Compacted Road Base and Subbase Soils

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1 Compacted Road Base and Subbase Soils INTRODUCTION When highway or railway earthworks, bases, subbases and dams are constructed and subgrades are prepared, it is necessary to compact the material mechanically, to confer a high degree of density. This procedure increases the shear strength, reduces the permeability and water absorption, and reduces the tendency to settle under repeated loading. Compaction is therefore defined as the process of increasing the density of a material by mechanical means. To simulate the procedure adopted in the earthworks to obtain a defined level of compaction in the field, several laboratory tests have been developed over the years; they only differ for the different level of energy applied to the soil sample. The terms percent compaction or relative compaction usually refer to the ratio of the dry weight per unit volume of a field-compacted soil, compacted with mechanical equipment, to the maximum dry weight per unit volume of the same soil, compacted in the laboratory in accordance with a standard procedure, at the optimum moisture content. The new EN standards: EN Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures. Test methods for laboratory dry density and water content. A number of new EN standards have been developed or are under development covering this subject. The test methods are practically identical to those of the other standards except for some dimension and specification of testing apparatus. For this reason we prefer to propose separately all the EN testing apparatus even if, very often, they are identical to those referring to other standards. 132

2 Compacted road base and subbase soils Contents Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Proctor rammers and moulds Automatic compactors Vibration compaction hammer Relative density test set Moisture condition Value (MCV) Compaction penetrometer CBR-(IBI)*Immediate Bearig Index CBR equipment Loading presses Multispeed tester Field CBR apparatus Accessories to perform Uniaxial and Unconfined compression tests Impact soil tester Determination of strength of stabilised soil Field and laboratory density / bearing capacity Sand replacement method Balloon method Surface soil sampler (core cutter) method Field density of undisturbed soil Plate load testing Measurement of a rolling load deflection by the modified Benkelman beam Dynamic deformation module of soils Permeability Constant and falling head apparatus Determination of dispersibility Compaction permeameters and stands * The immediate Bearing Index (IBI) prescribed by the EN does not require the curing and the surcharge weight. 133

3 33 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship... EN Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures. Proctor compaction Proctor moulds Used for determining the relationship between the moisture content and density of compacted soil. Made of plated steel. Includes collar, mould body and base plate. Different models are available conforming to the various specifications in use. They are identical in shape and slightly differ in diameter and capacity. Proctor rammers Used to compact the soil sample in the Proctor moulds. Made of plated steel. Guide sleeve with vent holes. Different models are available conforming to the various specifications in use. EN Proctor moulds scode Description Int. dia. mm Int. height mm Weight approx. kg 33-T0070/E EN Proctor mould 100 ± ± T0071/E EN Proctor mould (large) 150 ± ± EN Proctor rammers scode Description Mass of Diameter of Height of rammer kg base mm fall mm 33-T0075/E EN Proctor rammer, low energy 2.50 ± ± ± 3 33-T0076/E EN Proctor rammer, medium energy 4.50 ± ± ± 3 EN Proctor steel plates scode Description Diameter mm Thick mm Weight approx. kg 33-T0070/E1 EN Steel plate T0071/E1 EN Steel plate (large) T0071/1 Perforated steel plate for 33-T0071/E Compaction equipment EN Compaction equipment 134

4 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship Proctor compaction ( continued) 33 Proctor moulds scode Description Standards Capacity Int. dia. Body Weight cm 3 mm height mm approx. kg ASTM, AASHTO, CNR models 33-T0070 Standard Proctor ASTM D558, D698, mould D AASHTO T99, T134, T180 - CNR N T0071 Modified Proctor ASTM D698, D mould AASHTO T99, T180 CNR N T0073 Split modified / Proctor mould ASTM NF models 33-T0070 Standard Proctor mould NF P T0072 Split standard NF P Proctor mould 34-T0089 Modified Proctor NF P mould NF P T0089/1 Split modified NF P Proctor mould NF P NLT UNE models 33-T0071/C Modified NLT-108/ Proctor mould, NLT 33-T0070/C UNE Standard UNE compaction mould 33-T0071/C3 Modified split mould NLT-108/ , T0070/C3 Standard split mould UNE ,4 8 BS model 33-T0070/B BS Standard BS 1377:4, 1924: compaction mould Proctor rammers scode Description Standards Rammer Free fall Rammer Weight mm dia. height mm weight kg approx. kg ASTM, AASHTO, CNR models 33-T0075 Proctor Standard ASTM D558, D698, D compaction rammer AASHTO T99, T134, T180 CNR N T0076 Modified compaction ASTM D698, D rammer AASHTO T99, T180, CNR N 69 NF models 33-T0075 Proctor Standard NF P94-078, P compaction rammer NF P T0076 NF modified NF P94-093, P compaction rammer NLT UNE models 33-T0075 Proctor Standard UNE compaction rammer 33-T0076 NLT modified NLT-108/ compaction rammer BS models 33-T0075/B BS Standard BS 1377:4, 1924: compaction rammer 33-T0076/B BS modified BS 1377:4, 1924: compaction rammer 135

5 33 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship... Automatic Proctor/CBR compactors Compacto 33-T8500 Series Automatic Proctor/CBR compactors Introduction This new and advanced digital model can be supplied in two versions: Standard models 33-T8502 (230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph.), 33-T8503 (220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph.), 33-T8504 (110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph.) Programmable model 33-T8532 (230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph.) The two versions are identical except for the digital control: the standard model is factory programmed to perform all standard compaction conforming American ASTM/AASHTO and European EN, BS, NLT whilst the programmable model can also be set to suit special compaction cycles for research purposes and can perform the central compaction blows in the 6 (150 mm) dia. moulds conforming the French NF and the Dutch RAV standards. The 33-T8502, 33-T8503, and 33-T8504 compactors do not include the internal rammer, which has to be ordered separately conforming the selected standards. All models can be supplied complete with noise reduction cabinet (See Upgrading option code 33-T8500/XUP). EN , -47 CNR UNI CNR 69 - ASTM D698, D1557, ASTM D AASHTO T 99, T 180, T BS 1377:4, NF P (2) - NLT 107/91, 108/91, 111/87 - DIN (1) - RAV 2000 (2) (1) Conforming to DIN, 100 mm dia. moulds only (2) With models 33-T8532 only Standard models M 33-T8502 Digital automatic Proctor/CBR compactor (without rammer). 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T8503 Digital automatic Proctor/CBR compactor (without rammer). 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T8504 Digital automatic Proctor/CBR compactor (without rammer). 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. Technical specifications Usable for moulds diameter: from 100 to 102 and from 150 to mm Selectable rammer drop: 300, 305, 450, 457 mm (adjustable) Blow rate: 30 blows/min Power: 740 W B Overall dimensions: 490x340x1410 mm A Weight approx.: 150 kg 33-T8502, 33-T8503, 33-T8504. Detail of the control panel. The display counts the number of blows selected by the operator, the number of layers and the diameter of mould. An emergency stop button is included as standard N O T E a) The 33-T8502, T8503, and T8504 compactors have to be completed with the suitable rammer conforming to the selected standards. See compaction rammers. b) All compactors can be supplied fitted in the noise reduction cabinet (See Upgrading option code 33-T8500/XUP). Compaction rammers Main features - Automatic control - Compaction cycles conforming to EN ASTM, AASHTO, BS, NLT, CNR-UNI - User defined compaction sequence - Protection guards for operator safety (CE) - Noise reduction cabinet available - Digital touch button console - Unique hammer lifting device to guarantee correct drop height - Easy use and maintenance - Modern and reliable design to ensure long working life - Compaction energies and distribution in accordance with standards 33-T8502, 33-T8503, 33-T8504 models scode Description Standards 33-T8500/1 Hammer for 33-T8500 Series ASTM D698, D1557, D1883 Automatic compactors, 50.8 mm dia., AASHTO T99, T180, T /4535 g weight CNR UNI CNR T8500/2 Hammer for 33-T8500 Series EN , -47 Automatic compactors, 50 mm dia., BS 1377:4, /4535 g weight NF P NLT 107/91, 108/91, 111/87 DIN RAV

