Developing oil palm plantation from degraded land on mineral soil. Follow up of environmental parameters: Output30/BACP

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Developing oil palm plantation from degraded land on mineral soil. Follow up of environmental parameters: 2009-2011. Output30/BACP"

Transcription

1 Developing oil palm plantation from degraded land on mineral soil Follow up of environmental parameters: Output30/BACP By Denis Ruysschaert, Ian Singleton, Serge Wich, Gunung Gea, Mistar, Nuzuar, Riswan Zen, Bas van Balen, Adji Darsoyo. September

2 Introduction development of oil palm plantations on degraded land The Pilot Study (PS) on Sustainable Palm Oil is located in the village of Lamie, Nagan Raya District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The Pilot Study aims to showcase that it is possible to develop RSPO standard oil palm plantations with smallholders, on mineral soils with degraded vegetation, instead of continuing the destruction of forests to establish oil palm plantations at the large scale. The project also seeks to operate in the least environmentally damaging and biodiversity friendly manner possible, to limit the impact of oil palm plantation on these degraded areas, and on surrounding areas, which includes the precious peatswamp forests of Tripa, an integral part of the biodiversity rich Leuser Ecosystem. As such, all operations of the pilot study have been carried out following the procedures and methods of organic farming. Chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides are forbidden and the farmers use only bio-pesticides and organic fertilizers. These pesticides and organic fertilizers are developed and applied by the farmers themselves. The farmers have been trained and supported to do so. It must be noted, however, that PT Socfindo, who supplied the original seedlings for the project, developed the seedlings in the conventional non-organic manner. The decision to develop the Pilot Study on areas with degraded vegetation first of all aims at providing an example to palm oil companies that it is technically possible to develop degraded land for palm oil production, instead of clearing huge areas of forested land. It is especially aimed at providing an alternative for oil-palm development on peatlands, which is currently a common practice for the development of new oil palm concessions in the adjacent Tripa peatswamp forest, and elsewhere in Indonesia and South-East Asia. Indeed, peatlands are among the last lowland forest ecosystems that have not yet been converted. They are therefore highly attractive for the implementation of large-scale industrial operations (i.e. those over 1,000 ha) for oil palm and for pulp & paper production. CIFOR (IRIN, 2011), noted that lowland peatswamps are disappearing at a rate of around 100,000 ha per year. Lowland peatswamp rainforests in Sumatra alone were reduced by more than 60% between 1985 and 2007 (WWF, 2010), and it is very well known that the major oil palm companies within Indonesia still have large tracts of as yet undeveloped concessions on peatswamp forest in their reserve banks (Greenpeace, 2008). It is in this wider context that the RSPO endorsed PanEco s Pilot Study, at its General Assembly in Indeed, the alternative development of oil palm plantations outside forested land, especially outside peatswamp forests, is a currently the focus of much discussion within the palm oil industry. Degraded land therefore seems an important option to consider. There are about 7,4 million ha of degraded land in Indonesia and 200,000 ha in Aceh province alone. The potential to use degraded land for future oil palm plantations does certainly exist. 2

3 With regard to the decision to adopt organic production methods and procedures, it is consistent with the RSPO Principles and Criteria (P&C) for sustainable palm oil production. In fact, it goes beyond the existing RSPO P&C, as the use of chemicals, such as Paraquat is permitted on plantations seeking RSPO certification. Interestingly, as far as we know there are no other existing oil palm plantations that apply organic methods from the initial plantation stage, in all of South-East Asia. All other organic oil palm plantations that we know of developed from plantations that were first established in the conventional manner, and which were subsequently converted into organic oil palm plantations at a later stage, when the palms were already productive. Seeking to use the most biodiversity friendly method from the onset of the plantation is therefore of considerable interest, especially to assess the long term changes in biodiversity at the pilot study site when the least environmentally damaging conditions are applied. From a low-income smallholder perspective, it may also make good economic sense, as reducing the amount of chemicals used reduces the monetary cost of the initial investment. Instead, the farmers assume some additional labour costs to produce organic alternatives that they can effectively provide for free. The success and the lessons learned from the Pilot Study are expected to encourage all stakeholders (especially those within the palm oil industry, Government, and local and international organisations) to develop the oil palm sector more responsibly. The Pilot Study provides a showcase for the development of degraded land, taking into account the local social priorities of the smallholders/farmers, and the imperative of environmental protection Objectives of the monitoring of environmental parameters To achieve the goal of finding a green solution to developing oil palm on degraded land, it is crucial to monitor from the outset the environmental changes that take place at the pilot study site, from the initial stage of the degraded land, to the establishment of a mature, productive oil palm plantation. These changes are determined by the choices made by the smallholders, which have direct on the ground implications for the environment and biodiversity. In this report we use three land cover categories for the degraded area that the work is occurring in. 1) secondary forest, which refers to logged over areas that are being covered by trees again, but in the succession phase called secondary forest. The conservation area consist of this land cover; 2) Figure 1. Old tree in the conservation area planted land, which refers to all the degraded areas that have been cleared and then planted with oil palm; 3) degraded land that has not yet been cleared and planted. We refer to that as unconverted degraded land in the remainder of the report. 3

4 For this reason, there are two main perspectives that can be taken when considering and evaluating the different environmental changes that take place during the development of the oil palm plantation. On the one hand, one needs to consider the impact of developing the oil palm plantation at the plot, or plantation level itself. From this perspective, what is important is the zoning of the site, and the allocation of areas to different uses, such as conservation areas and oil palm areas. More precisely, the design, development and effective implementation of the land use strategy. At this level, most important from a biodiversity conservation perspective is to try to allocate the largest, contiguous, area possible for conservation. As the size of any set aside conservation area ultimately depends on those that actually own the land, the smallholders in this case, the main question is then how large an area can they be persuaded to set aside, and which conditions must prevail to effectively conserve that area? On the other hand, one needs to look at the issue from a more micro-level perspective, at the level of the land itself, within the zones established on the site. In this case, what is important is to effectively monitor and evaluate changes that occur within areas under different land uses. In the case of the pilot study these include the conservation area that has been set aside, the degraded land already cleared and planted (i.e. the planted land), and remaining degraded land not yet cleared or planted with oil palms. Figure 2. Land use map for the RSPO_Lamie plot Of course each approach is highly complementary, to establish the true impact of environmental changes when considering the existing local social situation. The data obtained also help to identify the lessons learned from the development of the biodiversity friendly plantation, and hence to improve the procedures and practical activities by which plantations are implemented, to minimize their impact on biodiversity. 4

