovery for boiler and cooling systems. Equipment for ultrafiltration, ion exchange, bio-polishing, oxidation and other filtration and membrane technologies permit the highest rate of recycling with waste recovery, and final assembly of closed loop systems. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references ACTIS SEMICONDUCTOR, ALCATEL, ATMEL, CELESTICA, IBM, INFINEON, SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY, SIEMENS, STMICROELECTRONICS, THALES André Bois, STMicroelectronics, Manager, Crolles2 Alliance plant: «STMicroelectronics wants to focus on its core business, i.e. making semiconductors, not effluent treatment. That is what led us to outsource the effluent treatment part.» 11

12 Water for the pulp and paper industry The reorganisation of this industry has created groups of international scale, and industrial relocation operations tend to bring production closer to the raw material source. Environmental considerations are a real priority for pulp and paper manufacturers, which are leading energy and water consumers. They endeavour to use their resources as well as possible while complying with the environmental regulations in force. Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references AHLSTROM, ARJO WIGGINS, CASCADES, HOLMEN, NORSKE SKOG, SCHWEITZER MAUDUIT, MREAL, SMURFIT Water for the glass industry The glass industry is an activity that is a large consumer of water for use in the process and for cooling. It is also a very big generator of effluents specific to the production process during the stages of shaping and conversion of flat glass, hollow glass, glass fibre and other items. Faced with increasingly onerous regulatory, economic and ecological constraints, the industries in the sector have to look for areas for progress in their water cycle. Team from Ondeo Industrial Solutions on the industrial site Ondeo Industrial Solutions Lyonnaise des Eaux references ESSILOR, INTERGLAS TECHNOLOGIES, OWENS-ILLINOIS, GROUPE Saint-Gobain Water for large organisations Large organisations have water needs covering all its use (production of black effluents and process water, network management, effluents and storm water treatment, recovery of sludge and by-products). Subject to demanding regulations regarding safety and the environment, they must ensure the quality of water and the processes while controlling capital expenditure and costs. Good environmental management also has an impact on their image. Lyonnaise des Eaux references AEROPORTS DE PARIS, AREVA, ARMEE FRANCAISE, CEA, EUROTUNNEL, PARC DE LA VILLETTE, PORT AUTONOME DE DUNKERQUE, RATP 12

13 4 Waste The total quantity of waste generated in Europe each year amounts to about 2 billion tonnes, including over 40 million tonnes of hazardous waste (source: The EU and waste management, 2000, EEA) (source: The EU and waste management, 2000, EEA). For 2002, the EU-15 countries declared volumes ranging up to 300 kg per capita, while in the 10 new Member States the sector recorded up to 900 kg per capita, the highest figures being attributable to Finland and Sweden with more than 2,000 kg per capita. The chief waste producing sectors in manufacturing industry are those involved in the manufacture of basic metal products, foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, non-metallic mineral products, wood and wooden products (source: Evaluation of national production of corporate waste in 2004) - ADEME. One of the major potential benefits of environmental protection for industry is to reduce the volume of waste but also to become aware that these waste, if they are sorted, can become precious resources, in a world in which raw materials are increasingly expensive and increasingly scarce. Waste recovery makes it possible not only to save raw materials by converting products into a «secondary raw material», but also to make energy savings, by substituting waste for conventional fossil fuels (such as oil, gas, coal, etc). There are very many cases in which it is less costly to use a regenerated waste than to use a natural raw material (glass or aluminium, for example) Recovery is performed in various ways: Material recovery involves using all or part of the waste materials so that, after processing, they may become the raw material for new products. This involves: Recycling: direct reintroduction of waste into the production cycle from which it has come, as a complete or partial substitute for a new raw material. For example, take broken bottles, melt them down again, and make new bottles with them. Re-use: involves re-using a waste for an application similar to its first use. For example, the deposit of bottles, which are filled again after cleaning. New use: involves using a waste for an application different from its first use. For example, using car tyres to protect the hulls of boats or trawlers. Regeneration: consists of a physical or chemical process restoring certain properties to a waste product enabling it to be used as a substitute for a new raw material. For example, the regeneration of used oils or solvents. 13