6 33 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship... Automatic Proctor/CBR compactors (continued) Compacto 33-T8500 series (all models). Distribution of drop pattern. Compacto 33-T8532. Distribution by central blow required by NF and selectable by software. Mould Mould Mould Mould Ø mm Ø mm Ø mm Ø 152 mm 33-T8500 Series with CBR mould. View with open doors. Closing the doors all moving parts are shielded and micro switches prevent operation with the doors open. This design makes maintenance extremely easy. The upper frame housing the rammer mechanism moves automatically angularly for the total surface compaction of the mm dia. (6 ) moulded specimens. The rammer pick-up has a cam system for accurate height release and is made of highly resistant material for trouble free long life. The rammer portion is moved across the sample surface by a cogged gear whilst the mould rotates on the lower table 138

7 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship Automatic compactors (continued) 33 COMPACTO 33-T8600 Series Automatic Proctor/CBR (1) Compactor Conforming to: ASTM D698, D1557 AASHTO T99, T180, T193 (1) BS 1377:4, 1990 (2) NLT 107/91, 108/91, 111/87 (1) Conforming to AASHTO T193 only (2) For 100 mm dia. moulds only Technical specifications Diameter of moulds that can be used: from 100 to 102 mm and from 150 to mm Selection of hammer drop height: 300, 305, 450, 457 mm Drop frequency: 30 blows/min Power: 900 W approx. B Dimensions: 521x403x1438 mm A Weight approx.: 140 kg Main features - Automatic control - Protection guards for operator safety (CE) - Noise reduction cabinet version available - Digital touch button console - Unique hammer lifting device to guarantee correct drop height - Easy use and maintenance - Modern and reliable design features to ensure long working life Available models M 33-T8612 Automatic Proctor/CBR digital compactor conforming to ASTM/ AASHTO, complete with CE protection. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T8613 Same as above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T8614 Same as above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. General description and specifications Automatic compactors allow uniform and correct compaction of Proctor and CBR (1) samples. All moving parts, the hammerlifting device and the rotating mould table are fitted with safety guards that, if open, stop the machine automatically for operator safety. The operator can easily select, by the control panel, the number of drops in conformity with the reference standard, or user defined. The compactor is provided with a 2495/4535 g hammer with double interchangeable tip (50.8 mm circular face, for 4 moulds, and sector face, for 6 moulds), conforming to ASTM/AASHTO standards but it is possible to convert the 33-T8612 to, EN BS and NLT standards (only for 100 mm moulds) simply by changing the hammer (33-T8500/2 see page 136) and the drop height. The compactor can be used with all 4 and 6 Controls moulds, and the use of other make is also possible, with a simple modification of the mould base to fit the table of the compactor. All models can be supplied complete with noise reduction cabinet. See upgrading option code 33-T8500/XUP on page T8612 with CBR mould. Shown with protection guards open. Maintenance and use operations are very simple. When guard doors are opened the machine stops automatically Detail of the mechanical rammer sector face with the interchangeable circular face to compact both 6 and 4 dia. moulds 33-T8612 Control panel of the Automatic Compactor 33-T8612. The display counts the number of blows conforming to the select standard. 139

8 33 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship... Vibration compaction hammer / Compressive strenght of Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Vibration compaction hammer EN BS 1377:4-3.7, 1924:2 - New EN - also conforming to BS 1377:4 M 33-T8700 Vibrating hammer. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. General description and specifications Used for the compaction of Proctor and CBR soil specimens. Using the appropriate tamping foot it can also be used for compacting asphalt in the percentage refusal density test (see page 391). Double insulated motor, plastic trigger handle. Power: 750 W Length: 445 mm B Overall dimensions (wxlxh): 104x430x270 mm A Weight approx.: 7 kg The hammer is supplied without support frame and tamper which have to be ordered separately. 33-T8700 with 33-T0087/A, and 33-T0087/7, 33-T0087/8 and mould Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Determination of compressive strength EN , T8700 with 33-T0087/7 and 33-T0087/8 Accessories s33-t0087/a Supporting frame for vibrating hammer. Weight 70 kg approx. s33-t0087/6 Tamping foot 102 mmdia. s33-t0087/7 CBR tamping foot 145 mm dia. Weight 2.1 kg s33-t0087/8 Shank 300 mm long The compression test on soil-cement mixtures cylindrical specimens can be performed with compression testing machines normally used for cement or concrete testing depending on the expected strength. The following machines should be suitable to perform the test. Further description and technical information are given on pages 325 and L1232/C Compression testing machine 250 kn cap. 70-S16C2 Compression testing machine 250 kn cap. complete with 86-D2999 PC cabinet 140

9 Compacted road base and subbase soils Moisture/ Density relationship CBR mould and accessories 33 mould and accessories: EN , BS 1377:4, 1924:2 version (1) scode Description Weight approx. (kg) 34-T0090/B1 CBR mould body, plated steel, with both ends threaded to fit the base 3 or collar. 152 mm ID. x 127 mm high 34-T0090/B2 Extension collar. 152 mm IDx 50 mm high 1 34-T0090/B3 Perforated base plate T0090/B4 Solid base or top plate T0090/B5 Cutting collar 1 34-T0090/B6 C spanner. To mount and to dismount the collar from the mould body. 1 Two are required for the operation 34-T0090/B7 Tool for base plate. To remove or mount the solid or perforated 1 base plate from the mould 34-T0091/B Compaction plug with handle. 150 mm dia. x 50 mm high T0094/B Annular surcharge weight, 2 kg 2 34-T0095/B Split surcharge weight, 2 kg 2 34-T0095/C Tamping bar mm dia. x 380 mm long D1800 Whatman filter paper or correspondent No. 1x150 mm dia. Pack of 100 / 34-T0099 Straightedge. 3x30x300 mm D1694 Steel rule, 500 mm long / 16-T0080* Universal Proctor/CBR/Marshall extruder 25 * See description on page 46 (1) For ASTM. AASHTO. NF, UNE and UNI versions see pages 144 and T0091/B 34-T0090/B1 34-T0090/B2 34-T0090/B5 34-T0090/B3 34-T0090/B4 34-T0094/B 34-T0090/B7 34-T0090/B6 34-T0095/B 141