5 1. Plantation level approach: Follow up of the extension of the conservation area and other land uses Introduction The conservation area set aside within the oil palm pilot study with smallholders is an important element when considering biodiversity within a larger oil palm landscape. For RSPO P&C, the identification and mitigation of damage to High Conservation Value Forests Figure 3: Initial condition of the Pilot Study site (before land clearing) (HCVF) is a key requirement. The question is, how to respect a set aside conservation area, or HCVF, when implementing a plantation according to RSPO P&C? Indeed, how is it possible to avoid developing environmentally important biodiversity areas when rational smallholders tend to make decisions that maximise oil palm production on their individual plots, in order to maximize possible production and revenue. The sum of each individual s behaviour would naturally lead to the total transformation of all the degraded land into oil palm plantation and the destruction of any HCVF or conservation area would be the most likely outcome. Under this kind of scenario, how can the locally dire, profit seeking reality, meet RSPO P&C regarding HCVF? Initially, the conservation area was defined from a normative perspective, checking against the criteria used for HCVF designation, under the principles and criteria of the RSPO. The following report explains how this conservation area within the pilot study has subsequently evolved, taking into account the social realities of the location. 1.1.Initial delineation of the conservation area according to RSPO P&C Two technical experts from YEL/PanEco defined the conservation area during a field visit on the 23rd and 24th of February, It was found that the secondary forest area of the site contained notable biodiversity species that need to be conserved under both existing Indonesian law and according to RSPO criteria 7.3, regarding the conservation of HCVF for biological importance. The field assessment found several mammal species using the secondary forest that are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened 5

6 Species (IUCN 2011). These included White-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar; IUCN Vulnerable), Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi; IUCN Vulnerable), Sun bears (Ursus malayanus; IUCN Vulnerable). 13 bird species were also listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, including the Large green pigeon, Treron capellei; listed by the IUCN as Vulnerable) and 12 near-threatened species (see table 4). Three species of Pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) were also found; Nepenthes albomarginata, Nepenthes ampullaria, and Nepenthes gracilis, all of which are notable carnivorous plants protected by Indonesian law since Figure 4. Option 1: Keeping the single contiguous forest block and clearing outlying fragments, whilst restoring unconverted degraded land patches (dark green) within the remaining block. Figure 5. Option 2: Clearing the hourglass area of the largest block and outlying fragments, and restoring the unconverted degraded land patch within the remaining block (shown as dark green) Given the above, the secondary forest area of the site was earmarked to be set-aside as a conservation area within the pilot study. It covered a total of 4.3 ha, most of it being comprised of a single contiguous forested block, with a few outlying fragments, a relatively small area overall when considering the space needed by most bird and mammal species for their long-term survival. However, from the perspective of the local smallholders, it is important to note that this area still represented 5.1% of the total initial smallholder area for the pilot study, 82 ha 1. It therefore represented a substantial percentage of the total area that would not be used for development, and would be effectively lost to them for economic development. It should also be realised, however, that this viewpoint does not take into consideration 1 The total are is now 74Ha as 8Ha was removed because some smallholder left the group. 6

7 the fact that set-aside conservation areas can actually provide economic benefits to an oil palm plantation, for example by hosting predators and other important animals and plants, that might play a role in regulating pests and diseases that could potentially be detrimental to the oil palms and their productivity Identifying the options for the conservation area, with smallholder consultation After mapping the prescribed 4.3 ha conservation area, the smallholders discussed how to conserve this area in practice, or a part of it, taking into account the environmental realities (i.e. connectivity of the secondary forest fragments) and their own social realities (i.e. smallholder plot ownership). Two main options were discussed; Option 1, seeking to preserve most of the secondary forest area (the best conservation option) and Option 2, seeking to preserve only those areas that were most in tune with their own social realities. Option 1: Set aside and conserve the main contiguous forested block, restore degraded patches within it, and clear the few outlying patches of trees (see figure 2). In this scenario the more isolated smaller forest plots would be cleared and developed as part of the oil palm plantation and an overall area of 3.7 ha (85% of the initial 4.3 ha proposal) would be conserved. An existing narrow dirt track crosses the conservation area that would be set-aside but the canopy closes over above this sufficiently enough to allow whitehanded gibbons and many other species to cross. Option 2: The second option (figure 3), involved more secondary forest clearance than option one and a total area conserved of 2.8 ha (65% of the original proposal). Under this scenario, the remaining contiguous forested block would be partially cleared (the southern end of the hourglass ), and the remainder would be situated in just two of the smallholder s plots. The other forest patches would all be cleared and developed as part of the oil palm plantation. With this option, one of the two smallholders would have to give up most of his plot for conservation and another would have to give up just over a quarter of his plot, requiring the negotiation of some form of compensation agreement. After discussing the two options at length, the smallholder group eventually decided to opt for the option 2, for the following reasons:- a. From a purely biodiversity perspective, whilst resulting in a smaller conservation area than option 1, this option remains attractive: - It hosts the HCV species identified in the first survey and subsequent field observations. Each of these species is listed on the IUCN red list of threatened species and is protected by Indonesian law. These include the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), the sun bear (Ursus malayanus), the flask-shaped pitcher-plant (Nepenthes ampullaria) and one species endemic 7

8 to the region (Aceh and parts of North Sumatra), the Thomas leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi). - The conservation area would still hold food trees and plants for some of the above species, i.e., the primates, such as figs (Ficus racemosa), Cempedak (Artocarpus integer) and a related species (A. gomeziana), all found within the area that would be set aside. It would also continue to provide a refuge and various resources for the other species - The conservation area would still contain a small but important wetland area located on the site, whilst most peat swamps in surrounding areas are now converted to palm oil plantations, paddy fields or other uses. By maintaining the wetland area this conservation forest would continue to function as an important local water regulation and absorption area. b. From a socio-economic perspective, the climbing rattan palms (e.g. Daemonorops spp), used extensively in the region as rope and for local handicrafts, especially for furniture making, can also still be found within the forested block that would be set-aside. A population of the Chinese evergreen (Rotundum sp.) also exists. This has economic potential as an ornamental plant, and can be cultivated. c. From the perspective of the smallholder group it was also considered likely to be much easier to handle the management of option 2, as the resulting conservation area would only involve two of the smallholder s plots. They consider that this would make land rights clarification more straightforward, and that the proposed area could be more easily and clearly defined and delineated. Moreover, this option was naturally more appealing to the smallholders as it maximised the total area available for oil palm planting, and hence higher potential revenues. The smallholders as a group agreed to compensate the two smallholders that could not develop their land, or at least a significant part of it. It was agreed to buy the land based on the average market price per hectare of farming land in the local District (Nagan Raya) and amounts to IDR 10 million per hectare (around US$ 1,100) The Conservation Area actually implemented in reality Unfortunately, whilst the whole group of smallholders initially agreed on option 2, in the end it was not realised. The farmer that should have put aside the majority of his land parcel for conservation purposes and agreed to the compensation terms outlined above subsequently refused to comply with the collective decision. He decided instead that he would leave the group and develop his land independently for oil palm. Even after intensive discussions, he refused to remain involved unless the other members agreed to double the value of the compensation they would pay for his land. All of the other Pilot Study members rejected this request. 8