14 Energy recovery involves using the calories contained in waste, by burning them and recovering the energy thus produced in order, for example, to heat buildings or produce electricity. Kirklees incineration and energy recovery plant, Great Britain - SITA UK Biological recovery involves treating and recycling biodegradable waste: the organic matter contained in the waste, after composting or methanisation, is used as a fertiliser for agriculture or gardening. Composting platform in Maronne, France - SITA France Industrial waste can be of a non-hazardous or hazardous type, solid or liquid, in bulk or dispersed and conditioned or not. There are specific collection, transport, treatment, recycling, recovery and ultimate disposal processes for each type of waste Non-hazardous industrial waste These are waste products resulting from an industrial or commercial activity but without any dangerous characteristics, such as cardboard, wood, miscellaneous packaging products etc. The various industrial clients have specific needs due to their activities, their environment and their organisation. Sorting and recycling of non-hazardous industrial waste Industrial waste cycle In-situ sorting, waste transfer/material recovery plant management Managing a waste transfer/material recovery plant involves choosing equipment adapted to the waste sources, finding available locations, using appropriate techniques, controlling incoming and outgoing waste flows with administrative follow-up toward the disposal centres, and training the personnel in charge of sorting. 14

15 Waste transfer and recovery processes Waste pre-sorted in this way is transported to specialist sorting centres in appropriate containers. The various types of waste are then sorted mechanically or by hand, before the recoverable part is directed to the recycling processes, such as cardboard-paper, glass, office papers, plastics, scrap and plant waste. End-of-life products can also be recovered, such as tyres, electrical and electronic equipment waste, and end-of-life vehicles. The recovery can be of the «material» type, i.e. via recycling or new use of the secondary raw materials, «biological» type for organic components, via composting, and «energy» type through the production of electric power or heat. Non hazardous industrial waste sorting facility in Australia - SITA Environmental Solutions References SITA UK in the United Kingdom manages the waste of 35,000 commercial and industrial customers and businesses. In the Netherlands, Flanders/Brussels in 2005, 70,000 Dutch firms and 30,000 Flemish/ Brussels commercial and industrial customers used SITA s services. Airbus (Toulouse, France) More than 30 people from SITA France on the site. Total waste management for all waste flows (common industrial waste, paints, solvents, contaminated water, fluids, oils, kerosene, filters, activated carbon, etc.). Design and construction of a sorting centre for the five Airbus plants in France. Sorting improvement objectives: 70% recovery projected in Implementation of innovative solutions: regeneration of oils and solvents. Renault (Cléon, France) More than 35 people from SITA work on the site. Total Waste Management (TWM). 25% improvement in productivity since Waste transfer/material recovery plant at Nestlè in Germany - SITA Deutschland Ms. Ann Larsson, Siemens Environment Coordinator in Sweden: Our core business, here at Siemens, is turbine manufacture and we achieve good results in this field, but we prefer to call on a company to help us in other sectors, corresponding to its core business, namely waste treatment. That is why we chose SITA. We plan to call on a company which could help us, which has the required competencies and resources and which is capable of guiding us in this sector.» Composting The organic matter existing in common industrial waste, e.g. production refuse from the food processing industry, undergoes special treatment to be converted into compost. This microbiological process degrades the organic matter aerobically (with oxygen), resulting in the formation of fertiliser. Composting platform in Boskovice, Czech Republic - SITA CZ 15

16 Methanisation In confined chambers called bio-reactors, fermentation allows anaerobic digestion (without oxygen) of the organic matter by bacteria. This process can produce biogas consisting basically of methane, which is recovered as energy and as organic amendments. Production of Refuse Derived Fuel on the Kovik site, Sweden - SITA Sverige RDF production RDF means Refuse Derived Fuel. In some specific cases, other expressions such as SRF (Secondary Recovered Fuel) are used. It can be used as a substitute fuel for electric power stations, cement kilns, dedicated incineration plants of high heating value, etc. RDF is obtained by separating the fractions with the highest heating value from the waste by means of mechanical/automatic systems. By burning the waste and recovering the energy produced from this, it is possible to heat buildings and produce electricity. The nonrecoverable part of the waste is then sent to sanitary landfills or incinerated. References SUEZ Environment operates several RDF production plants throughout Europe. The largest plants are in Germany and the Scandinavian countries. Commercial and industrial waste represents the leading input flow. Eschbach (Germany) Plant designed for 80,000 tonnes of commercial and industrial waste as input flow. Plant designed and built by SITA Deutschland. Start of operations in Production of high-quality RDF, estimated at 26,000 tonnes per year. Kövik (Stockholm, Sweden) Plant designed and built by SITA Sverige, in service since the early 1980s. RDF production (50,000 tonnes per year) Hazardous industrial waste (HIW) These are special waste products representing a hazard for people and the environment, requiring special precautions during their transport and treatment. In France, for example, classified hazardous industrial waste includes organic waste (hydrocarbons, tars, solvents, etc.), liquid mineral waste (acids; surface treatment baths, etc.) and solid mineral waste (cyanide salts, foundry sands, etc.). Since 1998, the production of hazardous waste in the EU-25 has increased by about 13%, from 51.8 million tonnes (115 kg per capita) to 58.4 million tonnes (129 kg per capita) in With an average of 155 kg per capita, production is higher in the new Member States than in the EU-15 (124 kg per capita), but the trend 16

