Weed Po cket Guide. Agricultural and Environmental Weeds FAR NO RTH QUEENSLA N D

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1 Weed Po cket Guide Agricultural and Environmental Weeds FAR NO RTH QUEENSLA N D

2 Credits 2 Collaboratively produced by: Wet Tropics Management Authority; Far North Queensland Local Government Pest Plan Advisory Committee; and Department of Natural Resources and Mines, with assistance from the Natural Heritage Trust. Graphic Design: Grant Flockhart & Willi Schulze Photographic Credits: NR&M staff, WTMA staff, Cook Shire Council staff, Bureau of Sugar Experimental Stations, Andrew Mitchell (Australian Quarantine Inspection Service), Ken Murray, Richard Lindeman, Di Ward, Agnes Reinhart, Colin Wilson. Special thanks for writing and editing: Di Ward, Steve Goosem and Garry Werren. Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Government September 2001 ISBN QNRM01198 The Department of Natural Resources and Mines owns the rights to the Weed Identification Deck series. Cover photos: Giant rat s tail grass (left) and Singapore daisy

3 Index 3 TREE African tulip p8 Camphor laurel p10 Caribbean pine p12 Cucumber tree p14 East Indian mahogany p16 Guava p18 Harungana p20 Leucaena p22 Miconia p24 Pond apple p26 Raintree p28 SHRUB Anzac flower p30 Barleria p32 Chinee apple p34 Coffee p36 Giant bramble p38 Giant sensitive plant p40 Golden dewdrops p42 Hairy senna p44 Japanese sunflower p46 Lantana p48 Mimosa pigra p50 Privets p52 Sanchezia p54 Siam weed p56 Sicklepod p58 South-east Asian wait-a-while p60 Sweet prayer plant p62 Wild tobacco p64 Yellow allamanda p66 FORB/ HERB Annual ragweed p68 Brillantaisia p70 Calopo p72 Centro p74 Clitoria p76 Erect tar vine p78 Fringed spider flower p80 Horehound p82 Knob weed p84 Mother-in-law s tongue p86 Parthenium p88 Peacock fern p90 Persian shield p92 Praxelis p94 Puero p96 Red Christmas pride p98 Red ivy p100 Singapore daisy p102 Siratro p104 Snakeweeds p106 Spiny emex p108 Tobacco weed p110 Wandering jew p112 Wandering jew p114 VINE Balsam pear p116 Black-eyed Susan p118 Elephant ear vine p120 Glycines p122 Mikania vine p124 Morning glory p126 Passionfruits p128 Rubber vine p130 Thunbergias p132 Turbina p134 GRASS/ SEDGE Aleman grass p136 Bamboo p138 Elephant grass p140 Giant rat s tail grass p142 Grader grass p144 Guinea grass p146 Molasses grass p148 Navua sedge p150 Para grass p152 WATER WEED Alligator weed p154 Cabomba p156 Hymenachne p158 Limnocharis p160 Salvinia p162 Water hyacinth p164

4 Positive identification of weeds is difficult! This weed identification deck has been developed to aid weed recognition and should be used as a guide only. Many plants can look very similar, so weeds can be mistaken for natives and vice versa. The pest plants contained in this identification deck spread quickly and vigorously. They damage local native flora and fauna, diminish land value and some cause health problems. It is important for all members of the community to contribute to pest plant control. There are many factors which make weeds hard to deal with. The two main issues are noticing a weed on a property and identifying the weed and its subsequent control methods. If you think you have found a pest plant, you should take a cutting and obtain positive identification and latest control information. Positive identification should be obtained before any steps are taken to control particular plants. Identification and control options can be obtained from your local government s weed inspector or your local Department of Natural Resources and Mines Land Protection Officer. Plant identification can also be obtained via samples sent to the Queensland Herbarium (see page 6 for instructions on sample preparation). 4

5 Symbol Guide Environmental Weed (green background) Agricultural Weed (brown background) Potential Weed (red background) Weed type tree shrub fo r b / h e r b grass vine water weed (attached to water way floor) water weed (free floating) A annual P perennial alternate leaves opposite leaves compound leaves basal leaves whorled leaves has berries (or berry-like fruit) has flowers flowering time has spines has pods 5