9 This plot was then removed from the original Pilot Study area, thereby removing most of the agreed conservation area too. By way of a compromise, however, the other smallholder, that had only a fraction of his land within the proposed conservation area (just over a quarter) offered to conserve most of his land instead. This land is located adjacent to the land belonging to the other smallholder, who had refused to rent his land for conservation. As the characteristics of its vegetation are similar (secondary forest) to the initially earmarked conservation area, this seemed a practical solution, and the owner is now being compensated by the other Pilot Study members under the same conditions as outlined above Conclusions regarding conservation area establishment and the way forward. Normative application of the RSPO P&C concerning HCVF, as a means to identify and define conservation areas within plantations, was considered a good way to start, to determine which areas should be protected from an ecosystem perspective. However, in a case like the pilot study, the smallholders are ultimately the ones who decide since are the actual owners of the land. The process outlined above shows that despite early good will and a lengthy, collective decision making process, individual stakeholders and the decisions they make can still have an enormous bearing on what actually results from practical implementation on the ground. This therefore often demands additional compromises to achieve a particular goal, in this case establishing a set-aside conservation area within the pilot study. Figure 6: Conservation area in early

10 Figure 7. Pilot study with the effective conservation area in green as at 30 April

11 During the negotiation process and its implementation, the size of the area to be conserved shrank markedly, as the smallholder s keen interest to develop the land tended to override biodiversity considerations. The initially defined conservation area totalled 4.3 ha. Option 1 would have resulted in 3.7 ha being conserved and Option 2, 2.8 ha. The smallholder group chose this second option, but when actually trying to implement the conservation area, only one smallholder agreed to conserve most of his land and only 2.32 ha (54% of the original) was in the end set aside as the Pilot Study conservation area. Figure 8. showing the evolution of the different conservation areas along the years When establishing a conservation area on a site of nature the process must account for social realities, especially land ownership and the goals and desires of individuals, and attempt to come up with very practical solutions. The definition and goals of the conservation area, and its implications, must be well understood from the onset by both the group as a whole and by its individual members. An acceptable compensation mechanism also needs to be developed and implemented fairly, ideally with an 11

12 enforcement mechanism in place to ensure continued compliance. It is especially important to ensure fair and equitable treatment of all of the stakeholders, at all times. Finally, it was helpful throughout the negotiations with the smallholders to develop the conservation not to refer to it as an area that must be left untouched and played no further role in the palm oil plantation, but instead to ensure that they fully understood such areas play an important role for them too, and can actually enhance their livelihoods by providing direct benefits such as natural resources, water regulation, and pest control, etc.). 2. Environmental perspective: the follow up of biodiversity parameters Introduction-Methodology The programme continues to monitor various indicators of environmental impact in the three defined areas within the pilot study; the secondary forest (conservation area), degraded land not yet cleared and planted, and the planted land (the oil palm plantation area itself). In each, regular surveys of birds, reptiles and amphibians, small mammals, insects, vegetation, plankton and benthic fauna are being carried out. For each of the biodiversity parameters identified for study, three main indicators are regularly surveyed and monitored: 1. Number of individuals (where applicable). 2. Number of species or orders (where applicable). 3. Number of threatened species recorded in the IUCN red list of threatened species, CITES appendix I and II listings, and the Government of Indonesia s own protected species lists. The programme also monitors soil and water quality. To date three comprehensive biodiversity and environmental surveys have been completed. In addition to these, monitoring has also been possible in between surveys via observations in the field as PanEco and YEL have field staff based permanently in the area. There are three surveys, corresponding to period of time. The first baseline survey describes the period November 2008-May 2009 (survey 2009), the second May December 2010 (Survey 2010), and the third, January 2011 to April 2011 (survey 2011). Each time there were collection of on-the-ground datas, and then extensive analysis and reporting in Laboratory, that sometimes took three or four months (in the case of insects or water). The three main different land-use categories were surveyed namely the area of secondary forest developed as the conservation area, the area subsequently cleared and planted with oil palms, and an area that to date has not yet been cleared for planting. Each set of surveys has been conducted by national and international experts, using whenever possible, the same experts to ensure consistency of methodology and 12

13 results. This has allowed us to establish a baseline of the biodiversity present at the onset of the pilot study and to identify changes and trends as the project progresses. The first survey occurred before any activities on the ground, i.e. before the establishment of the oil palm plantation, and survey sites were located randomly over the whole the pilot study area. During this period the whole area was covered with unconverted degraded land except for the part that was secondary forest. Because during the first survey it was not yet known exactly where development for oil palm and conservation would occur it was decided to maintain several of the original survey locations, but also remove and add a few for the second and third survey sets. The second and third surveys were conducted at the same locations and for those surveys four plots were made in each of the three land uses: oil palm plantation, degraded land (not planted) and conservation area. Except for water, soil and benthos and plankton all surveys occurred in those four plots to maintain a systematic approach. As explained in the previous chapter dealing with establishment of the conservation area, the smallholder holding the larger part of the conservation area refused to conserve it and has instead developed his land exclusively for oil palms. It is his neighbour that now holds the conservation area. For this reason, the vegetation plot that had previously been located in the originally proposed conservation area, on the land that was excised from the pilot study, had to be abandoned and a new plot established a few meters away, in similar vegetation considered still representative of the original. The results presented here provide a good indication of the ecological differences between the three main land use types present. It is important to remember too, however, that the conservation area is not a natural, pristine primary forest, but a secondary forest that has regenerated after the original forests here were cleared in the 1990 s. As such, the species present in the conservation area, their numbers and densities, should not be directly compared to nearby primary forests in the region. 13

14 Figure 9. Sampling site locations in relation to the three land cover types: shrub area = unconverted degraded land; conservation area = secondary forest; oil palm area = planted area. 14

