Division of Energy Engineering. Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering

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1 Division of Energy Engineering Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering

2 Vision Our research and education combine science with industrial experience and practice. Our world-class engineers and research results create a sustainable future. Vår forskning och utbildning förenar vetenskap med industriell erfarenhet och praktik. Våra världsledande ingenjörer och forskningsresultat formar en hållbar framtid.

3 Staff members Senior researchers (11+4) Jan Dahl, Associate Prof., Senior Lecturer Erik Elfgren, Dr, Post Doc Rikard Gebart, Adj. Prof. (ETC) Carl-Erik Grip, Guest Prof. Roger Hermansson, Dr, Senior Lecturer Xiaoyan Ji, Dr, Assistant Prof. Yuanhui Ji, Dr, Post Doc Björn Kjellström, Prof. em Bo Lindblom, Adj. Prof (LKAB) (Ht 2010) Joakim Lundgren, Dr, Senior Lecturer Lars Westerlund, Dr, Senior Lecturer Henrik Wiinikka, Adj lecturer (ETC) (Ht 2010) Marcus Öhman, Prof., Chair/head NN, Assistant Prof, Bio4Energy 2011 NN, Prof/Senior Lecturer, Bio4Energy 2011 PhD Students (13+11) Jim Andersson Ida-linn Nyström Björn Asp (Ext) Esbjörn Pettersson Jan-Olof Andersson Martin Lundmark (Ext,Ske) Per Carlsson (Ext.) Mikael Risberg Lara Carvalho (Ext.) Christer Ryman (Ext.) Nicholas Etherden (Ext, Ske) Sara Rönnberg (Ske) Carl Gilbe (Ext.) Johan Sandberg Alejandro Grimm Martin Stenberg (Ext) Burak Göktepe Kai Yang (Ske) Carrie Jonsson Rut Wang (Ext.) Anders Larsson (Ske) Fredrik Wieland (Ext.) Daniel Nordgren (Ext.) Samuel Nordgren

4 Competence and research areas Fuel Characterization Electrical Power Engineering e.g. Wind power research Regional Energy Analysis Gasification Combustion Thermo Chemical Conversion Processes Process simulation/ Integration & System Analysis Process Simulations Process Integration CO 2 separation/ capture & storage Heat & Power Processes Energy Apparatus Design

5 Education programs MSc program in Sustainable Energy Technology (300 p) Started in 2009! Main topics: Bioenergy, Wind- and Hydropower, Energy efficiency Master program in Sustainable Energy Engineering (120 p) Main topics: Bioenergy and Hydropower MSc program in Mechanical Engineering (300 p) with a major in Energy Engineering (main topics Bioenergy and Hydropower)

6 Courses 2010 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Indoor Climate Sustainable Energy Systems Fuels, Combustion- and Gasification Technologies Energy Plants and System Engineering Advanced Heat- and Mass Transfer Project course - Energy Engineering Thermal Turbo Machines and Steam Boilers Internal Combustion Engines System Design and CFD Simulation Industrial Energy Processes

7 The year 2009 & 2010 in Numbers External funding 2010 Ext. fin. research (ksek), (% of tot.research budget) * 8940 (61%) Disp. 2 1 Lic. 1 1 Journal Publ *) Prognos (65%)

8 Some of our partners Industry EON Neova Siemens Svea Skog LKAB SCA Smurfit Kappa Vattenfall Abelko Lukab Luleå Energi AB Skellefteå Kraft AB Swebo Bioenergy AB Boröpannan SSAB Apatity Chemrec AB Billerud Karlsborg AB Public actors/authorities Municipalities in Norrbotten County Board of Norrbotten Norrbotten county council Jernkontoret Värmeforsk Swedish Energy Agency Torvforsk MISTRA Swedish Research Council EU Swedish Environmental Protection Agency VINNOVA The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association Kempe Nordic Top Research Initiative Research institutes/universities IIASA, Austria BIOENERGY 2020+, Austria VTT, Finland KTH CTH LTH Linköping University Umeå University SP NENET Innventia ÅF Process Swerea MEFOS ETC Piteå Växjö University SINTEF, Norway University of Savoie, Polytech 'Savoie, France Oulo University, Finland Karleby University centre Chydenius, Finland University of Narvik, Norway Makare University, Uganda University of Kuopio, Finland Technology and Support Centre of Renewable Raw Materials, Germany Institute of Power Engineering, Poland Teagasc, Crops Research Centre, Ireland University of New South Wales, Australia University of Monash, Australia