17 is toward convergence. The main source of hazardous waste is the manufacturing industry, which accounts for 40% to more than 90% of the total. (Source: Evaluation of national production of corporate waste in ADEME) Part of the hazardous waste is treated by the industrial plants that produce it; the other part is collected, pre-processed and conditioned where possible, before being recovered and treated in specialised centres. Management of dispersed hazardous industrial waste Industries and laboratories can sometimes generate small quantities of waste but which are nevertheless hazardous. Transit and consolidation form an essential phase for these producers of chemical waste in dispersed quantities. Identification of hazardous industrial waste - Laboservices (Teris) Consolidation platforms are required to receive the waste, in order to prepare and transport it in larger quantities to special treatment and recovery sites. Managing these facilities requires the presence on-site of a special laboratory with qualified chemists capable of precisely measuring the various physical and chemical properties of the waste. In order to define the best treatment process, the waste is analysed and checked throughout its treatment, from collection and reception through to recovery or final disposal. Various analyses are carried out by the specialised laboratories on the sites, both upstream of the arrival of the waste on the site, and during the treatment stages, through to its recovery. References SUEZ Environment operates 145 hazardous waste management platforms around the world, from transitconsolidation to pre-processing, including ultra-efficient treatment and recovery units. It regularly organises interlaboratory benchmarking on various parameters in order to reference the laboratories of the companies involved. Givors (France): Platform specialised in the treatment of hazardous waste in dispersed quantities output by local authorities, industry, laboratories, SME and trades. 11,000 tonnes each year are consolidated, pre-processed and dispatched towards the appropriate recovery channels. Lillebonne (France): Site set up after the joint venture created by TERIS and its 3 cement-manufacturer partners (VICAT, LAFARGE and CALCIA). The platform is specialised in the preparation of substitution fuels for cement kilns and the processing of hazardous industrial waste. 70,000 tonnes of hazardous waste are treated each year. Management of hazardous industrial waste in large quantities In order to transport hazardous waste, the products must be conditioned or prepared for transport in accordance with European standards. The transport facilities must comply with ADR standards (European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road), which lay down precise rules in terms of vehicle equipment, the provision of storage containers and staff training. For every transport, treatment and recovery operation involving hazardous industrial waste a BSDI (industrial waste monitoring file) must be issued. These files are recorded in chronological order and must be covered by a quarterly declaration by the Prefecture. They can be used at any time to check the itinerary of a waste product, from its production through to its disposal in an approved centre. 17

18 References Econatie (Port of Antwerp, Belgium) Managed by SITA Recycling Services: Sorting centre for shredding and compacting non-hazardous industrial waste from port companies (mainly packaging materials). Hazardous industrial waste from the petrochemicals industry: specific mono-waste flow, transport to treatment plants. Station for the storage and pre-treatment of contaminated soils. Pre-treatment of hazardous industrial waste Pre-treatment consists in identifying, analysing and preparing waste that cannot be transferred direct to the recovery channel, in order to ensure it has the physical and chemical properties required by the suitable treatment or recovery processes. Pre-treatment is used to manufacture a fuel that is physically and chemically stable based on waste. Each type of waste product is the subject to an identification, acceptance and sampling procedure in the specialised analysis laboratories on the platforms. The waste then undergoes pre-treatment, before being conditioned according to the different types of compatibility of the products. Recovery of hazardous industrial waste in cement kilns The principle of energy-from-waste recovery is based on replacing the fuels used in kiln cements by specifically identified, approved waste. Co-incineration in cement works therefore consists in using either the energy contained in waste to replace fossil fuels (such as coal, coke or fuel), based on the «waste energy» principle; or in using the minerals also contained in waste, to substitute for quarry materials. The very high temperature of combustion and the extremely long residence time in the furnace ensure all the molecules are completely eliminated. The recovery of waste has no effect on the composition of the cement. Replacement fuel for cement kiln furnace - Scori (Teris) References Scori is the world leader in waste recovery in cement works with 600,000 tonnes of waste treated each year (2005 figures), i.e. a saving of 200,000 Mtoe (tonnes of oil equivalents), equal to the annual consumption in home energy of a town with a population of 250,000. The Scori network includes eight waste preparation centres for recovery in cement works and 22 cement works authorised to recover hazardous waste in France. Scori has been awarded ISO 9001 and ISO certification for all of its activities ECOCAT (Spain) 25,000 tonnes per year Recovery of hazardous industrial waste by incineration Certain types of hazardous waste undergo heat treatment. Because of their characteristics, these flows require dedicated incineration plants with specific treatment temperatures, residence times, coolant circuits, and flue gas treatment. The energy, that can be produced by incineration can be used to heat buildings or to produce electricity, is known as energy-from-waste recovery. The regulations applicable to recovery units for stack disposals, discharges to water and solid residues are the same, whether the waste treated is hazardous or not. On the other hand, more stringent specific provisions are provided for waste acceptance and reception procedures and 18