15 2.1.Vegetation As would be expected, there were major differences in vegetation between the grassland area (pre clearance in 2009 and planting in 2010) and the conservation area. On the coarse grassland the Diversity Index of the vegetation community was 1.32, which is classified as low, while the Diversity Index of the vegetation community in the old secondary forests and younger secondary forests within the conservation area was between 2.37 and 2.93, or medium. This indicates that the tree community of the old secondary forest is evolving toward a stable, rich vegetation community, while the grassland area remained poor. Species number and abundance: The number of vegetation species recorded during the surveys remained rather stable over the survey years in the conservation area, which contains both old and young secondary forest. Secondary forest Secondary forest Secondary forest Planted area Unconverted degraded land Trees Shrubs Ground Shrubs Ground Species 18/ 24 25/ 23 10/ 13 23/ 21 20/ 15 Family 12/ 13 17/ 12 8/ 12 16/ 13 11/ 13 Individuals/ Ha 456/ / ,250/ 81, / ,000/ 795,000 Table 1: Number of species found in each vegetation zone according to plant layer, number of families, with total numbers of individual plants/ha also shown for each plant layer. The first number in each cell refers to surveys in November 2010 and the second (bold) to the surveys in April Because during the first survey in 2009 slightly different locations were surveyed and the area did not yet consist of three land-cover types at that time, we present data from only the 2010 and 2011 surveys here. It should also be noted that the conservation area plot shifted slightly between the 2010 and 2011 surveys because part of the conservation area plot was affected by logging. The results therefore are not completely comparable. Table 1 presents data from the vegetation surveys conducted in 2010 and The results clearly indicate that the only area containing trees is the conservation area that consists of secondary forest. This has obvious repercussions for biodiversity conservation and indicates that conservation areas in an oil palm landscape can maintain at least some tree diversity. It is also important to note that the ground layer in the planted and unconverted degraded areas contains more ground species than the conservation area indicating that these land cover types will probably be able to contain a variety of small animal species that depend on the ground layer and potentially even more species than in the conservation area. It is likely that this is further facilitated by the organic procedures applied in the planted areas. The vegetation within the RSPO Pilot Study area is indeed of critical importance for all of the other biodiversity parameters surveyed as it largely determines what is likely to be found and to survive. Hence this is the first parameter described in this report. 15

16 Density and domination Because of its relationship with basal area (which on its turn is related to leaf, flower and fruit production) relative dominance is an interesting parameter to examine for vegetation plots since it gives some indication of food supply for folivorous and frugivorous animal species. For trees in the secondary forest in 2010 the three species with a relative dominance percentage above 10 were Semecarpus heterophyllus, Eugenia sp, and Palaquium obovatum. As a result of the slight shift in plot location the species with a relative dominance percentage above 10 in 2011 were Palaquium obovatum and Artocarpus integer. These latter two species are especially important for frugivorous arboreal mammals such as primates. The shrub layer in the secondary forest in 2010 was dominated by Macaranga gigantea, M. hypoleuca, Eugenia cumini, and P. obovatum. In 2011 this was only a single species, A. integer. The shrub layer in the planted area was dominated by M. hypoleuca and Baccaurea racemosa in 2010 and by M. gigantea and Vitex pinnata in Thus species of the genus Macaranga, a typical pioneer species, were common in this layer as expected. The most notable species in terms of its importance index (an index composed of a species density and frequency in this case) in the ground layer of the secondary forest was Nepenthes ampullaria. The same layer in the unconverted degraded areas has as most important species Imperata cylindrica. The observed importance of Imperata cylindrica is typical of major ecosystem degradation. This is a pioneering species that can grow very fast in disturbed ecosystems and on open fields. Preparation of the ground for oil palm plantation can therefore lead to fast colonization by this species. An established population of Imperata cylindrica prevents other species from invading and growing because of its toxic metabolism and dense network of roots. This is a problem, as the dense root system also makes it extremely labor intensive to eradicate manually. It also prevents other, important plants from growing, such as the Land Cover Crop (LCC), used to prepare the ground by fixing nitrogen in the soil before planting of the oil palms themselves. In order to minimize this problem, after the preparation of the land for oil palm plantation, the Land Cover Crops and oil palms have to be established as quickly as possible. Threatened species: Three species of pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) were found in the conservation area during each survey. These were Nepenthes albomarginata, Nepenthes ampullaria and Nepenthes gracilis. All three are protected in Indonesia according to Governmental Regulation No.7/

17 2.2.Reptiles and amphibians Studies of reptiles, and especially amphibians, are of considerable interest when following environmental changes as they are highly sensitive to change, particularly in hygrometry and levels of contamination, two parameters that may well change during the establishment of a palm plantation. It is therefore highly appropriate to follow this parameter. Also, studying reptiles and amphibians in December and then April is useful to include both wet (December 2010) and dry (April 2011) seasons. Class Family Species Unconverted Unconverted Total Total Secondary forest degraded land Planted land Random Total Secondary forest degraded land Amphibian Bufonidae Bufo asper 1 1 Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia Bufonidae Bufonidae Disroglossidae Disroglossidae Disroglossidae Disroglossidae Microhylidae Ranidae Ranidae Ranidae Rhacophoridae Rhacophoridae Rhacophoridae Planted land Random Bufo melanostictus Bufo quadriporcatus Fejervarya cancrivora 1 Fejervarya limnocharis Limnonectes paramacrodon Occidozyga laevis Microhyla heymonsi Rana chalconota 1 1 Rana glandusola Rana nicobariensis Polypedates leucomystax Rhacophorus pardalis 1 Rhacophorus appendiculatus

18 Amphibia Lacertilia Lacertilia Lacertilia Lacertilia Reptilia Reptilia Reptilia Agamidae Gekkonidae Scincidae Scincidae Varanidae Colubridae Colubridae Colubridae Bonchocela cristatella Cyrtodactylus sp Mabuya cf rudis Mabuya multifasciata Varanus salvator Ahaetulla prasina 1 1 Dendrelaphis caudolineatus Dendrelaphis pictus Reptilia Colubridae Lycodon sp 1 1 Reptilia Reptilia Colubridae Colubridae Enhyrdys albomaculata 1 Rhabodophis conspicillatus 1 Total Table 2: Numbers of species of reptiles and amphibians recorded during the first, second and third surveys, also according to land use category for the latter two. Number of species on the Pilot Study and adjacent area After three surveys, a total of 25 species belonging to 9 families have been found within the Pilot Study. The total number of species found in each survey was 17, 16 and 16, a remarkably stable number (Table 2). Initially at the first survey (2009), prior to land clearance and the establishment of the oil palm plantation and conservation area, the first assessment was carried out on the site itself, and in adjacent areas of the same habitat type. A total of 27 species of reptiles and amphibians have been found overall since the first survey (2009), comprising of 14 reptile species and 13 amphibians. 17 species were found inside the pilot study site itself whilst a total of 19 species were found in adjacent, outside areas. 10 of these have to date not yet been observed within the pilot study boundary. 18