10 33 Compacted road base and subbase soils Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures... Relative density of cohesionless soil Vibrating table EN version EN M 33-T0063/A EN Relative density test. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. This method covers the determination of the maximum dry density and water content of cohesionless materials when compacted using a vibrating table. Materials for which this method is applicable may contain up to 12% by mass fines (< mm). The maximum particle size of the materials to be tested is 80 mm. This method applies to mixtures to be used in road construction. The test set comprises: s33-t0063/1 Vibrating table having the following specifications: - Vibration frequency: 3600 r.p.m. - Amplitude range: 0.05 to 0.64 mm (0.002 to in.) - Vibrator type: electromagnetic - Separate amplitude control panel - Table dimensions: 762x762 mm (30x30 in.) - Table capacity: 250 kg s 33-T0063/ cm3 (0.5 cu. ft.) mould set s33-t0063/4 Relative density gauge set s33-t0063/5 25 mm pouring device A Total weight approx.: 289 kg approx. ASTM version ASTM D4253, 4254 M 33-T0063 ASTM Relative density set. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T0063/Z Same as above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. M 33-T0063/Y Same as above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. Used for the determination of the relative density of cohesionless soil for which impact compaction will not produce a well defined moisture-density relationship curve and where the maximum density by the impact method will generally be less than by vibratory method. General specifications Same as the 33-T0063/A EN version except for the complete set which also comprises the 0.1 cm. ft. mould and the set of two pouring devices. The set comprises: s 33-T0063/1 Vibrating table. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. Weight: 180 kg approx. or s 33-T0063/1Z Vibrating table. 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. Weight: 180 kg approx. or s 33-T0063/1Y Vibrating table. 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. Weight: 180 kg approx. s 33-T0063/2 0.1 cu. ft. relative density mould set Weight: 37 kg approx. s 33-T0063/3 0.5 cu. ft. relative density mould set Weight: 106 kg approx. s 33-T0063/4 Relative density gauge set Weight: 2 kg approx. s 33-T0063/7 Set of two pouring devices, 12.5 and 25 mm dia. Weight 1.5 kg approx. Each part can be ordered individually. 33-T T0063/7 142

11 Compacted road base and subbase soils Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Compactability/ Proctor penetrometers 33 Determination of compactability. Moisture condition value. MCV Moisture condition and chalk crushing value EN BS 1377, TRL approved M 33-T0064 Moisture condition apparatus Used in the assessment of earthworks for construction by comparison of compaction characteristics at various moisture contents, to determine Moisture condition value and Chalk crushing value. A robust apparatus designed for use in the construction laboratory and incorporating rammer, scale, counter, and mould. A Weight approx.: 55 kg Accessories s33-t0064/2 Fibre discs. Pack of 6 33-T0165 Compaction penetrometers ASTM D1558 M 33-T0165 Proctor penetrometer Used for establishing the moisture-penetration resistance relationship of fine-grained soil. Spring type model Load scale: 0-55 kg, 1 kg subdiv. with max. load indicator Diameter of interchangeable needles: 28.55, 24.79, 20.22, 16.54, 12.83, 9.07, 6.40, 5.23, and 4.52 mm Supplied in a wooden carrying case A Weight approx.: 3.5 kg 33-T T0064 M 33-T0166 Load ring penetrometer Used for measuring the bearing strength and compaction degree of soils. The apparatus consists of a T shaped handle connected to a load ring 1 kn (100 kgf) cap., with max. load pointer and of an extension rod with five 100 mm graduations. The 30 degree end cone has 645 mm2 area (1 sq. in.). Supplied complete with calibration chart. A Weight approx.: 4 kg 143

12 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR)... CBR equipment California Bearing Ratio - CBR This method is used for the laboratory evaluation of subgrade and subbase coarse materials in road construction. The apparatus comprises moulds with accessories, compaction rammers (the automatic models are the same used for the compaction of Proctor moulds - see Compacto 33-T8500 and T8600 Series pages 136 to 139) loading testing machines with accessories, etc. Different models are available conforming to the various specifications in use. EN version: Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures EN scode Description Weight approx. (kg) 33-T0071/E Large Proctor / CBR mould T0071/1 Perforated base plate 1 34-T0094/E Annular surcharge 2 34-T0099 Straight edge 0.3 ASTM D1883 AASHTO T 193 UNE CNR UNI EN version scode Description Weight approx. (kg) 34-T0090 CBR mould complete with collar and perforated base plate. 7.8 Plated steel, 6 in. (152.4 mm) dia. x 7 in. (177.8 mm) body height 34-T0090/1 Split CBR mould complete with collar and perforated base plate. Same dimension of 34-T0090. Split longitudinally on one side to permit easy withdrawal of sample T0090/3 Filter screen. Stainless steel woven mesh, No. 100 (150 µm), 144 mm dia. / 34-T0091 Spacer disc with T handle / 16 in. dia. (150.8 mm) x in. (61.4 mm) high T0091/1 Spacer disc conforming to UNE standards T0094 Annular surcharge weight, 2.27 kg T0095 Slotted surcharge weight, 2.27 kg T0096 Sliding weight rammer. Rammer face 2 in. (50.8 mm) dia. free fall height 18 in. (457.2 mm), sliding weight 10 lb. (4.54 kg) 8 34-T0098 Cutting edge T0099 Straight edge. 3x30x300 mm T0097 Solid CBR base 1 86-D1801 Whatman filter paper. No. 5x150 mm dia. Pack of 100 / 34-T T T T T T0091/1 34-T T T T T0094/F 34-T T0095/F ASTM, AASHTO, UNE, UNI, CNR version NF version 34-T

13 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) CBR equipment (continued) 34 NF French version, NF P94-078, P94-093, P scode Description Weight approx. (kg) 34-T0089 NF CBR mould cm 3 cap., complete 9 with collar and perforated base plate. 152 mm ID x 152 mm body height. Plated steel 34-T0089/1 Split NF CBR mould, dimension as above 9 34-T0091/1 Spacer disc with handle mm dia. x 36 mm high 34-T0091/F Spacer disc 25.4 mm high T0094/F Annular surcharge weight, 2.3 kg T0095/F Split surcharge weight, 2.3 kg T0098 Cutting edge T0099 Straightedge. 3x30x300 mm T0090/1, 34-T0089/1 BS Version, BS 1377:4, 1924:2 scode Description Weight approx. (kg) 34-T0090/B1 CBR mould body, plated steel, with both ends threaded to fit the base 3 or collar. 152 mm ID. x 127 mm high 34-T0090/B2 Extension collar. 152 mm IDx 50 mm high 1 34-T0090/B3 Perforated base plate T0090/B4 Solid base or top plate T0090/B5 Cutting collar 1 34-T0090/B6 C spanner. To mount and to dismount the collar from the mould body. 1 Two are required for the operation 34-T0090/B7 Tool for base plate. To remove or mount the solid or perforated base plate from the mould 1 34-T0091/B Compaction plug with handle. 150 mm dia. x 50 mm high T0094/B Annular surcharge weight, 2 kg 2 34-T0095/B Split surcharge weight, 2 kg 2 34-T0095/C Tamping bar mm dia. x 380 mm long D1800 Whatman filter paper or correspondent No. 1x150 mm dia. Pack of 100 / 34-T0099 Straightedge. 3x30x300 mm D1694 Steel rule, 500 mm long / 16-T0080* Universal Proctor/CBR/Marshall extruder 25 * See description on page T0090/B1 34-T0091/B 34-T0090/B2 34-T0090/B5 34-T0090/B3 34-T90/B4 34-T0094/B 34-T0090/B7 34-T0090/B6 34-T0095/B BS version 145