9 Ongoing projects Process Integration and System Analysis

10 Bio4Energy The Process Integration Platform The Bio4Energy program is a research joint project between Luleå University of Technology, Umeå University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Innventia, Energy Technology Centre in Piteå (ETC), Solander Science Park and Processum. The program was in 2009 awarded 198 million SEK (~ 50 million SEK/year). The ambition with the program is to be an internationally leading and complete from seed to advanced fuels and chemicals research environment in the field of sustainable utilization of energy from biomass. The research program consists of seven research platforms, each with a strong research profile The process integration platform research will use the Process Integration (PI)-technology and expertise to further develop PImodels of future biorefinery concepts with different methodologies and evaluate them from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Funding: Swedish Government, Strategic research program Partners: LTU, UmU, SLU Duration: Contact persons:, Jan Dahl LTU

11 Process integration in the mining industry Climate changes and new legislation is forcing the energy intensive industry to focus on energy efficiency. Optimisation model of the LKAB iron ore upgrading plant in Kiruna using process integration methods. Modelling is ongoing and the first results are expected during Funding: LKAB and the Swedish Energy Agency. Partners: Ltu, LKAB and Mefos (PRISMA) Duration: Contact persons: Johan Sandberg, Jan Dahl LKAB iron ore upgrading plant in Kiruna, Picture courtesy of LKAB, used by permission

12 Development of a process integration tool for an iron ore upgrading process system Energy savings and environmental impacts are two important issues for the process industry Process integration methods is a helpful tool for the to study and minimize these issues This project aims to develop a process integration model for the iron ore producing facility at LKAB in Malmberget in order to study measures to decrease the energy use and the environmental impact Funding: SSF, VINNOVA, KK-foundation, LKAB, SSAB, RUUKKI, Ltu Partners: Ltu, LKAB, Mefos (PRISMA) Duration: Contact persons: Samuel Nordgren, Jan Dahl

13 Increased access to biomass by improved efficiency for wood drying kilns The project purpose is to disengage huge amount of biomass by increasing the energy efficiency of timber mill drying facilities. The market demands of biomass have and will continue to increase drastic in the future, this additional amount of energy only answer to the markets desire of increased supply of energy. Increasing energy prices will give rise to sawmill motivation to invest in new technology. The project is a link for Sweden to reach their commitments of valid the environment and energy goal of EU. To realize the approach the following implements is needed: A research of Swedish Sawmill, there drying facilities and process integration at a sawmill. A study of suitable and available energy efficiency technique of the drying facilities will be performed, the interesting techniques will be compared to each other by simulations of the drying cycle. A qualified assessment of increased access of biomass in Sweden without increased raw material from the forest can then be made. Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Duration: Contact persons: Lars Westerlund, Jan-Olof Andersson

14 Process integration in forest bio-refineries including energy economic analysis Develop a PI model of the paper- and pulp mill Billerud Karlsborg using the remind methodology. Develop an energy economic model to simulate how price formation of raw material and final products is affected by increased demands, taxes, subsidises and other political tools Evaluate different biorefinery concepts Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, Billerud (Total budget 0.29 M ) Partners: Ltu (Energy Eng. and National Economy), Billerud Karlsborg, Billerud Skog, Chalmers, MEFOS, The universities of Linköping and Kalmar Duration: Contact persons: Joakim Lundgren, C-E Grip, Jan Dahl, Patrik Söderholm, Robert Lundmark

15 Case study: Exergy in the Luleå system Develop a PI model for the whole Luleå system Calculate the Exergy Simulate what happens if the CHP water temperature is decreased by 20 C. Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Partners: LTU, Luleå Energi, Luleå Kraft, SSAB, Mefos Duration: Contact persons: Erik Elfgren, C-E Grip

16 Ongoing projects Gasification

17 Black liquor gasification Transform pulp and paper mills to bio refineries by gasification of black liquor to produce electrical power, fuels and valuable chemicals at competitive prices in addition to pulp and paper Our research focus on spray burner experiments, experiments in the DP-1 pilot gasifier and reactor, quench cooler and counter current condenser modelling with CFD. Funding: Smurfit Kappa, SCA, Sveaskog, Södra, County Administration of Norrbotten, Chemrec, The Swedish Energy Agency and Mistra Partners: Ltu, ETC, Chalmers University of technology, Chemrec, STFI and Umeå University Duration: Contact persons: Per Carlsson, Mikael Risberg, Rikard Gebart and Lars Westerlund