19 Distribution of species between the different land uses In the oil palm plantation area and on the degraded land not yet planted, there are between five and seven species recorded. Most of these species are the same. In 2011, all five of the species recorded on the degraded land were also recorded on the oil palm plantation. These were Bufo melanostictus, Fejervarya limnocharis, Microhyla heymonsi, Rana glandulosa, Polypedates leucomystax and Rhacophorus leucomystax. In 2010, two additional species, Rana nicobariensis and Mabuya multifasciata, were found both on the unconverted degraded land area and on the planted land area. At first glance, the early stage of oil palm development using organic methods seems to have little impact on the reptile and amphibian species present. However, more careful examination of the data could reveal a different picture. The development of the oil palm plantation may have slightly negatively impacted the number of species on the pilot study. In particular, the loss of temporary inundated areas that where drained and planted may have removed three species: the Tree frog (Rhacophorus pardalis), the water snake (Enhydris maculata) and Rhabophis conspicillatus. On the other hand, the Ulcer toad (Bufo melanostictus) is now widespread in the pilot study, quite possibly having invaded the area following the tracks created by off-road vehicles when developing the site. The disappearance of the water snake could be directly related to the decline of cat-fish (Clarias sp), a staple diet of the species, from the wetland area. Also of much interest is the evolution of the conservation area in terms of reptiles and amphibians. There are only between 3 (2011) and 5 (2010) species recorded here during the surveys, and all of them are relatively common species. Apart from Rana gladulosa and Mabuya multifasciata, two species found in reasonable numbers throughout the pilot study site, the other species found in 2010 or 2011 in the conservation area were not found in either the oil palm plantation or the degraded land. This shows that most of the species in the conservation area are limited to this wet secondary forest ecosystem, and that the different species found in the different land use areas have very different ecological needs. This also means that many reptile and amphibian species existing in one land use type problem would not survive in another land use, or at least many of those found in grasslands and plantations may not survive in forests, and vice versa. Threatened species No reptile or amphibian species listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species were found within the boundaries of the pilot study during any of the 3 surveys. However, 3 species listed in Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Flora and Fauna), were found during surveys of adjacent, similar habitats, outside of the pilot study. CITES Appendix II species are not necessarily at present threatened with extinction, but they are considered at risk of soon becoming so due to over exploitation for trade. The species found were the Blood Python (Python curtus), the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and the black 19

20 spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana). Despite the fact that they were not observed there, it is likely that all three of these can be found using parts of the pilot study on occasions, especially in the secondary forest conservation area. These findings indicate that the conservation area and the degraded land and oil palm plantation areas within the pilot study do not constitute particularly important ecological habitats for seriously threatened or endangered reptiles and amphibians, which are more often associated with primary rainforests, wetlands and riverine ecosystems. 20

21 2.3.Insects Initially, a total of 199 species of insects were recorded at the first survey (2009) (figure 7). That may represent 76.5% of the total number of insect species in the area according to the insect species accumulation curve of new species found at each new survey. A first estimate is therefore that the total number of species on the pilot study is somewhere in the region of 262 species. During the three years of surveys, all of the species recorded were from 13 insect orders. Number of species per order: Figure 10: Number of species per order found in the secondary forest 21

22 Figure 11: Number of species per order found in the unconverted degraded land. 22

23 Figure 12: Number of species per order found in the planted area. 23

24 Figure 13: Number of species for each of the three land uses and the various surveys. Figure 14: The Diversity index for each of the three land uses and the various surveys. 24

Developing palm-oil production on degraded land Technical, economic, biodiversity, climate, legal and policy implications

Developing palm-oil production on degraded land Technical, economic, biodiversity, climate, legal and policy implications Developing palm-oil production on degraded land Technical, economic, biodiversity, climate, legal and policy implications By Denis Ruysschaert, Adji Darsoyo, Rizwan Zen, Gunung Gea, Ian Singleton Edited

More information

Scientific Question 1: What is the effect of cacao farms on bird abundance?

Scientific Question 1: What is the effect of cacao farms on bird abundance? Research Background: Is Chocolate For the Birds? Featured scientist: Skye Greenler from Colorado College 9,000 years ago humans invented agriculture as a way to grow enough food for people to eat. Today,

More information

Madagascar: Makira REDD+

Madagascar: Makira REDD+ project focus Madagascar: Makira REDD+ Madagascar is considered to be one of the top five biodiversity hotspots in the world due to more than 75% of all animal and plant species being endemic while less

More information

Cotton top Tamarins and Conservation

Cotton top Tamarins and Conservation Cotton top Tamarins and Conservation What is a Cotton-top Tamarin? The Cotton-top Tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a small species of monkey, recognisable by the white punk hairdo from which it gets its name.

More information

Biodiversity Concepts

Biodiversity Concepts Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.

More information

Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA)

Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Monitoring the Critically Endangered Bird Species (White-shouldered Ibis) in Western Siem Pang Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Transboundary Biodiversity Landscapes (TBLs) Knowledge Meeting

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

High Conservation Value Forests 3.1. Old Growth Forests. Management & Monitoring Framework

High Conservation Value Forests 3.1. Old Growth Forests. Management & Monitoring Framework High Conservation Value Forests 3.1 Old Growth Forests Management & Monitoring Framework HCV 3: Forest areas that are in or contain rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems. HCVF 3.1 Old Growth Areas

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

Regeneration Barriers Facing Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Peatland: An Alternative Approach to Considering Just the Ecological

Regeneration Barriers Facing Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Peatland: An Alternative Approach to Considering Just the Ecological Regeneration Barriers Facing Rehabilitation of Degraded Tropical Peatland: An Alternative Approach to Considering Just the Ecological Laura Graham Susan Page Jenny Pickerill Tropical Peat Swamp Forests

More information

American Forest Foundation (AFF) 2010-2015 Standards of Sustainability for Forest Certification

American Forest Foundation (AFF) 2010-2015 Standards of Sustainability for Forest Certification American Forest Foundation (AFF) 2010-2015 Standards of Sustainability for Forest Certification Standards Prologue The American Forest Foundation s (AFF) 2010-2015 Standards of Sustainability for Forest

More information

Who Knows Utah Animals?

Who Knows Utah Animals? Who Knows Utah Animals? Fourth Grade Core: Standard 5 Objective 2 Identify common plants and animals that inhabit Utah forests, wetlands, and deserts; cite examples of physical features that allow particular

More information

(5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation

(5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation (5) Wildlife Conservation and Management in Japan 5-1) Basic Policy and Strategy of Wildlife Conservation a) Basic Concepts Wild animals and plants serve as the basic components of ecosystems, and their

More information

Guidelines for Degraded Landscape Management (Deliverable #16) September 30, 2013

Guidelines for Degraded Landscape Management (Deliverable #16) September 30, 2013 Biodiversity and Agricultural Commodities Program BACP-Rainforest Alliance Grant-015 ( Applying sustainable cocoa practices through agroforestry in community forest areas as a tool for achieving biodiversity

More information

SUPPORTING FACTSHEET

SUPPORTING FACTSHEET SUPPORTING FACTSHEET 13 August 2015 Progress towards delivering Asia Pulp & Paper Group s peatland commitments OVERVIEW... 2 APP CONSERVATION MILESTONES... 2 CONTEXT... 2 Indonesia scommitment to greenhouse

More information

THE FIRST TEST September 2013

THE FIRST TEST September 2013 THE FIRST TEST Performance milestones for customers and other stakeholders to assess the implementation of commitments made under Asia Pulp and Paper s Sustainability Roadmap Vision 2020 and Forest Conservation

More information

Green Infrastructure Case Study Template

Green Infrastructure Case Study Template Green Infrastructure Case Study Template The aim of the exercise is to provide information on how the elements of the Green Infrastructure Strategy are implemented at national level and to provide case

More information

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Overview This hands-on activity supports the HHMI short film The Guide and the 2015 Holiday Lectures on Science: Patterns and Processes in Ecology.