6 How to prepare a sample for the Herbarium 6 All specimens must be dried before sending. Using moderate pressure, press specimens between sheets of newspaper until dry (usually several days). This also applies to water plants. Include a small branch or portion of the stem about cm long with leaves, flowers and/or fruits attached. Include the whole plant for small plants, grasses and sedges. For plants with large leaves or flower-heads, include a sample of the top and base of leaves or heads, and the dimensions of the whole leaf or flower-head. Collect enough material to make at least two sets of specimens and clearly number each set. Keep one set and send the other for identification. Specimens are not returned. If the specimen falls apart, keep all the pieces together. Include notes giving location of plant, collector s name, date of collection, the plant s habit and flower colour and any other information you think is relevant for each specimen. Pack the dried specimens flat, each in a folder of newspaper, with some cardboard packing around the bundle. Do not glue or tape specimens to the paper. Put your name and address on the package and include a covering letter. Send the package to: Identification and Advisory Service, Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mt Coo-tha Road TOOWONG QLD 4066

7 Spread Symbols water wind machinery, equipment, vehicles animals, birds, humans cuttings, pieces pasture seed, turf, soil, farm produce 7

8 African tulip (BIGNONIACEAE) Spathodea campanulata 8 P

9 African tulip Spathodea campanulata Description Showy, fast-growing, evergreen tree to 25 m tall, somewhat buttressed. Bark is rough and greenish grey-brown with small white lenticels. Leaves compound, opposite, pinnate, glossy green; 7-1 oval leaflets (6-12 cm long) alternate or opposite. Large, bell-shaped flowers, 8-12 cm long, bright crimson-red, sometimes with yellow frilled edge, swollen on one side, 5-lobed, in clusters at the ends of branches. Fruit is a long dagger-like woody capsule, with many seeds. Seeds are light and winged and can be carried long distances even by gentle breezes. Habitat Occurring naturally in tropical and sub-tropical west Africa, African tulip tree was introduced here as an ornamental. It readily invades disturbed rainforest and river systems, as well as cleared, unmanaged land. Has the ability to sucker along its root system and grow from cuttings. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 9

10 Camphor laurel (LAURACEAE) Cinnamomum camphora 10 P

11 Camphor laurel Cinnamomum camphora Description Fast growing, evergreen tree to 20 m. Scaly grey bark. Leaves simple, alternate (sometimes opposite) oval to elliptical 6-10 cm long x 3-6 cm wide, shiny above, waxy bluish-green below, 3-nerved, characteristic smell of camphor when crushed. Masses of small, cream, fragrant flowers. Fruits are berry-like, spherical, 7-8 mm across, green at first and then changing to black when ripe, containing a single seed. Habitat Introduced from Asia as an ornamental, Camphor laurel has the potential to develop dense infestations in rainforest, along water courses and in clearings. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 11

12 Caribbean pine (PINACEAE) Pinus caribaea 12 P

13 Caribbean pine Pinus caribaea Description Evergreen tree to 30 m with broad, rounded crown, often free of branches to a considerable height. Grey to reddish-brown bark, fissured, sheds in wide flat plates. Deep-green needles, cm long, usually in bundles of 3, and rarely 4, 5 or 2, crowded at the ends of branches. Glossy brown cones, about 5-10 cm long and cm wide when closed. Each cone scale has a small prickle. Winged seeds usually mottled grey or light brown. Habitat Originally from the West Indies and Central America, this tree is an aggressive species that tolerates hard conditions. Seeds are blown into paperbark and open eucalypt forests where they can form dense stands, excluding other vegetation and altering fire regimes. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 13

14 Cucumber tree (BIGNONIACEAE) Parmentiera aculeata 14 P

15 Cucumber tree Parmentiera aculeata Description Small to large tree with short, thick trunk and pale bark. Branches with short stout spines at nodes. Leaves compound, opposite, trifoliate, on long narrowly-winged leaf stalks, three elliptical leaflets each 4-8 cm long. Flowers in leaf axils, along branches and on trunk on the old wood, trumpet shaped, green with brown-purple lines, cm long. Ridged, red-stained, yellow-green cucumber-like fruit, cm long and 2-3 cm wide, often curved. Habitat Native to Central America, this tree was introduced as an ornamental for its edible fruits. It has invaded rainforest in the Barron and Mulgrave catchments, outcompeting native rainforest trees. Declaration Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 15