14 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI)... CBR equipment (continued) Swell test apparatus M 34-T0092 Perforated plate with adjustable stem (swell plate) M 34-T0092/F Same as above conforming to NF standards Placed on top of the soil sample to enable monitoring of swelling. Manufactured from plated steel except disc of 34-T0092/F in plastic with 3 mm dia. holes. B Diameter: 34-T0092: mm (5 7 / 8 in.); 34-T0092/F: 150 mm A Weight approx.: 34-T0092: 1 kg; 34-T0092/F: 0.3 kg 34-T0093 with 82-D1255, 34-T0092 M 34-T0093 Dial gauge tripod Used to support the dial gauge for monitoring the swelling of CBR samples. Made from a special non-corrodable alloy. A Weight approx.: 0.3 kg Accessories s82-d1256 Dial gauge 25 mm range, 0.01 mm subdiv. or s82-d1255 Dial gauge 10 mm range, 0.01 mm subdiv. M 34-T0100/B Large soaking tank In this plastic water tank the CBR moulds are immersed during the swelling test. Supplied complete with supporting base, which allows free water circulation. Capacity: 6 CBR moulds B Dimensions: - ex. 800x600x550 mm - in. 680x490x540 mm A Weight approx.: 9.1 kg CBR Loading frames and presses EN ASTM D1883 AASHTO T193 Introduction The CBR penetration test can be performed with different testing machines: - Specific model 34-T0106 Series, single speed - Multispeed testing machine also used to perform other tests (e.g. Marshall test), 34-T0107 Series (see page 150) - Universal Uniframe tester working either in speed or load control 70-T0108/E Series (see page 354) - Universal high capacity Multiensayo tester 70-S16C2 and 70-S17C2 Series (see page 334) All the above have to be completed by the suitable accessories, which may change conforming to the standard in use and the level of sophistication preferred. For instance, the specific model Series 34-T0106 can be equipped either with a standard load ring and dial gauge or with an electronic load cell, displacement transducer, digital data acquisition and software for PC connection. Finally, to simplify your selection we propose the above model complete with CBR accessories in the analogic version (see 34-T0106/A) and the frame only 34-T0106 to be completed with standard or digital accessories. Hand operated models for field use are also available (see page 154). 34-T0100/B with CBR moulds 146

15 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) CBR Loading presses (continued) 34 CBR Loading frame (Continued) M 34-T0106/A CBR mechanical loading press, 50 kn cap., testing speed 1.27 mm/ min. Complete with 50 kn Loading ring, adjustable penetration piston and gauge. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. (1) M 34-T0106 CBR mechanical loading frame, 50 kn cap., testing speed 1.27 mm/min. Frame only. 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph. (1) General description The machine features a rigid two-column frame with upper crossbeam, which can be adjusted in height and locked in position with locknuts. The drive force is provided by a mechanical jack housed in the base cabinet, which also accommodates the motor and the electric panel. As specified, the 34-T0106/A version include all accessories to perform the test: 50 kn loading ring, adjustable penetration piston and gauge. Specifications Maximum load: 50 kn Test speed: 1.27 mm/min Max. ram travel: 120 mm Horizontal span: 270 mm Power rating: 300 W B Dimensions (dxwxh): 392x495x1194 mm A Weight approx.: 78 kg (1) For 220 V, 60 Hz models add the suffix /Y after the code number (e.g. 34-T0106/Y); for 110 V, 60 Hz models add the suffix /Z after the code num 34-T0106/A with CBR mould 34-T0106 series in Digital configuration. The 34-T0106 frame can be equipped with a set of accessories to perform the test in digital mode. The system shall include the 34-T0107/CBR test set and the 76-Q0802/C Digimax Plus data acquisition and processing system, two channel version (also suitable for Marshall test), fully described on page

16 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI)... CBR loading presses (continued) CBR ACCESSORIES For the analogic configuration. As specified, the 34-T0106 frame only, can be completed by the standard CBR accessories 34-T0103/3 Penetration assembly and by the 82-T1009 load ring which are however all included in the 34-T0106/A model but are listed here for possible use with others frames. M 34-T0103/3 CBR penetration assembly including 34-T0103/1 Adjustable penetration piston, 34-T0104/81 Dial gauge holder, and 82-D1257 Dial gauge The piston, 49.6 mm dia. with hardened surface is fitted with a locking collar and a threaded extension for the connection to the load ring. The dial gauge holder can be easily laterally adjusted to fit any type of moulds or reference anvil. A Weight approx.: 2.8 kg 34-T0103/3 including: 34-T0103/1, T0104/7 and 82-D1257 (all assembly) CBR TEST SET for the digital configuration M 34-T0107/CBR Test set to perform the CBR test in digital mode with the 34-T0107, 34-T0106 and 70-T0108 testers Including: Guide bracket Load cell adapter 50 kn load cell Connector load cell/accessory Adjustable transducer holder 25 mm electronic displacement transducer Adjustable penetration piston. M 76-Q0802/C Digimax Plus, dual channel digital display and processing unit, suitable for Marshall, CBR and other load/displacement tests. 230 V, Hz, 1 ph. For complete description see page 152 M 76-Q0802/CZ Digimax Plus, dual channel digital display and processing unit, suitable for Marshall, CBR and other load/displacement tests. 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph. M 82-S1001 PC software MS Windows for Marshall, CBR and Indirect tensile testing (Optional: for more information see page 152) 34-T0106 Frame only. To be completed with analogic or digital CBR accessories 82-T T0107/CBR 148

17 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) CBR Loading presses (continued) 34 CBR Accessories for the digital configuration (All included in the 34-T0107/CBR set. Description by single item) M 34-T0103/1 Adjustable CBR penetration piston 49.6 mm dia. with hardened surface. Comprising a locking collar and a threaded extension for the connection to the load ring or to the load cell connector. A Weight approx.: 2.2 kg M 34-T0104/81 Adjustable transducer holder To fit the 34-T0103/1 Adjustable CBR penetration piston or compression device and to hold the displacement transducer, which can be adjusted conforming to the mould or to the reference anvil. 82-S1001 Draft of CBR test software. M 82-P0375/C Adapter to fit load cell To connect the load cell with the ball seating arrangement of the 34-T0103/10 guide bracket. A Weight approx.: 0.2 kg M 82-P0375 Load cell 50 kn cap. Dimensions 82 mm dia. x 110 mm length. M30x2 thread. A Weight approx.: 0.5 kg M 82-P mm displacement transducer Linear potentiometric transducer, 25 mm travel, infinite resolution, accuracy ± 0.5%. A Weight approx.: 0.15 kg A Weight approx.: 4.45 kg M 70-T0108/2 Connector load cell/accessory A Weight approx.: 1.3 kg 76-Q0802/C 149

18 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR)... Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) CBR loading presses/ Multispeed Multispeed tester CBR EN ASTM D1883, BS 1377:4, NF P94-078, UNI CNR Marshall EN ASTM D1559, BS 598, NF P98-251, DIN 1996, CNR No. 30 M 34-T0107 Multispeed compression tester 50 kn capacity, testing speeds adjustable from 0.1 to 51 mm/min. Frame only. 230 V, Hz, 1 ph. (1) General description The machine features a very rigid twocolumn frame with the upper crossbeam, which can be adjusted in height and locked in position with locknuts. The base cabinet houses the load jack, D.C. motor and electronic controls. The machine, which is suitable for wide range of tests such as CBR, MARSHALL, QUICK TRIAXIAL, UNCONFINED, SPLITTING TENSILE TESTS, etc. can be completed with accessories in the analogic and digital version as shown in the pictures. In the digital version, the load and displacement transducers have to be connected to the Digimax Plus 76-Q0802/C or 82-Q0806/C depending on the type of tests to be performed. A limit cut-off switch stops the machine at the maximum platen travel. (1) For the 110 V, 60 Hz model add the suffix /Z to the code (e.g. 34-T0107/Z). Specifications Max. capacity: 50 kn Testing speed range: infinitely variable from 0.1 to 51 mm/min Max. ram travel: 100 mm Horizontal span: 380 mm Max. vertical span: 800 mm (without accessories) Power rating: 1100 W B Dimensions approx.: 500x570x1300 mm (dxwxh) A Weight approx.: 110 kg N O T E Using the Multispeed 34-T0107 for the Marshall test too, to avoid accessories duplication see page Ideal for Road Testing labs - Suitable for CBR, Marshall and various other tests - Fully variable test speed from 0.1 to 51 mm/min - High versatility: full range of accessories available - Digital or analogic sensors - Digital versions connectable to PC - Various testing software available 34-T0107 with 34-T0107/CBR and 76-Q0802/C 34-T T0107 with 82-T1009, 34-T0103/3 and mould conforming to ASTM and EN standards 150