More information

Madagascar s exceptional biodiversity. Conservation contracts. International value attached to Madagascar s biodiversity

Madagascar s exceptional biodiversity. Conservation contracts. International value attached to Madagascar s biodiversity Conservation Direct incentives to communities for biodiversity conservation in Madagascar Joanna Durbin Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Madagascar s exceptional biodiversity One of the most important

More information

Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers

Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers Agricultural biodiversity the variability of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, arthropods,

More information

3. Which relationship can correctly be inferred from the data presented in the graphs below?

3. Which relationship can correctly be inferred from the data presented in the graphs below? 1. Recent evidence indicates that lakes in large areas of New York State are being affected by acid rain. The major effect of acid rain in the lakes is (1) an increase in game fish population levels (3)

More information

Appendix A: Land Protection Plan

Appendix A: Land Protection Plan Appendix A: Land Protection Plan In this appendix A.1 Introduction and Purpose A.2 Project Description A.3 Refuge Purposes A.4 Land Acquisition Policy for Urban Refuges A.5 Status of Resources to be Protected

More information

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Alan Henderson ecosystem Objectives After completing this activity students will be able to: Create a food web and identify producers and consumers. Assign organisms

More information

ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION A MEANS OF CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LIVELIHOODS

ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION A MEANS OF CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LIVELIHOODS ECOLOGICAL A MEANS OF CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LIVELIHOODS RESTORATION The Society for Ecological Restoration International (SER) is a non-profit organization infused with the energy of involved

More information

The current institutional and legal context for biodiversity conservation and management is characterised by the following features:

The current institutional and legal context for biodiversity conservation and management is characterised by the following features: National BiodiversityStrategyandActionPlan (NBSAP),St. Lucia page 8 Resource tenure and access Most agricultural lands, and a majority of forest lands, are privately owned. Two significant trends can be

More information

Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee

Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee COMPLETE CASE STUDY 4.3 - TRENDS IN SIGNIFICANT SPECIES AND COMMUNITIES - SOUTH AUSTRALIA Mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee Description The mallee emu-wren is one of Australia s smallest birds, weighing

More information

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage Ian Thompson, Canadian Forest Service Brendan Mackey, Australian National University Alex Mosseler, Canadian Forest

More information

RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION

RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION Legal preservation has not proved to be sufficient to preserve natural communities. Restoration activities are diverse and includes revitalization of natural communities which

More information

2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction

2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Introduction 1 Tropical tree seed handling continuously develops. Scientific research and less advanced, yet persistent practical progress bring about new knowledge and experience on tropical species.

More information

Ecological Restoration Strategies for Cattle Ranching Landscapes of the Azuero

Ecological Restoration Strategies for Cattle Ranching Landscapes of the Azuero COURSE REPORT Ecological Restoration Strategies for Cattle Ranching Landscapes of the Azuero District of Pedasi, Province of Los Santos July 27-31, 2015 A field course organized by: The Environmental Leadership

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

Integration of Forestry & Wildlife Management

Integration of Forestry & Wildlife Management Integration of Forestry & Wildlife Management By Ken Negray Regional Certification Manager, NewPage Corp & member of the KY SIC Committee Abstract: Kentucky SIC (Sustainable Forestry Initiative Implementation

More information

www.irishseedsavers.ie Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans.

www.irishseedsavers.ie Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. www.irishseedsavers.ie POND LIFE FACT SHEET Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. A pond is a small body of fresh water shallow enough for sunlight

More information

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects:

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects: Lesson 1 The Web of Life Objectives: 1. Understand the concept of an ecosystem. 2. Understand the interdependence of members of an ecosystem. Subjects: 1. Ecology 2. Language 3. Art MATERIALS: Copies of

More information

Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices

Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and recommendations for minimizing potential impacts to

More information

Use: Cooperative farming as a habitat management tool to enhance and restore refuge grasslands

Use: Cooperative farming as a habitat management tool to enhance and restore refuge grasslands Compatibility Determination Use: Cooperative farming as a habitat management tool to enhance and restore refuge grasslands District Name: Minnesota Valley Wetland Management District Establishing and Acquisition

More information

Forest Fire Research in Finland

Forest Fire Research in Finland International Forest Fire News (IFFN) No. 30 (January June 2004, 22-28) Forest Fire Research in Finland Effective wildfire suppression and diminished use of prescribed burning in forestry has clearly eliminated

More information

Ecology 1 Star. 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the

Ecology 1 Star. 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the Name: ate: 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the 5. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.. biotic factors and decomposers.

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Appendix C. Municipal Planning and Site Restoration Considerations

Appendix C. Municipal Planning and Site Restoration Considerations Appendix C Municipal Planning and Site Restoration Considerations 67 68 Appendix C - Municipal Planning and Site Restoration Considerations This appendix contains best practice standards for site planning

More information

Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies

Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies 1 Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies Base line data collection will be collected for the Post-Monsoon season 2016 (September to November 2016) in study area and 10 kms radius from project site.

More information

Sustainability and Wildlife Conservation Updates: the Malaysian Perspectives

Sustainability and Wildlife Conservation Updates: the Malaysian Perspectives Sustainability and Wildlife Conservation Updates: the Malaysian Perspectives MPOC Reach & Remind Friends of the Industry Seminar: Challenges and Opportunities in 2012 Royale Chulan Hotel 16 January 2012

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

Dawn Reis Ecological Studies. www.ecologicalstudies.com

Dawn Reis Ecological Studies. www.ecologicalstudies.com Dawn Reis Ecological Studies www.ecologicalstudies.com Laguna Salada Sharp Park s Federal & State Protected San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) and California Red-legged Frog (Rana

More information

ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15

ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15 Coordination of the Agricultural Research In the Mediterranean Area Call i text ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15 SUBMISSION Pre-proposal by December 1 st, 2014 Full Proposal by May 11 th 2015 on http://arimnet-call.eu/

More information

Extinction; Lecture-8

Extinction; Lecture-8 I. introduction Definition Current extinction Genetic drift Extinction; Lecture-8 II. 3 types of extinction 1. background 2. mass 3. stochastic III. 5 periods of mass IV. human caused 1. on land and in

More information

USING BARN OWLS (Tyto alba erlangeri) FOR BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL IN ISRAEL. Motti Charter, WOT Representative for Israel.