18 Black liquor gasification Black liqour Gasification Sulphur removal Atomising medium Cooling water Gas- and smelt separation Reactor Quench cooler Gas Cooler Raw gas Steam Particle cleaning and gas cooling Green liqour Weak wash Condensate Can be used for electrical production or to produce motor fuel Clean, cool Synthesis gas Chemrec DP-1

19 Pressurised Entrained flow Biomass Gasification (PEBG) Project objectives Verification: Get a working PEBG process from powder to fuel gas. Research: Crack the tough issues with PEBG and improve the function of the process Total budget (4 yrs) Verification: 1.2 M Research: 1.4 M Partners ETC, LTU, Sveaskog, SmurfitKappa, IVAB Contact persons at LTU Jim Andersson, Joakim Lundgren, Marcus Öhman, Burak Guktepe, Mikael Risberg

20 Pressurised Entrained flow Biomass Gasification (PEBG) WP-1 System: WP-7 WP-2 WP-3 Control: WP-6 WP-5 WP-4

21 HighBio Highly refined bioenergy products through gasification The main aim of the project is to develop technologies and methods for refining available regional biomass feedstock for local product consumers. Funding (Swedish partners): INTERREG Nord IV A, County Council of Norrbotten and the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten. Partners: Energy Technology Centre (ETC) in Piteå, Oulu University, Karleby University centre Chydenius and Centria Ylivieska in Finland Duration: Contact persons: Ulf-Peter Granö (Chydenius), Ulla Lassi (Chydenius/Oulo Univ), Hannu Snellman (Centria), Joakim Lundgren (LTU), Marcus Öhman (LTU), Magnus Marklund (ETC), Rikard Gebart (ETC)

22 Biomass gasification fundamentals to support the development of BTL in forest industry (NORD-SYNGAS) The Finnish and Swedish industrial development projects are presently leading the global development on this pathway to renewable transportation fuels. The Finnish and Swedish activities are aiming to the same objective increased profitability of pulp and paper industry by using their by-products for producing high-quality renewable fuels. However, the technical approach is different and consequently co-operation on the creation of scientific background know-how on critical biomass gasification issues is fruitful for both groups. Objective: to create new scientific knowledge on fluidised-bed and entrainedflow gasification of biomass residues and black liquor in order to support the Nordic industrial development and demonstration projects. Funding: The Nordic Top Research Initiative Partners: VTT (Project owner), LTU, ETC and SINTEF Duration: Contact persons: Esa Kurkela (VTT). At LTU: Marcus Öhman, Joakim Lundgren

23 Bio4Energy Thermochemical Platform The Bio4Energy program is a research joint project between Luleå University of Technology, Umeå University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Innventia, Energy Technology Centre in Piteå (ETC), Solander Science Park and Processum. The program was in 2009 awarded 198 million SEK (~ 50 million SEK/year). The ambition with the program is to be an internationally leading and complete from seed to advanced fuels and chemicals research environment in the field of sustainable utilization of energy from biomass. The research program consists of seven research platforms, each with a strong research profile; together they will encompass a complete system with all tools needed to achieve environmentally and climatically sound energy biorefineries based on non-food biomass. Pre-treatment and Fractionation Platform Catalysis and separation Platform Process Integration Platform

24 The three units included in the thermochemical platform, Luleå University of Technology, Umeå University and ETC, form a strong multidisciplinary platform. The combined group has joint publications in practically all important areas for the thermochemical platform, e.g.: ash transformation reactions, aerosol formation and environmental health effects, HTcorrosion and materials interaction, process chemistry of combustion, gasification and torrefaction processes. In addition to the experimental work, computational fluid dynamics- (CFD) and thermochemical models that simulate several different biomass combustion and gasification processes have been developed. Our vision: to develop a complete set of experimentally validated sub-models that can predict all technologically important processes for thermal conversion of biomass, including reactions with containment materials. The experimental validation will be done both in idealized experiments under controlled conditions and in the pilot- and demo-scale experiments that are available within the program. Funding: Swedish Government, Strategic research program Partners: LTU, UmU, ETC Duration: Contact persons:, Marcus Öhman, LTU, Dan Boström UmU, Rikard Gebart ETC