19 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) Multispeed/ CBR and Marshall accessories 34 Multispeed tester (CONTINUED) Accessories to perform the CBR and Marshall test Introduction Very often this machine is used for both CBR and Marshall tests. In order to speed up your selection, we also propose complete set of accessories to perform the above tests either in the analogic or digital mode. In the digital mode, the complete testing system: 34-T0107 tester plus the selected accessories, shall also include the Digimax Plus data acquisition and processing system. This datalogger is available in two versions: 76-Q0802/C Digimax Plus, three channels capacity for CBR and Marshall tests and 82-Q0806/C, six channels capacity also suitable for Indirect tensile and Splitting tensile test (see page 418). CBR and Marshall test accessories for 34-T0107 Multispeed tester Code 82-T T0103/3 CBR Load ring 50 kn cap. CBR penetration assembly including Adjustable penetration piston, Dial gauge holder, and dial gauge 30x0.01 mm Analogic mode Code 34-T0103/10 82-T1007/F 34-T0104/10 76-B B0034 Marshall Guide and ball seating attachment 30 kn load ring with stem brake Compression device Stability mould Flow meter 76-Q0802/C For more information see page 148 For more information see page 381 Digital mode Code 34-T0107/CBR 76-Q0802/C CBR Test set to perform the CBR test in digital mode with the 34-T0107, 34-T0106 and 70-T0108 testers Including: - Guide bracket - Load cell adapter - 50 kn load cell - Connector load cell/accessory - Adjustable transducer holder - 25 mm electronic displacement transducer - Adjustable penetration piston. Digimax Plus, dual channel digital display and processing unit, suitable for CBR, Marshall and other load displacement tests. 230 V, Hz, 1 ph. Code 76-B T0107/MAR 76-Q0802/C Marshall Stability mould Test set to perform the Marshall test in digital mode with the 34-T0107 and 70-T0108 testers Including: - Guide bracket - Load cell adapter - 50 kn load cell - Connector load cell/accessory - Compression device extension - Adjustable transducer holder - 25 mm electronic displacement transducer - Compression device Digimax Plus, dual channel digital display and processing unit, suitable for CBR, Marshall and other load displacement tests. 230 V, Hz, 1 ph. For more information see page 393 For more information see page 393 Combined CBR and Marshall (to avoid duplication) 34-T0107/CM 76-B Q0802/C 82-S1001 Test set to perform the CBR and Marshall test in digital mode with the 34-T0107 and 70-T0108 testers Including: - Guide bracket - Load cell adapter - 50 kn load cell - Connector load cell/accessory - Compression device extension - Adjustable transducer holder - 25 mm electronic displacement transducer - Compression device - Adjustable penetration piston Stability mould Digimax Plus, dual channel digital display and processing unit, suitable for CBR, Marshall and other load displacement tests. 230 V, Hz, 1 ph. PC software MS Windows for CBR,Marshall and Indirect tensile testing. (Optional. For more information see page 152) 151

20 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR)... Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) Data acquisition and processing for 34-T0106 and 34-T0107 CBR testing machines Introduction The digital versions of the above CBR machines include the 76-Q0802/C Digimax Plus system, which is fully described below. The digital version can be completed by the 82-S1001 software for use with PC. M 76-Q0802/C Digimax Plus, CBR/Marshall version As specified in the general description, the Multispeed 34-T0106 and the 34-T0107 can be fitted with load cell and displacement transducer connected to the Digimax Plus data acquisition and processing system. Load and penetration are displayed in real time on the large graphic screen together with the curve. The Digimax Plus can be connected, by the RS 232 port, to a PC and printer to provide, using the specific software (code 82-S1001), the calculation of test parameters, the completion of the test data (client name, weight and density of the specimen) and the test certificate. Hardware specifications - Microprocessor Hitachi H8S 16 bit - Chip clock calendar - 8 KB large permanent memory to store test data and results - No. 2 RS 232 serial ports for connection to PC and printer for real time transmission of data - No. 2 analogic channels: one for strain gauge transducer and one for linear transducer - Resolution of each channel: points - Large graphic display 240x128 pixel - No. 10 keys membrane keyboard: No. 4 of which interactive with the specific software. Firmware - Simultaneous measurement of load and displacement (Marshall test) or Indirect tensile strength in Gpa - Choice of language: English, French, Spanish, German, and Italian - Input of operator name - Automatic or manual zeroing option. Displacement reading taken only above the pre-load input value and simultaneous display of load and displacement (Marshall test) - Simultaneous display of load, displacement, and graph option - Permanent memory to store results including date, time, test number, operator, test type, load and displacement, and curves - File management including test display, print, test certificate to printer by the dedicated serial port, downloading data to PC by the RS 232 port, delete single or all files - Calibration function using different coefficient for the two channels. M 82-S1001 PC software for CBR, Marshall, and Indirect tensile test with 4 displacement transducers General description This program is written to run in MS Windows for data acquisition, via a RS 232 serial port, from Controls instruments used for Marshall, CBR and Indirect tensile tests with 4 displacement transducers, producing the test certificates as shown in the examples. Compatible with Digimax Plus model 76-Q0802/C and 82-Q0806/C, Uniframe model 70-T0108/A and 70-T0108/E Graphical and numerical display of acquired data in real or deferred time Input of descriptive data used to create a test report Saving and management of tests through single files Data export in MS Excel Language selection between English, Italian, French, and Spanish plus an extra language that can be input by the user by translating the various messages. The minimum PC requirements are as follows: Processor with clock 500 MHz or better At least 200 Mb of free space on hard disk 256 Mb of RAM memory (recommended 512 or more) CD-ROM Reader 1 free RS 232 port Windows 2000 Professional or XP Recommended MS Excel Printer A4 format. 82-S1001 test selection menu CBR test data Window Example of CBR test certificate after export to Excel 152

21 Compacted road base and subbase soils California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) Universal testers suitable for CBR test (continued) 34 Uniframe M 70-T0108/E UNIFRAME, digital universal compression tester 50 kn cap. strain controlled from 0.01 mm/min to 51 mm/min and load rate controlled from 0.01 to N/s. Frame only V, Hz, 1 ph. CBR test accessories s Code Description 34-T0103/10 Guide bracket and ball seating, 82-P0375/C Connecting adapter load cell/crosshead 82-P0375 Strain gauge load cell 50 kn cap. 34-T0103/1 Adjustable CBR penetration piston 34-T0108/2 Connector load cell-accessory (For detailed description see page 148 and 149) The machine is fully described on Section 70, page 352 Multiensayo Main features - Load and displacement control by closed loop logic - Two channel for load cells - Two channel for displacement transducers - Large graphic display 128x240 pixel - Can store in memory up to 50 tests - RS 232 port to download simultaneously to PC and printer - Graphic display available in real time - Unique low cost tester working on load and/or displacement control - Extensive range of accessories and dedicated software packages available - Built-in firmware for CBR, Marshall, general load and displacement control testing Universal electromechanical testers 200 and 300 kn cap., load, elongation and displacement controlled. The machines, available in different versions, can be equipped to perform the CBR test. For more information please see page Suitable for any compression test strain and/or load controlled - Ideal for testing wires and reinforcement bars in tension - For testing cement, asphalt, plastics, wood, etc. in compression, flexure, shear 70-T0108/E with accessories for CBR test 70-S16C2 with CBR accessories and 86-D2999 PC cabinet 153