USING BARN OWLS (Tyto alba erlangeri) FOR BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL IN ISRAEL. Motti Charter, WOT Representative for Israel. 1 USING BARN OWLS (Tyto alba erlangeri) FOR BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL IN ISRAEL by Motti Charter, WOT Representative for Israel Introduction Agricultural pests come in all forms, but worldwide it is small

More information

Enhancing Biodiversity. Proactive management of biodiversity in intensive agriculture

Enhancing Biodiversity. Proactive management of biodiversity in intensive agriculture Enhancing Biodiversity Proactive management of biodiversity in intensive agriculture Contents Introduction Increasing food security in a sustainable way 3 The importance of biodiversity The vitality and

More information

Water from the Air: Cloud Forests

Water from the Air: Cloud Forests Water from the Air: Cloud Forests Alden Wicker Water from the Air: Cloud Forests In the Americas, Asia, and Africa, there s a special kind of forest. It s rare, beautiful, and incredibly important to the

More information

Multiple Species Conservation Program County of San Diego. A Case Study in Environmental Planning & The Economic Value of Open Space

Multiple Species Conservation Program County of San Diego. A Case Study in Environmental Planning & The Economic Value of Open Space Multiple Species Conservation Program County of San Diego A Case Study in Environmental Planning & The Economic Value of Open Space Amy M. Fox Land Use Law Case Study Autumn Semester, 1999 Multiple Species

More information

CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR ELEONORA S FALCON IN GREECE LAYMAN S REPORT

CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR ELEONORA S FALCON IN GREECE LAYMAN S REPORT CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR ELEONORA S FALCON IN GREECE LAYMAN S REPORT JANUARY 2008 2 Eleonora s Falcon Eleonora s Falcon is one of the most characteristic birds of the Aegean Sea. It is a migrating falcon

More information

Standards 2010-2015. Introduction to the 2010-2015 Standards. American Tree Farm System

Standards 2010-2015. Introduction to the 2010-2015 Standards. American Tree Farm System American Tree Farm System 2010-2015 Standards We grow stewardship from the roots. Introduction to the 2010-2015 Standards The American Tree Farm System (ATFS) is the largest and oldest sustainable family

More information

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime What is Entomology? Entomology is the study of insects. Entomologists study bees, ants, beetles,

More information

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Geographically Finland lies in an intermediate zone between maritime and continental climates, belonging for the most part to the boreal vegetation zone.

More information

No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation Policy

No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation Policy No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation Policy DECEMBER 5 th, 2013 Purpose: Wilmar International recognizes that while plantation development has contributed significantly to economic development, deforestation

More information

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest About deforestation Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people s need to provide for their families. The

More information

Kakapo Recovery Plan 1996-2005

Kakapo Recovery Plan 1996-2005 Kakapo Recovery Plan 1996-2005 Threatened Species Recovery Plan No.21 Kakapo Management Group Department of Conservation P.O. Box 10-420 Wellington New Zealand CONTENTS 1. Background 5 2. Distribution

More information

Facts on biodiversity

Facts on biodiversity Facts on biodiversity What is biodiversity? Biological diversity (biodiversity) comprises diversity of species and habitats as well as the genetic diversity within the individual species of fauna and flora.

More information

State of Ontario's Forests - Indicator Report

State of Ontario's Forests - Indicator Report Criterion 1 Conserving Biological Diversity Element 1 Conserving Ecosystem Diversity Indicator 2 Levels of Fragmentation and Connectedness of Forest Ecosystem Components Indicator Condition State Trend

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (a) Why are zebra mussels located primarily in areas in the eastern United States rather than in the western United States? One point can be

More information

Habitat Comparison at the Garden

Habitat Comparison at the Garden Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

Policies and programmes to achieve food security and sustainable agriculture

Policies and programmes to achieve food security and sustainable agriculture HUNGARY Agriculture (Government focal point(s): Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Mr. Zoltán Kárpáti: tel: +361-301-3533, fax: +361-301-5949, e-mail: karpatiz@fvm.hu and Ms. Rita Francia: tel:

More information

U.S. SOYBEAN SUSTAINABILITY ASSURANCE PROTOCOL

U.S. SOYBEAN SUSTAINABILITY ASSURANCE PROTOCOL US SOYBEAN SUSTAINABILITY ASSURANCE PROTOCOL A Sustainability System That Delivers MARCH 2013 Since 1980, US farmers increased soy production by 96% while using 8% less energy US SOYBEAN SUSTAINABILITY

More information

Part 3. Concept Plans and Table of Works. Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004 77

Part 3. Concept Plans and Table of Works. Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004 77 Part 3 Concept Plans and Table of Works Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004 77 78 Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004 Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004 79 80 Swanson Reserves Management Plan 2004

More information

WEED MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR. (NAME of PROPERTY or MANAGED AREA) (TOWN or COUNTY, STATE) (TIME PERIOD; e.g. 1996-2000)

WEED MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR. (NAME of PROPERTY or MANAGED AREA) (TOWN or COUNTY, STATE) (TIME PERIOD; e.g. 1996-2000) (WEED MANAGEMENT PLAN OUTLINE FOR PUBLIC LAND MANAGERS) (Note: This outline is a modification of a weed management plan template produced by The Nature Conservancy) WEED MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR (NAME of PROPERTY

More information

Did You Know? Neha Rao

Did You Know? Neha Rao Did You Know? 1. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates (Dinerstein

More information

3: Swedwood Karelia s logging plans are questioned based on the perception that the operation plans to cut HCVF.

3: Swedwood Karelia s logging plans are questioned based on the perception that the operation plans to cut HCVF. 21 December 2011 Statement from NEPCon and the Rainforest Alliance regarding the re-certification of Swedwood Karelia LLC (FSC registration code SW-FM/COC-002041) and complaints filed by Protect the Forest

More information

FINAL REPORT. Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80

FINAL REPORT. Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80 FINAL REPORT Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80 Project Manager: Dr MS Mphosi Co-workers: SH Nthangeni, UM du Plessis, AL Rossouw DETAILS PROJECT

More information

To: 1 st November 2013. RE : Updates on Meeting Stakeholder Aspiration on PT Mekar Bumi Andalas

To: 1 st November 2013. RE : Updates on Meeting Stakeholder Aspiration on PT Mekar Bumi Andalas To: 1 st November 2013 Mr Ravin Krishnan The Complaint Co-ordinator RSPO Secretariat Sdn Bhd Unit A-37-1, Level 37, Tower A, Menara UOA Bangsar, No. 5 Jln Bangsar Utama 1, 59000 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia RE

More information

Flora and Fauna. Section 4.9: Flora and Fauna

Flora and Fauna. Section 4.9: Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna Section 4.9: Flora and Fauna BACK OF TAB 81 4.9 Flora and Fauna Objectives Ensure protection of the significant natural environment in and around Sydney Airport Minimise the propagation

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

If you would like more biome reading comprehensions like this, check out my Biome Bundle. It is on sale for 50% off for 3 days only!