25 Mechanisms of bed agglomeration during gasification of biomass fuels One of the major problems in fluidized bed gasification of (new) biomass is agglomeration of bed particles resulting in bed defluidization, cyclone deposition and return leg plugging This project aims to: (i) elucidate the chemical mechanisms of bed agglomeration and bed material deposition during fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels, and (ii) suggest new cost-efficient fuel additives and bed materials for reducing the risk of bed agglomeration and bed material deposition Funding: Swedish Research Council Partners: Ltu, UmU Duration: Contact persons: Alejandro Grimm LTU, Marcus Öhman, LTU, Dan Boström UmU

26 Development of a combustion technology for small scale CHP based on external fired gas turbine One alternative method for small scale combined heat and power production is to develop technologies based on external gas turbines. Possible methods to avoid ash deposition (fouling) on heat exchanger surfaces is to use a process based on two-step biomass combustion where the first step consists of an updraft gasifier or to optimize existing grate firing technologies/-processes. The objectives with this project are therefore to determine if the producer gas from; i) biomass driven up-draft gasification (phase 1)- and, ii) optimized grate firing appliances (phase 2) contains so low amounts of alkali that problems with fouling of heat exchangers or gas turbines could be avoided. Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Partners: LTU, UmU, ETC, Swebo Bioenergy Duration: (phase 1), (phase 2) Contact persons: Marcus Öhman, Hassan Salman (ETC) Christoffer Boman (UmU)

27 CO 2 separation with ionic liquids Capture CO 2 from flue gases to mitigate CO 2 emissions from fossilfuelled power plants Remove CO 2 from synthesis gas to enhance yields/get products when producing transportation biofuels from biomass via gasification Available commercial technologies for CO 2 capture/removal is expensive and energy-intensive This project aims to investigate a new technology using ionic liquids for CO 2 capture/removal by performing theoretical investigations on solubility of gases in ionic liquids The long term goal is to understand, simulate and evaluate post- and pre-combustion CO 2 capture processes for fossil-fuelled power plants and CO 2 removal from synthesis gas in methanol, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbon productions from biomass via gasification Funding: Swedish Research Council Duration: Contact person: Xiaoyan Ji

28 Ongoing projects Combustion

29 Thermo-acoustic coupling in biomass combustion Combustion instabilities in burner/furnace system may cause strong noise emissions as well as reduced combustion efficiencies. This project aims to identify combustion instabilities induced from thermo-acoustics and to investigate the coupling between acoustics with combustion in biomass powder combustion. Funding: European Commissions /Marie Curie Actions Partners: Ltu, ETC, Arcelor, Alstom, Cerfacs, Gasunie Engineering &Tech., Instituto Superior Technico Lisbon, K.U. Leuwen, LMS International, Rolls-Royce plc., TNO Science & Industry, TUE, UCAM,TUM, VKI Duration: Contact persons: Burak Göktepe, Rikard Gebart

30 Slag formation in grate-kiln system LKAB has four pelletizing plants of grate-kiln system in Kiruna. Slag formation causes production disturbance, damages to equipments and affects the product quality of iron ore pellets. The aim of the project is therefore to: i) Clarify mechanisms of slag formation in grate-kiln system (i.e. determine the critical subprocesses) (lic.) ii) Describe critical sub-processes in different models/ slag forming criteria which then can be used for CFD-modelling of the process (lic-dr). iii) Through i) and ii) propose possible solution to reduce slag formation by improving the process (e.g. change of coal type as fuel, optimal combustion properties) Funding: Hjalmar Lundbohm Research Centre for Mining and Metallurgy Partner: LTU Energy Engineering, LKAB, ETC, UmU-ETPC, LTU Process Metallurgy Duration: Contact persons: Carrie Jonsson, Marcus Öhman, Bo Lindblom (LKAB), Charlotte Andersson (LTU-Process metallurgy)

31 Slag formation in grate-kiln system Exhaust fan DDD Recupgas 2 Green balls UDD Temperate preheat Preheat zone Recupgas 1 Kiln Grate Fan Fan Burner Fan Cooler Fan Recupgas 3 Pellets Cooling fan 2 Cooling fan 1

32 Energy efficient reduction of particle emissions Particle emissions from small and medium sized boilers are too high. Existing cleaning technique is too expensive. A scrubber based on ADIAK-technology will be designed and tested on stack gases from wet biomass The goal is to reduce the particle emissions by 60% and increase the power output with up to 35% Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, Norrbotten Research Council, Swebo Bioenergy AB Partners: Ltu, Swebo Bioenergy AB, ETC Piteå Duration: Contact person: Roger Hermansson Explanatory sketch of the ADIAK system installed in a combustion plant