22 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils CBR... Field CBR test sets/ Hand operated loading presses Hand operated loading presses ASTM D1883, AASHTO T193, CNR-UNI, BS 1377:4, NF P94-078, UNI M 34-T0114/A CBR mechanical loading assembly, 40 kn capacity This system is obtained by the assembly of the conversion frame plus some components, which are part of the 34-T0115/A field CBR test set. This apparatus represents the most practical and economical solution when both laboratory and in-situ CBR have to be performed. The assembly comprises the conversion frame 34-T0114, mechanical jack 34-T0112, adapter 34-T0112/1, load ring 82-T1008, 40 kn capacity, adjustable penetration piston 34-T0103/1, penetration dial gauge 82-D1257 and adjustable dial gauge holder 34-T0104/7. Specifications Max. load: 40 kn B Dimensions approx.: 360x240x1060 mm A Weight approx.: 55 kg Field CBR apparatus BS 1377:7, BS 1924:2, ASTM D4429, UNI 10009, NF M 34-T0115/A Field CBR test set Used for the in-situ determination of the bearing capacity of soils used in road construction. The complete set is housed in a strong carrying case and includes: 34-T kn capacity mechanical jack. Weight 8.5 kg 34-T0112/1 Ball seating for 34-T T kn capacity load ring. Weight 4 kg 34-T0103/1 Adjustable CBR penetration piston. Weight 2.2 kg 34-T0104/7 Adjustable dial gauge holder 34-T0115/3 Set of extension rods: 2x102 mm long; 1x305 mm long; 1x610 mm long; 1x915 mm long; 2 adapters. Total weight 33 kg 34-T0115/41 Datum bar assembly including two tripod stands and a 1220 mm length aluminium bar. Weight 7 kg 82-D1257 Penetration dial gauge 30x0.01 mm graduation 34-T0115/5 9 kg slotted surcharge weight 34-T0115/6 4.5 kg slotted surcharge weight 34-T0115/7 4.5 kg annular surcharge weight A Weight approx.: 70 kg Accessories s34-t0115/9 Vehicle bracket. For fixing loading jack to a vehicle 34-T0114/A with CBR mould 34-T0115/A 154

23 Compacted road base and subbase soils CBR Loading frames: accessories for Uniaxial and Unconfined compression tests 34 M 34-T kn capacity mechanical jack Used to perform in-situ CBR test, or to be fitted to the 34-T0114 conversion frame for laboratory tests. The body, which is made from aluminium alloy, houses the worm and wheel. The plunger can be adjusted in height by a quick release device and the load can be easily applied by rotating the handle. B Total height: 254 mm A Weight approx.: 8.5 kg M 34-T0114 Conversion frame for laboratory CBR test Used to perform the laboratory CBR test using part of the components of the 34- T0115/A field CBR test set. Made of steel protected against corrosion. B Dimensions: 360x240x1060 mm A Weight approx.: 26 kg 34-T0103/10 34-T1001/F 34-T0104/3 34-T0104/3 with 34-T0103/10, 82-T1001/F, 34-T0104/9 Loading frames accessories: Uniaxial and Unconfined compression tests The load frames described in this catalogue can be equipped with many accessories to perform different tests and for connection to PC for data acquisition and processing. We describe as follows some of the most important accessories. Accessories to perform Uniaxial and Unconfined compression tests using 34-T0114/A, 34-T0106, 34-T0107 and 70-T0108/E testing frames Uniaxial compression test M 34-T0104/3 Lower and upper compression platen with spherical seat for compression tests Used to perform unconfined compression tests on CBR and triaxial loading frames. Consists of two platens made of plated steel with a spherical seat fitted to the top of the upper platen. Must be used with 34- T0104/9 extension collar. B Platen dia.: 120 mm A Weight approx.: 4 kg Unconfined compression test ASTM D2166, AASHTO T208, BS 1337:7 M 34-T0104/4 Upper and lower compression platen Used to perform compression tests on CBR and triaxial loading frames. Consists of two platens made of plated steel. The lower one is fitted with an adjustable datum disc for use with the dial gauge. Must be used with 34-T0104/9 extension collar. B Platen dia.: 120 mm A Weight approx.: 5 kg 34-T0103/10 34-T0104/9 34-T0104/4 34-T0104/7 82-D T0104/4 with 34-T0104/9, 34-T0104/7, 82-D1257, 82-T1001/F Various M 34-T0103/10 Guide bracket and ball seating M 34-T0104/9 Extension collar Used to connect the load ring to the upper compression platen for compression and unconfined test. Made of plated steel. A Weight approx.: 300 g M 34-T0104/7 Adjustable dial gauge holder M 82-D1255 Dial gauge 10x0.01 mm M 82-D1257 Dial gauge 30x0.01 mm M 82-T1001/F Load ring 1 kn capacity complete with stem brake device to hold the max. reading Used as alternative to the 30 and 50 kn models for uniaxial and unconfined tests. 155

24 34 Compacted road base and subbase soils Impact soil tester /... Strength of stabilised soil Impact soil tester M 34-T0168/B Impact soil tester Used to obtain an indication of the degree of compaction of soil used in road construction. Results can be directly correlated to the CBR test. The unique microprocessor in this Soil Impact Tester automatically checks all readings throughout the test and displays the fourth reading as the Impact Value. No calculation and no need to record any readings other than the final test result. An essential trench control tool for all cable and pipe laying service contractors. - Battery operated ( rechargeable) - Graphic display 128x64 pixel - Measuring range up to 102 IV (Impact Value) B Dimensions: 140x140x700 mm approx. A Weight approx.: 6.5 kg Determination of strength of stabilised soil Two versions available: EN/BS and NF. EN , BS 1924:2, NF P EN and BS version M 34-T0123 Stabilised soil mould test for fine and medium grained soils. Specimen size 100x50 mm dia. M 34-T0124 Stabilised soil mould test for medium and coarse-grained soils. Specimen size 200x100 mm dia. Used to prepare specimens for determination of the Unconfined compressive strength of fine and medium grained soils. The EN/BS set comprises: - Mould - Set of two end plugs - Set of two plug displacing collars - Plunger - Specimen collector. 34-T0123, 34-T0124 NF version (single items) s Code Description 34-T0123/10 Mould dia. 50x50 mm high 34-T0123/11 Mould dia. 50x100 mm high 34-T0123/12 End plug (two required) 34-T0123/13 Set of two displacing collars 25 mm high 34-T0123/14 Set of two displacing collars 12.5 mm high 34-T0123/15 Set of two displacing collars 6 mm high 34-T0123/16 Plunger 34-T0123/17 Specimen collector A Weight approx.: 10 kg (34-T0123) and 53 kg (34-T0124) NF version M 34-T0123/A Stabilised soil mould test set for fine and medium grained soils. Specimen size 50x50 mm dia. M 34-T0123/B Stabilised soil mould test set for medium and coarse-grained soils. Specimen size 100x50 mm dia. 35-T0133 The sets consists of the following: mould (50x50 or 50x100 mm), two end plugs, two displacing collars 25 mm high, two 12.5 mm high, two 6 mm high, plunger and specimen collector. Each item can be ordered individually as proposed in the following table. 34-T0168/B 35-T0128, 35-T