16 East Indian mahogany (MELIACEAE) Chukrasia velutina 16 P

17 East Indian mahogany Chukrasia velutina Description Deciduous medium to large tree, m in height. Bark surface rusty brown or deep brown, deeply fissured or cracked, with obvious lenticels. Leaves compound, alternate, pinnate with 4-9 pairs of alternate hairy leaflets without an end leaflet. Large pink to white flowers on stalks in the leaf axils. Capsules large (4 x 3.5 cm), rounded, woody, contain seeds winged at one end. Habitat Dominant native of high rainfall lowland forest from Bangladesh to Thailand. Regarded as a pioneer species, it can colonise bare ground and road cuttings in its natural range. The species was introduced to the Atherton Tableland and Mulgrave Valley in the 1960s as a cabinet timber. It has prolific seed production and a tremendous potential for spread through wind-borne seeds. It is now steadily expanding its range by colonizing disturbed areas within rainforest, on rainforest edges and in cleared areas. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 17

18 Guava or Yellow guava Psidium guajava (MYRTACEAE) 18 P

19 Guava or Yellow guava Psidium guajava Description Tree to 4-8 m with a dense bushy canopy. Smooth light reddish brown to grey bark, with four-angled branchlets. Leaves opposite, oval (7-15 cm long x 3-5 cm wide), leathery, with prominent veins. Large (2.5 cm wide) white-petalled flowers with prominent stamens, on 1-2 cm hairy stalks in leaf axils. Round fruits, 8 cm diameter, with pink flesh and yellow skins, containing many yellowish seeds. Habitat Native to tropical America, guava was introduced here for its fruit. Invades disturbed rainforest and abandoned areas, forming dense thickets. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 19

20 Harungana (CLUSIACEAE) Harungana madagascariensis 20 P

21 Harungana Harungana madagascariensis Description Tree m high, with bright orange-coloured bark exudate. Distinctive broad egg-shaped and opposite leaves, cm long x 6-10 cm wide. Whitish, very small, fragrant flowers dotted with black glands in terminal inflorescences. Small (2-3 mm), orange-brown, fleshy fruits with 2-4 seeds each. Habitat This tree is a pioneer species native to Madagascar, Mauritius and tropical Africa where it grows on the margins of wet forests and in regrowth after disturbance. In North Queensland it grows on well-drained soils and also withstands poor drainage on alluvium. It favours water courses and rainforest edges and roads, and will also invade cyclone-damaged rainforest and gaps in rainforest caused by fallen trees or landslips. Harungana grows at all altitudes and can form dense thickets to the exclusion of all other species. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 21

22 Leucaena (MIMOSACEAE) Leucaena leucocephala 22 P

23 Leucaena Leucaena leucocephala Description Shrub or small tree to 7 m tall. Dark-green, alternate, feathery leaves with many pairs of oblong leaflets. Small, round, cream, wattle-like ball flowers, about 12 mm across, single or in pairs in leaf axils. Flat, green pods turns pale to dark-brown when mature, 8-20 cm long and cm wide, clustered, with about 20 flat oval glossy brown seeds (6 mm long). Habitat A native of Central America, Leucaena has the potential to form dense stands along streams and on roadsides and in other disturbed areas, inhibiting growth of other species and reducing ground cover. A serious environmental weed. Shattering of pods causes local dispersal of seeds in the vicinity of the parent plant, while vehicles and flowing water disperse seeds longer distances. Prolific seed producer, reestablishes from basal shoots after fire. Declaration Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 23

24 Miconia (MELASTOMATACEAE) Miconia calvescens 24 P

25 Miconia Miconia calvescens Description A small evergreen shade tolerant tree to 15 m. Large (60-70 cm long) attractive leaves are dark green above and reddish-purple beneath, with three prominent ivory veins on each leaf. Flowering and fruiting begin after 4-5 years. Numerous flowers are sweet-scented, white to pink and short-lived (12-24 hrs after opening). Mature fruit are dark purple to black fleshy berries, mm in diameter in panicles, each fruit containing up to 200 seeds. Habitat A native of Central America, Miconia aggressively invades rainforest forming dense stands and shading out native plants. Mature plants can produce up to 3 million seeds several times per year, creating a massive soil seed bank. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area and is a declared plant in Queensland. For further information on declaration status refer to the NR&M Pest Fact series. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 25