33 Optimal use of difficult biomass fuels fired in boilers for small-scale district heating The interest in utilisation of forest-, agricultural residues and energy crops for energy purposes is increasing Combustion of such fuels may cause higher emissions of NO x and particles as well as a reduction of operational hours due to ash related problems This project aims to develop and modify existing small- to medium scale boilers to achieve an efficient combustion process even when these fuels are used Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Partners: Ltu, ETC Piteå, Swebo Bioenergy AB, SLU Duration: Contact person: Joakim Lundgren

34 Emissions from small scale woody biomass combustion: influence from fuel and technology Small scale combustion of wood is important and will be even more important in Sweden replacing fossil fuel and electricity for heating. To not deteriorate the ambient air quality the emissions have to be still lowered requiring knowledge about current situation and possible solutions. Investigated combustion devices include residential wood log stoves, pellets stoves, wood log boilers and small scale grate firing (65 kw 2 MW) and powder burners (1-2 MW) Extensive characterisation of both gaseous and particulate emissions have been performed for some devices. Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, LTU, NIFES, EU Partners: LTU, UmU, ETC Duration: Contact person: Esbjörn Pettersson (LTU)

35 Fluid mechanic modelling and construction of pellet burner and stoves Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a well established technique for design optimisation of large combustors. However, CFD is today not frequently used for design optimisation of small scale pellet burner and stoves in Sweden. The aim with this project is therefore to demonstrate CFD as a practical tool for design optimisation of small scale pellet burners and stoves (minimal maintenance, nice looking flame, low emissions) Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, Pitekaminen, Swebo Bioenergy AB Partners: ETC, Ltu, Swebo Bioenergy AB, Pitekaminen Duration: Contact persons: Henrik Wiinikka (ETC) Roger Hermansson, Lars Westerlund, Ida linn Nyström, Marcus Öhman

36 Evaluation of combustion characteristics of different pellet qualities from new raw materials The use of pellets is of significant importance to decrease CO 2 emissions. To secure the supply of pellets a larger base for raw materials is required Pellets from new materials from the forest and agriculture will be evaluated in combustion experiments The experimental results will be generalised in models to provide input for selection of raw materials and to control the quality for the pelletising process Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, Skellefteå Kraft AB, Luleå Energi AB, Pelletsindustrins Riksförbund, Neova, Torvforsk, Telge Energi AB Partners: SP, Ltu, UmU Duration: Contact persons: Ida-Linn Nyström, Marcus Öhman

37 Future low emission biomass combustion systems (FutureBioTech) The project shall provide substantial contribution concerning the development of future low emission stoves and automated biomass systems (<20 MWth). The work will be based on three relevant approaches; literature surveys and evaluation of present data, experimental work and use of calculation/modelling tools. The focuses of the work are; i) further development of wood stoves towards significantly decreased emissions by primary design/control measures, ii) improvement of automated furnaces (<20 MWth) towards lower PM and NOx emissions by technological primary measures (e.g. air staging), iii) utilisation of additives and fuel blending for new fuels, and iv) evaluation, development and optimisation of secondary measures in residential scale for PM reduction. Funding: Swedish Energy Agency, EU-ERA-NET Bioenergy Partners: BIOENERGY GmbH, Graz, Austria; University of Kuopio, Finland; Technology and Support Centre of Renewable Raw Materials (TFZ), Germany; Umeå University, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; SP, Sweden; Institute of Power Engineering, Poland; Teagasc, Crops Research Centre, Ireland Duration: Contact persons at LTU: Ida-Linn Nyström, Marcus Öhman

38 Thermal treatment of sewage sludge in fluidized beds for phosphorus and energy recovery Thermal treatment of sewage sludge in fluidized beds could be an interesting option for both reducing the amount of waste and toxic organic compounds and at the same time recover energy and phosphorus. The objectives of this project are therefore, in relevant conditions i.e. in fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge, to determine: Possible degree of P recovery Possible heavy metal separation The possibilities of producing P compounds with high bioavailability Funding: The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Partners: LTU, UmU Duration: Contact persons: Alejandro Grimm (LTU), Marcus Öhman (LTU), Dan Boström (UmU)