25 Compacted road base and subbase soils field density Sand replacement method 35 FIELD DENSITY The verification of the degree of compaction can be determinate on site by a simple procedure consisting essentially in removing and weighing a part of compacted soil and replacing it in the hole with sand by a simple apparatus recording the volume of sand and then calculating the density of the removed soil. Two versions are available: BS and ASTM. The principle of operation is the same but parts and sizes are different. Sand replacement method ASTM, AASHTO, CNR, NF versions ASTM D1556, AASHTO T191, CNR No. 22 NF P Complete sets: double cone, 2 plastic sand jar (1) 5 l cap. and metal tray M 35-T (101.6 mm) sand density cone apparatus M 35-T (165.1 mm) sand density cone apparatus Accessories Sand replacement set parts (ASTM, AASHTO, CNR versions) s35-t0127/1 Standard sand mm, CNR No. 22 s35-t0130/8 Calibrating container, 6. For use with 35-T0129 apparatus. Internal dia. 165 mm, depth 187 mm. Weight approx. 5 kg M 35-T (304.8 mm) sand density cone apparatus (1) Except the 12 model supplied with only 1 acrylic sand container N O T E In the 12, 35-T0133 model, the two cones are connected by a valve with pouring hole 25 mm dia. The clear plastic 15 litres container is fitted to the cone with two clamps. Supplied complete with 700 mm dia. baseplate. This model is recommended for gravel and coarse-grained soil. Sand replacement method-bs version BS 1377:9, 1924:2 Complete sets: pouring cylinder, calibration container and metal tray. M 35-T mm sand replacement complete set M 35-T0125/A 150 mm sand replacement complete set M 35-T mm sand replacement complete set Description and specifications The sand pouring cylinder and calibration can are made of cast aluminium and precisely machined. The tray is made of plated sheet steel. Each part can be ordered individually. See table. s Code s Code s Code Models (in./mm dia.) 4 / / /304.8 Complete set 35-T T T0133 Weight approx. kg Double cone 35-T1028/1 35-T0129/1 / Plastic sand jar 5 l cap. 35-T0130/2 35-T0130/2 / Metal base plate with 35-T0128/2 35-T0129/2 / flanged (rimmed) hole Sand replacement set parts (BS versions) s Code s Code s Code Models (mm dia.) Complete set 35-T T0125/A 35-T0126 Weight (kg) Sand pouring cylinder 35-T0125/1 35-T0125/A1 35-T0126/1 Weight (kg) Calibration can 35-T0125/2 35-T0125/A2 35-T0126/2 Weight (kg) Density tray 35-T0125/3 35-T0125/A3 35-T0126/3 Size (mm) 305x38 300x40 457x38 Weight (kg) T0125, 35-T0125/A, 35-T0126 Accessories s35-t0127 Standard sand 600/300 micron, 50 kg bag 157

26 35 Compacted road base and subbase soils Field density... Ballon method Field density (continued) The principle of operation is similar to the sand replacement but the hole is filled by a rubber balloon where water is pumped. The amount of water can be easily determined by the graduation of the cylinder (model 35-T0131) or by the graduated stem (model 35-T0134 and 35-T0134/A) and then the density of removed soil. Two versions are available: the ASTM - AASHTO - CNR 1.6 litre capacity (35-T0131) and the NF version 3 and 6 litres capacity (35-T0134 and 35-T0134/A). Balloon method: ASTM - AASHTO - CNR version ASTM D2167, AASHTO T205, CNR No. 22 methods M 35-T0131 Balloon density apparatus Used to determine the in-situ density of compacted or firmly bonded soils. The test set consists of a graduated cylinder 1596 ml capacity housed inside an aluminium guard, a reversible rubber aspirator pump, a density plate 9 inches square, and 12 rubber balloons. Balloon method: French version NF P M 35-T ml balloon density apparatus For the determination of the in-situ density of well bonded soil according to French specifications. This method is similar to the ASTM D2167 apparatus but with a capacity of 3000 ml. A metal cylinder is filled with water, which is then pumped into a rubber membrane mounted on the base of the cylinder. The water pressure is controlled by a pressure gauge and the volume of the balloon is measured on the graduated piston stem. The apparatus is supplied complete with base plate, 6 reinforced membranes and 3 locking clamps. A Weight approx.: 9.5 kg Spare parts s 35-T0134/2 Spare reinforced 3000 ml membranes. Pack of 6 35-T0134 M 35-T0134/A 6000 ml balloon density apparatus Similar as principle of operation and design to the 35-T0134 model. Supplied complete with base plate, 3 locking clamps and 6 reinfored membranes. A Weight approx.: 11.5 kg Spare parts s 35-T0134/A2 Spare 6000 ml reinforced membranes. Pack of 6 A Weight approx.: 6 kg Spare parts s 35-T0131/4 Rubber balloons. Pack of T T0134/A 158

27 Compacted road base and subbase soils field density Surface soil samplers 35 Field density In this method a sampling tube is driven into the soil to take a standard volume sample, which is then removed, trimmed and weighed. Two different versions are available: the ASTM/CNR and the BS 1377 apparatus. Surface soil sampler (core cutter) method: ASTM and CNR version ASTM D2937, CNR No. 22 M 35-T0135 Surface soil sampler Used to take a standard volume sample from the ground in order to establish the in-situ density of the soil. The apparatus consists of a 5 kg sliding weight drop hammer, which falls freely onto the driving head situated on top of the sampling tube. The sampling tube is 73 mm ID x 66 mm high and is the thin wall type. Produced in steel and plated for corrosion protection. A Weight approx.: 10 kg 35-T0135 Spare parts (continued) s35-t0135/1 Spare thin wall sampling tube. 73 mm int. dia. x 66 mm long. Minimum order: 6 pieces Surface soil sampler (core cutter) method: BS version BS 1377:9 M 35-T mm dia. core cutter set M 35-T mm dia. core cutter set The core cutter is driven into the soil using the driving rammer. Then the core cutter is dug out, trimmed, weighed, and dried and the density and moisture content calculated. Made of plated steel. The set 35-T0137 includes: s35-t0137/1 100 mm dia. x 130 mm long core cutter. Weight 1 kg s35-t0137/2 Driving dolly for 100 mm dia. core cutter. Weight 1 kg s35-t0137/3 Driving rammer for 100 mm dia. core cutter. Weight 13.5 kg The set 35-T138 includes: s35-t0138/1 150 mm dia. x 180 mm long core cutter. Weight 4.5 kg s35-t0138/2 Driving dolly for 150 mm dia. core cutter. Weight 4 kg s35-t0138/3 Driving rammer for 150 mm dia. core cutter. Weight 16 kg A Weight approx.: 15.5 kg for 35-T0137 and 24.5 kg for 35-T T0137 Field density of undisturbed soil M 35-T0164 Piston volumeter An easy to use pocket device very useful to determine the in-situ density of undisturbed soil. A stainless steel tube is driven into the soil and the volume is read on the stem marked from 0 to 30 cm 3. A Weight approx.: 0.5 kg Used to dig, level and remove the soil during the field density tests. s35-t0140 Metal dibber. Weight 300 g 35-T0141 Scraper. Weight 600 g s s s s 35-T0142 Steel pointed rod. Weight 100 g 35-T0143 Density spoon. Weight 150 g 35-T0144 Rubber mallet 50 mm dia. Weight 1 kg s35-t0145 Hammer 300 g s35-t0145/g Club hammer. Weight 2 kg 35-T0146 Density pick. Weight 1 kg s s 35-T D1348 Field density tools 35-T0147 Chisel 300 mm long x 25 mm wide. Weight 1 kg s86-d1348 Lever lid tin 5 litres cap. 35-T0140, 35-T0141, 35-T0142, 35-T0143, 35-T0144, 35-T0146, 35-T