19 combustion conditions when a facility manages hazardous waste. In France, for example, there are 16 collective incineration centres for hazardous waste, 13 centres specialised in evapo-incineration and more than 25 waste co-incineration plants (essentially cement works.) In 2000, nearly 1.6 million tonnes of hazardous waste were treated and recovered by these three types of plants: 48% in dedicated centres, 40% in co-incineration plants, and 12% in evapo-incineration plants (source: Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, hazardous waste management, April 2006.) Recovery by incineration on the Roussillon site, France - Teris References In 2005, SUEZ Environment produced 218,178 MW of thermal energy from the recovery of hazardous waste throughout the world. Six incinerators for special hazardous waste in Europe and Asia. SCIP (Shanghai, China) Joint venture between Swire-SITA and local partners. Plant commissioning in June Two rotary kilns for hazardous waste. Treatment capacity 30,000 tonnes per year. SPOVO (Ostrava, Czech Republic) Joint venture with Indaver. Operation started in One rotary kiln for hazardous waste. Treatment capacity 18,000 tonnes of hazardous waste per year. Pont-de-Claix (France) 80,000 tonnes of hazardous waste treated per year. Heat treatment of industrial waste at high temperature, energy recovery by steam production and material recovery thanks to the production of HCl. 2 horizontal furnaces ( C.) Solvent regeneration = recycling By means of a distillation process, impurities can be removed from used solvents and regain properties and qualities comparable with those of new solvents. Regeneration can not only be used to recycle used solvents, but also to economise the raw materials that would have been used to manufacture new solvents. Audit and treatment of polluted soil Soil pollution can be organic or mineral in nature. After an audit and a diagnostic carried out onsite, three types of treatment can be proposed: in-situ, for sub-soil remediation operations of the groundwater or the soil, without excavation; on-site, when the soil is extracted but remediated on the spot; and off-site, when the soil is extracted but evacuated towards specialised centres to be treated. The treatment sites for polluted soil make use of specific techniques: biological treatment consists in artificially accelerating the decomposition of the pollutants by the bacteria naturally present in the soil; heat treatment consists in heating the soil until the pollutants turn to gas, in order to separate the gases from the soil and treat them; physicochemical Biological treatment : Biocentre. Jeandelaincourt multi-modal treatment platform, France - SITA FD 19

20 treatment consists in extracting the pollutants by washing the soil, either with water, or using a solvent. Once the soil has been remediated, it can either be rehabilitated, or confined in class-1 hazardous waste landfills. Storage of hazardous industrial waste in class 1 landfill The European Union directive and European Council decision 2003/33 relating to landfills defined leaching limits for the acceptance of waste on hazardous waste storage sites. These facilities require special equipment and a reinforced lining system, designed in some cases for dedicated cells. In order to comply with the European Union limits, stabilisation units are essential. A laboratory must also check the waste to be treated and define the optimal stabilisation process to be implemented before storage. References SITA owns and operates 10 class-1 landfills throughout the world, including seven in France. SITA Environmental Solutions (Australia) operates dedicated cells for hazardous waste on two of its landfills. Villeparisis (France) 400,000 tonnes per year Laboratory and stabilisation unit on site Taylor s Road landfill (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) Dedicated cell with triple lining system 80,000 tonnes of waste recorded per year CERED (France) 4,000 tonnes per year Pilot R&D plant for the stabilisation of hazardous flows. Stabilisation Technique consisting in the immobilisation of pollutants inside a material using additives (such as lime, pozzolana, or bitumen), resulting in the chemical inertia of the mixture, thereby preventing the pollutants from salting out into the natural environment Industrial maintenance and cleaning In order to preserve their industrial facilities, companies outsource their maintenance and cleaning operations. These services include the descaling and cleaning of production facilities and systems, tank cleaning and degassing, dust removal and pumping of dry materials such as flours, lime, sand, cement and gravels for all types of industries, hydraulic tests and very-highpressure sheet metal cutting. These operations require great professionalism to protect personnel and the environment (waste treatment in appropriate facilities). Stabilisation of hazardous industrial waste. Jeandelaincourt multimodal treatment platform, France Industrial cleaning - SRA Savac (SITA France) 20

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