39 Previous projects Process Integration and System Analysis

40 FOCUS Norrbotten Energy resources The purpose of the project is to create a base for the development of a regional energy strategy This was done by creating energy demand scenarios for Norrbotten until 2025 and to explore the future available renewable fuel- and energy resources The results shows that Norrbotten has great potential to become an important role model on how to create a sustainable energy supply Funding: County Board of Norrbotten, Norrbotten county council Partners: Ltu, NENET, ETC Piteå Duration: Contact person: Joakim Lundgren

41 Previous projects- Process integration Process integration in connection to an integrated steel plant, ( ) Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Project budget: 2.65 million Partners: Ltu, LiTH, SSAB Tunnplåt AB Optimering av restproduktflöden vid metallurgisk industri (integrerat stålverk) Funding: Swedish Energy Agency Project budget: xxx million, Janne vet Partners: Ltu (Energy Eng. and Process metallurgy) SSAB Tunnplåt AB, BDX ULCOS - Ultra low CO2 steelmaking, SP9 CO2 Calc & Site Modelling, ( ) Funding: EU FP6 Project budget: xxx million Partners: MEFOS Research Institute AB, SSAB Tunnplåt AB, Arcelor, Corus UK, TKS, Voestalpine

42 Previous projects Gasification

43 Previous projects Combustion

44 Technical development for increased establishment and use of Read Canary Grass demonstration i n full scale This project aims to demonstrate the production and use of read Canary Grass as fuel in different combustion appliances (medium- and full scale plants) Funding: Värmeforsk, Skellefteå Kraft AB, Eskilstuna Energi & Miljö AB Partners: SLU, LTU, UmU, Skellefteå Kraft AB, Eskilstuna Energi & Miljö AB Duration: Contact persons: Håkan Örberg (SLU), Dan Boström (UmU), Marcus Öhman (LTU), Jan Burvall (Skellefteå Kraft AB)

45 Effect of P-addition to problematic biomass fuels on deposit formation during combustion The use of biomass (especially agricultural fuels) has often been reported to be associated with significant ash related operational problems. Co-firing phosphor rich fuels with problematic biomass fuels have recently been reported to result in less problem. The objective in the present work was therefore to determine the effect of phosphorus added via fuel additives / co-firing fuels on the bed agglomeration/bed particle coating formation, deposit formation/corrosion and slag formation during biomass combustion. Funding: Värmeforsk, Eskilstuna Energi&Miljö Partners: LTU, UmU Duration: Contact persons: Alejandro Grimm (LTU), Marcus Öhman (LTU), Dan Boström (UmU), Christoffer Boman (UmU)

46 Reduced ash related operational problems (slagging, bed agglomeration, corrosion and fouling) by co-combustion agricultural fuels with peat The use of biomass (especially agricultural fuels) has often been reported to be associated with significant ash related operational problems. Co-firing biomass with peat fuels on the other hand have recently been reported to result in less problem. The objective in the present work was therefore to demonstrate the effect of peat addition to agricultural fuels (Salix, Reed Canary Grass and Wheat Straw) on slag-, bed agglomeration- and fouling formation during combustion in different combustion appliances (fluidized beds and grates). Funding: Värmeforsk, Torvforsk Partners: LTU, UmU, Torvforsk Duration: Contact persons: Marcus Öhman (LTU), Dan Boström (UmU), Marie-Kofod Hansen/Lennart Ryk (Torvforsk)

47 Renewable transportation by-products Bio-fuelled transportation are required to counter climate change. By-products must be used efficiently to replace fossil fuels for heat and power production Combustion tests is performed with: Hydrolysis residue ('lignin') from wood-based ethanol production Residue from wheat-based ethanol production Rapeseed meal from bio-diesel production Optimal use of the fuels, economically and environmentally: heating, power cycles, fluidised beds, powder or grate combustion Funding: STEM, Värmeforsk, Höganäs AB Partners: Ltu, ETC, ETPC Umeå University Duration: Contact persons: Marcus Öhman, Gunnar Eriksson

48 Effect of peat addition to woody biomass pellets on combustion characteristics in residential appliances Increased pellet demand and limited availability of wood assortments opens a new market with potentially more problematic raw materials Effects on the combustion characteristics when mixing peat into woody biomass Considerable reduction of fine (< 1µm) particles when mixing a peat with high ash and silicon content into a woody biomass Funding: NEOVA, Torvforsk, Swedish Energy Agency Partners: ETC, Ltu, UmU, SLU Duration: Contact persons: Ida-Linn Nyström, Marcus Öhman, Henry Hedman (ETC), Dan Boström (UmU)