26 Pond apple (ANNONACEAE) Annona glabra 26 P

27 Pond apple Annona glabra Description Semi-deciduous tree usually 3-6 m in height. Normally single-trunked and narrowly buttressed, but seeds germinating in groups often fuse and give the appearance of multi-stemmed plants. Stems are grey, thin-barked with prominent lenticels cm leaves may yellow in dry season, prominent midrib is depressed on the upper surface, petiole grooved on the upper surface. Cream-white flowers open from a 3-angled bud, with the 3 outer petals marked with a bright red spot near the base on the inner surface, inner petals with a yellow spot near the base on inner surface. Fruit are 5-8 cm in diameter, green, apple-shaped and have stringy orange flesh and a large number of pumpkin-like seeds. Habitat Native to tropical North, Central and South America and coastal west Africa, Pond apple is an extremely aggressive plant that invades seasonally inundated wetlands, swamps, mangroves and creeks and rivers including farm drainage systems, forming dense thickets that prevent the regeneration of native plants and replace native ecosystems. The seed floats and can survive long periods of immersion, giving this plant the opportunity for spread over very long distances. Declaration Pond Apple is listed as a Weed of National Significance and as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 27

28 Rain tree (MIMOSACEAE) Samanea saman 28 P

29 Rain tree Samanea saman Description Large to massive, evergreen, spreading, umbrella-shaped and symmetrical tree to 60 m tall with the crown up to 80 m broad. Grey very coarsely flaky bark. Leaves alternate, bipinnate, cm long, with 2-8 pairs of primary leaflets each with 2-7 paired stalkless leaflets with a glandular dot between each pair. Flowerheads clustered near the ends of twigs, each cluster on a green hairy stalk 7-10 cm long, with many small tubular flowers with greenish petals and dark pink stamens. Black woody seed pods are oblong, flat, cm long x 2 cm wide, each with several oblong, reddish-brown seeds around 1 cm long. Habitat Native to central and south America, Rain trees have been widely planted for shade, and are able to spread into native forests, particularly along stream margins. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 29

30 Anzac flower or Tree daisy (ASTERACEAE) Montanoa hibiscifolia 30 P

31 Anzac flower or Tree daisy Montanoa hibiscifolia Description Perennial, scarcely-branching shrub/small tree up to 6 m high. Leaves deeply palmately lobed, up to 25 cm long and 25 cm wide, dark green above and paler below, softly hairy on both surfaces, with a pair of lobes at the base of the leaf blade. Daisy-like flowers, about 4 cm across, ray petals white and disc yellow, profuse, in terminal branched inflorescences. Reddish-brown dry fruits look like old papery flower heads, one-seeded, do not open to release the seed. Habitat Tree Daisy is a native of Central America and was introduced to Far North Queensland as a garden plant. Invades rainforest margins, gullies and road embankments. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 31

32 Barleria (ACANTHACEAE) Barleria prionitis 32 P

33 Barleria Barleria prionitis Description A robust, prickly shrub to about 1 m high. 3-5 sharp, pale-coloured spines 1-2 cm long, in leaf axils. Branches are smooth, brown and roughly square in cross-section. Oval leaves cm long with a pointed tip ending in a short spine. Yellow, tubular flowers about 4 cm long with long projecting stamens occur in upright spikes at the top of the plant. Seed capsule is oval-shaped and about 18 mm long, tapering into a 6 mm long beak. Seeds are large (8 mm long and 5 mm wide), flat and covered in matted hairs. Habitat Barleria is a native to tropical Asia, Africa and India that invades open woodland habitats and along watercourses, surviving the dry season and growing vigorously with onset of the wet. It can form dense prickly thickets. Declaration Currently not declared although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 33