If you would like more biome reading comprehensions like this, check out my Biome Bundle. It is on sale for 50% off for 3 days only! If you would like more biome reading comprehensions like this, check out my Biome Bundle. It is on sale for 50% off for 3 days only! Includes: Coral Reefs Deserts Grasslands Arctic Tundra Wetlands Rainforest

More information

NEW JERSEY HIGHLANDS COALITION 508 Main Street, Boonton, New Jersey 07005 973-588-7190 (office)/973-588-7193 (fax)

NEW JERSEY HIGHLANDS COALITION 508 Main Street, Boonton, New Jersey 07005 973-588-7190 (office)/973-588-7193 (fax) NEW JERSEY HIGHLANDS COALITION 508 Main Street, Boonton, New Jersey 07005 973-588-7190 (office)/973-588-7193 (fax) www.njhighlandscoalition.org Forest Stewardship Position Paper of the Natural Heritage

More information

BEECH MAST RESPONSE 2014

BEECH MAST RESPONSE 2014 BEECH MAST RESPONSE 2014 Heavy seeding in our native forests this year will drive high rodent and stoat numbers that prey on endangered birds. Battle for our Birds is a predator control response to protect

More information

Unilever Sustainable Palm Oil Sourcing Policy 2016

Unilever Sustainable Palm Oil Sourcing Policy 2016 Unilever Sustainable Palm Oil Sourcing Policy 2016 Unilever uses palm oil in food products as well as in a range of home and personal care products. Palm oil is a nutritious, versatile raw material, and

More information

Longboat Dr Noeleen Smyth. Pitcairn 24 21 41 S, 128 18 58 W. UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies: 2011 Biodiversity snapshot 87

Longboat Dr Noeleen Smyth. Pitcairn 24 21 41 S, 128 18 58 W. UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies: 2011 Biodiversity snapshot 87 Longboat Dr Noeleen Smyth Pitcairn 24 21 41 S, 128 18 58 W 13 UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies: 2011 Biodiversity snapshot 87 Pitcairn Author: Michele Christian, Division Manager Natural

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY KENNESAW, GEORGIA PREPARED JANUARY 1997 REVISED NOVEMBER 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction and Principles of Integrated Pest Management

More information

OVERVIEW OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR A STRATEGIC URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE CITY OF GUELPH

OVERVIEW OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR A STRATEGIC URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE CITY OF GUELPH OVERVIEW OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR A STRATEGIC URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE CITY OF GUELPH April 2009 URBAN FOREST INNOVATIONS INC. Outline OUTLINE 1.Rationale for a Strategic Urban Forest Management

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Sun The Sun The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Plants Plants Plants need the sun to make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.

More information

Pest Toolkit. Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community. Help is at hand. Main topics: Pest Animal control. pest plant control

Pest Toolkit. Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community. Help is at hand. Main topics: Pest Animal control. pest plant control Pest Toolkit Pg1 Main topics: RPMP Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community Pg2 Pg3 Pg4 Pest Animal control pest plant control weed control in retirement areas Pests are unwanted plants (invasive

More information

Common Grass Frog Fact Sheet

Common Grass Frog Fact Sheet Common Grass Frog Fact Sheet Common Name: Common Grass Frog, also known as common frog Scientific Name: Rana temporaria German Name: Grasfrosch Description: They are typically brown or greyish in color,

More information

Importance of Wildlife

Importance of Wildlife Importance of Wildlife The wildlife comprises all living organism (plants, animals, microorganisms) in their natural habitats which are neither cultivated or domesticated nor tamed. But in its strictest

More information

Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives

Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives A protected area is defined as: An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural

More information

Sustainability Requirements Position of an NGO. World Wide Fund for Nature Martina Fleckenstein 12. March 2010

Sustainability Requirements Position of an NGO. World Wide Fund for Nature Martina Fleckenstein 12. March 2010 Sustainability Requirements Position of an NGO World Wide Fund for Nature Martina Fleckenstein 12. March 2010 Worldwide Fund for Nature Independent foundation, founded 1961 5 mio members worldwide One

More information

CHAPTER 2: APPROACH AND METHODS APPROACH

CHAPTER 2: APPROACH AND METHODS APPROACH CHAPTER 2: APPROACH AND METHODS APPROACH Given Hawaii s biological uniqueness on a global scale, the Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy (CWCS) recognizes the importance of protecting all native

More information

ACMGAS303A Plan for and provide nutritional requirements for animals

ACMGAS303A Plan for and provide nutritional requirements for animals ACMGAS303A Plan for and provide nutritional requirements for animals Revision Number: 1 ACMGAS303A Plan for and provide nutritional requirements for animals Modification History Not applicable. Unit Descriptor

More information

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE

Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE CONTENTS Introduction..1 Convention Guidance... 2 Agricultural

More information

Michigan Wetlands. Department of Environmental Quality

Michigan Wetlands. Department of Environmental Quality Department of Environmental Quality Wetlands are a significant component of Michigan s landscape, covering roughly 5.5 million acres, or 15 percent of the land area of the state. This represents about

More information

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers & Decomposers

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers & Decomposers Kansas Prairies s, s & Decomposers Science, Life Science, Reading, Math Materials Vocabulary worksheet Food Chain worksheet Overview To explore the organisms found on a prairie and identify the various

More information

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED ENDANGERED AND THREATENED Understand how species in the Sonoran Desert Region may become endangered or threatened and what is being done to protect them. ARIZONA SCIENCE STANDARDS SC03-S4C3-03&04, SC08-S1C3-07,

More information

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology Fact Sheet for Adaptation Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology: Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Guidelines. for a Native Vegetation Significant Environmental Benefit Policy for the clearance of scattered trees. Approved August 2007

Guidelines. for a Native Vegetation Significant Environmental Benefit Policy for the clearance of scattered trees. Approved August 2007 Guidelines for a Native Vegetation Significant Environmental Benefit Policy for the clearance of scattered trees Approved August 2007 WEB LINKS Native Vegetation in South Australia http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/nativevegetation

More information

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Overview Pollination, the transfer of pollen grains to fertilize the ovules of flowers to produce seeds and fruits, is essential to agriculture and natural

More information

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region Growing Cocoa Beans All chocolate begins with cocoa beans, the fruit of the cacao tree (also called a cocoa tree). Scientists know that the cacao tree originated somewhere in South or Central America.

More information

We can look at agricultural data in two general groups:

We can look at agricultural data in two general groups: The agricultural statistics series will be based on the Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics that is located in the resource section and available from the Wikipedia web page (wiki.asfoc.ibge.gov.br).

More information

Conquer Pest Control Ltd. Mammal Control

Conquer Pest Control Ltd. Mammal Control Mammal Control Effective Rodent Control to minimise risks and avoidable costs Rodents are the largest group of mammals with over 1500 representative species worldwide, but just 15 are known to reside in

More information