34 Chinee apple (RHAMNACEAE) Ziziphus mauritiana 34 P

35 Chinee apple Ziziphus mauritiana Description A thorny, spreading, deciduous shrub to 8 m high and 10 m wide, with densely branched stems. Branches are zigzag with a leaf and a thorn at each inflection point. Three-nerved leaves are rounded, alternate, glossy green above and almost white beneath, margins toothed, elliptical but asymetrical at base. Small, greenish-white flowers in clusters in the leaf axils have an unpleasant smell. Round, edible fruits are pale yellow or orange when ripe, and similar in size and structure to a cherry. Habitat Chinee Apple is a native to southern Asia and eastern Africa, and was imported for its fruits by miners last century. It is now widespread in the drier parts of the tropics in cleared areas, areas of sparse vegetation, along water courses and in exposed areas and can form dense thickets which restrict stock management, accessibility and land productivity. Declaration This species is a declared plant in Queensland. For further information on declaration status refer to the NR&M Pest Fact series. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 35

36 Coffee (RUBIACEAE) Coffea arabica 36 P

37 Coffee Coffea arabica Description An often multi-stemmed shrub or small tree 2-5 m tall. Tiered branches. Leaves glossy deep-green, smooth-edged, in opposite pairs. Attractive small white fragrant flowers are clustered along the branches in leaf axils. In shaded conditions the flowers may remain closed and automatically selfpollinate. Fruit is bright red when ripe, each containing two beans which, when extracted, dried and roasted, are our familiar coffee beans. Habitat Native of mountain rainforest understorey in Ethiopia. In north Queensland, this shade tolerant plant has invaded undisturbed rainforest and rainforest margins on the Atherton Tableland. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 37

38 Giant bramble (ROSACEAE) Rubus alceifolius 38 P

39 Giant bramble Rubus alceifolius Description A vigorous, scrambling, perennial shrub. Stems become thick canes to 5 m long, covered with a felt of brown hairs and scattered hooked thorns. Alternate leaves are large (12-14 cm across), green above and velvety brown below, densely hairy, deeply notched at the base, about seven shallow lobes, finely serrated. White flowers in clusters at the end of short secondary canes. Fruit is an edible aggregate berry, red when ripe (Sept-Oct). Habitat A native of South-east Asia, Giant Bramble is capable of smothering other plants and forming dense thickets. It readily invades wet gullies, creekbanks, the perimeter of rainforest, pastures and roads, tracks and other clearings. Giant Bramble can be confused with the native bramble, commonly called wild raspberry which has differently-shaped leaves. Declaration This species is a declared plant for the local government areas of Cairns, Johnstone and Eacham. For further information on declaration status refer to the NR&M Pest Fact series. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 39

40 Giant sensitive plant (MIMOSACEAE) Mimosa diplotricha 40 A

41 Giant sensitive plant Mimosa diplotricha Description A shrubby, climbing or sprawling annual that behaves like a perennial vine in certain years. Stem branches profusely, often scrambling over other plants, conspicuously 4-angled, the angles lined with sharp, hooked thorns. Leaves bright green, feather like, and slightly sensitive to touch. Small pink staminate flowers, round, about 12 mm across on short stalks in leaf axils. Numerous pods clustered in leaf axils, each about 25 mm long and 6 mm wide when ripe, clothed with small prickles. Each pod breaks into 4 or 5 one-seeded pieces. Seeds are very long-lived in the soil. Habitat Native to Brazil, Giant sensitive plant is now naturalised in the high rainfall areas of coastal North Queensland. The plant will choke out cane, other crops and grassland. Declaration This species is a declared plant. For further information on declaration status refer to the NR&M Pest Fact series. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 41

42 Golden dewdrops (VERBENACEAE) Duranta erecta (syn. D. repens) 42 P

43 Golden dewdrops Duranta erecta (syn. D. repens) Description Vigorous shrub or small tree to 7 m high. Drooping, spiny branches. Leaves opposite, stalked, egg-shaped, 2-8 cm long. Blue tubular flowers, 1 cm long, in sprays up to 20 cm long. Bright yellow fruits, spherical, 5-10 mm across. Habitat Native to tropical America, Golden dewdrops was introduced to Australia as an ornamental. Invades disturbed areas. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 43

44 Hairy senna (CAESALPINIACEAE) Senna hirsuta 44 P

45 Hairy senna Senna hirsuta Description Perennial shrub to 3 m. Single or multi-stemmed, becoming woody with age. Pinnate leaves with 2-6 pairs of hairy leaflets 4-9 cm long, ribbed leaf stalk has a prominent conical gland at the base. Yellow flowers clustered in groups of 5 8 on upper branches. Hairy, cylindrical pods cm long each contain round dull seeds. Habitat Native to America, Hairy senna readily invades disturbed areas such as roadsides, fencelines, creek banks and the edges of rainforest. Declaration Currently not declared, although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 45

46 Japanese sunflower (ASTERACEAE) Tithonia diversifolia 46 P

47 Japanese sunflower Tithonia diversifolia Description Erect thicket-forming shrub to 3 m tall. Alternate leaves, deeply divided into 3-7 pointed and serrated lobes that are wedge-shaped at the base, dull-green on the upper surface and pale green and velvet-like on the underside, cm long and 5-15 cm wide. Bright yellow sunflower-like flowers, 6-10 cm wide, on the ends of stalks in the forks of the upper leaves. Narrow, brown seeds with silky hairs and a crown of flat papery scales. Habitat Native to Mexico and Central America, Japanese sunflower is now widespread and common in FNQ. It is found on roadsides, banks, unmanaged land and fire-degraded hillslopes. Declaration This species is listed as an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although its control is recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 47

48 Lantana (VERBENACEAE) Lantana camara 48 P

49 Lantana Lantana camara Description Scrambling, heavily-branched shrub to 4 m high. Grows as either a compact clump, dense thicket or scrambler. Stems are four-angled when young, rounded when mature, with numerous short prickles. Leaves are bright green above, paler beneath, about 6 cm long, with slightly rounded-toothed margins, strongly veined, aromatic when crushed. Flowers mainly pink, yellow, orange and red, in compact heads to 2.5 cm wide. Fruits are fleshy, rounded, glossy and purplish-black when ripe. Habitat A native of tropical America, Lantana was introduced to Australia as a garden plant. It is now naturalised in pastures, native vegetation, roadsides and gullies of most coastal and sub-coastal areas of Queensland, mainly on richer soils. Toxic to stock. Declaration Lantana is listed as a Weed of National Significance, and an Undesirable Plant in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared although its control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 49

50 Mimosa pigra (MIMOSACEAE) Mimosa pigra 50 P

51 Mimosa pigra Mimosa pigra Description An erect multi-branched shrub to 5 m. Stem thorns are 5 to 10 mm long. Bright green leaves are 20 cm long, prickly, feather-like, leaflets folding together when touched and at night. Flowers are pink, ball-shaped and about 1-2 cm across, from leaf axil. Flattened seedpods are hairy, brown when mature and contain oblong, brown or green flat seeds. Habitat This native of tropical America is now a very serious problem in the Northern Territory where it infests swampy areas, floodplains and along watercourses. There is a huge potential for its spread in FNQ. Declaration This species is a declared plant in Queensland and is also listed as a Weed of National Significance. For further information on declaration status refer to the NR&M Pest Fact series. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 51

52 Privet broad-leaved and small-leaved (OLEACEAE) Ligustrum lucidum (broad) and Ligustrum sinense (small) broad-leaved small-leaved 52 P

53 Privet broad-leaved and small-leaved Ligustrum lucidum (broad) and Ligustrum sinense (small) Description Privet broad-leaved Perennial small tree to 10 m, sometimes a dense shrub. Shoots hairless. Leaves oval, glossy, dark green, 5-12 x 3-6 cm. Small cream-white flowers in clusters up to 20 cm long. Small (8 mm across) egg-shaped fruit, purplish or black, in bunches at ends of stems. Description Privet small-leaved Densely branched perennial shrub to 5 m high. Shoots densely hairy. Small, dull green, oval leaves to 6 cm long, hairy on midrib below. Leaf stalk hairy. Fragrant white flowers in clusters up to 10 cm long. Small (6 mm diameter) dull black-purple berries approximately 5 mm in diameter. Habitat Broad-leaved Privet is native to China, Japan and Korea, while Small-leaved privet is from China. Both were introduced to Australia as garden plants. Invade rainforest margins, regrowth and wet schlerophyll forest, and are also found in pastures and disturbed gullies and creek banks. Extremely aggressive, forming dense thickets. Declaration These species are listed as Undesirable Plants in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Currently not declared, although their control is highly recommended. ACTION: For control information contact your local government weed inspector or your NR&M Land Protection Officer. 53

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