28 35 Compacted road base and subbase soils Bearing Capacity - Plate load testing... Plate bearing test apparatus, 50/100 kn capacity Plate bearing test apparatus, 50/100 kn capacity ASTM D1194, D1195, D1196 BS 1377:9 CNR No. 92 and No. 146 Introduction These test methods are used to estimate the bearing capacity of a soil under field loading conditions for a specific loading plate and depth of embedment (ASTM D1194) but also for load tests of soil and flexible pavement components for use in evaluation and design of airport and highway pavements (ASTM D1195, D BS CNR No. 92 and No DIN 18134). General description We propose different versions: 50/100 kn and 200 kn capacity with plates 300 to 760 mm dia., with analogic or digital measuring system. The analogic models consist essentially of the load plate (or plates), the hydraulic jack with hand pump and pressure gauge, the dial gauges and datum bar assembly. In the digital models, the pressure gauge is replaced by a pressure transducer and the three dial gauges by three displacement transducers. Pressure and displacement transducers are connected to the Datalog 82-P0908/A for data acquisition and processing. (see page 162) 50/100 kn models Analogic versions M 35-T1160(*) Plate bearing test apparatus 50/100 kn capacity, 300 mm dia. plate, 1 dial gauge (CNR Version) Also including 50 kn range pressure gauge, hydraulic jack and datum bar assembly. M 35-T1161(*) Plate bearing test apparatus 50/100 kn capacity, 300 mm dia. plate, 3 dial gauges Also including 50 kn range pressure gauge, hydraulic jack and datum bar assembly. * N O T E These models are fitted with 50 kn pressure gauge as standard, but can also be fitted with 100 kn capacity pressure gauge, see accessories code 35-T1160/11. Accessories s35-t1160/11 Pressure gauge for 100 kn jack, range kn, div. 0.5 kn s35-t1160/49 Dial gauge 30x0.01 mm complete with support assembly digital versions M 35-T1161/E Digital palte bearing test apparatus, 100 kn cap., 300 mm dia. plate. Three linear displacement transducers 50 mm travel, pressure transducer fitted to pump and Datalog 82-P0908/A data logger for data acquisition and display. 230 V, 50 Hz, or 12 V DC with the upgrading option 82-P0908/UP1. See page T1160 detail of dial gauge housing 200 kn models Analogic versions M 35-T1162 Plate bearing test apparatus 200 kn capacity, loading plates 300, 450, 600, and 760 mm dia., 3 dial gauges M 35-T1163 Plate bearing test apparatus 200 kn capacity, 300 mm dia. plate, 3 dial gauges digital versions M 35-T1162/E Digital plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kn cap., 300, 450, 600 and 760 mm dia. plate Three linear displacement transducers 50 mm travel, pressure transducer fitted to pump and Datalog data logger for data acquisition and display. 230 V, 50 Hz, or 12 V DC with the upgrading option 82-P0908/UP1. See page T T T1162/E detail of displacement transducers and data acquisition system 160

29 Compacted road base and subbase soils Bearing Capacity - Plate load testing Plate bearing test apparatus, 50/200 kn capacity 35 M 35-T1163/E Digital plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kn cap., 300 mm dia. plate Three linear displacement transducers 50 mm travel, pressure transducer fitted to pump and Datalog data logger for data acquisition and display. 230 V, 50 Hz, or 12 V DC with the upgrading option 82-P0908/UP1. See page T1162 Code Cap. Plate(s) Pressure Dial Displac. Pressure Datum Datalogger Total Cases Standard 35-T kn dia. gauge gauge transduc. transduc. bar m weight dim. mm mm range approx (lxdxh) dia. mm kg 1160( 2 ) kn No. 1 / / 2.5 / 70 Two cases CNR No. 146 x 0.25 kn 30x x395x260 method a div., dia. mm 1450x440x mm kn No. 3 / / 2.5 / 260 Two cases CNR No. 146 x 0.25 kn 30x x395x260 method b div., dia. mm 1450x440x165 BS 1377:9 200 mm 1161/E / / No. 3 No P0908/A (3) 70 Two cases CNR No x x395x260 method b mm bar 1450x440x165 BS 1377: kn No. 3 / / 5.5 / 260 Three cases( 4 ) CNR No x 0.5 kn 30x x395x260 ASTM D div., dia. mm 1450x440x165 ASTM D mm 2050x520x kn No. 3 / / 2.5 / 75 Two cases CNR No. 146 x 0.5 kn 30x x395x26 method b div., dia. mm 1450x440x165 BS 1377:9 200 mm 1162/E / / No. 3 No P0908/A (3) 260 Three cases(4) CNR No x x395x260 ASTM D mm bar 1450x440x165 ASTM D x520x /E / / No. 3 No P0908/A (3) 75 Two cases CNR No x x395x260 method b mm bar 1450x440x165 BS 1377:9 (2) The apparatus can be easily converted to CNR No. 146 method b requiring other two dial gauges and supports (3) The Datalog 82-P0908/A is fully described on page 162 (4) Load plates 450, 600 and 760 mm are packed separately 161

30 35 Compacted road base and subbase soils Bearing Capacity - Plate load testing kn Pressure system/ Electronic instrumentation kn kn cap. cap. pressure system system for plate bearing test M 35-T0116/ kn capacity pressure system Including hydraulic jack 500 kn capacity, spherical seat, hand pump and pressure gauge. This assembly can fit load plates, datum bar dial gauges and electronic equipment listed below. Supplied complete with wooden carrying case. A Weight approx.: 40 kg Load plates and measuring bridges s Code 35-T0116/22 35-T0116/23 35-T0116/24 35-T0116/25 35-T0116/ T0116/39 35-T0116/41 Dia. x thickness 300x25 mm 450x25 mm 600x25 mm 760x25 mm 300x25 mm 2,5 measuring bridge* 5,5 measuring bridge* * with 3 dial gauge supports (1) For 35-T0116/ kn apparatus 35-T0116/33 less carrying case Dial gauges s Code Description 82-D1259 Dial gauge 50x0.01 mm 82-D1257 Dial gauge 30x0.01 mm 82-D1255 Dial gauge 10x0.01 mm Electronic instrumentation M 82-P0908/A DATALOG 8 channels data acquisition and storing unit V, Hz, 1 ph. or battery 12 V CC. General description and specifications This advanced microprocessor apparatus is part of the digital version of load plate. It can operate at 12 V cc using a normal battery (see upgrading option 82-P0908/ UP1) or mains. One channel is used for the pressure transducer (load) and the others for penetration measurements or other purposes. The unit can be connected to PC by the RS 232 port to process all data by the 82-P0908/SOF software (see accessories). B Dimensions: 295x260x150 mm A Weight approx.: 1.7 kg Accessories and upgrading option s82-p0908/sof Data soft software and serial cable for connection to PC s82-p0908/up1 Battery operated upgrading option allowing double power supply 12 to 24 V battery and mains. Includes car cigar lighter cable Main features - 8 channels - High stability of electric signals - Individual electrical calibration of all channels with trimmer correction of slope (gain) and zero point - Polynomial software calibration of all channels assuring excellent precision of the readings - Large graphic display 128x64 pixel - Data storage of readings and test parameters - Multitasking operating way - 4 languages: English, French, Italian, and Spanish - Software available for PC data acquisition and memory download KB data memory KB RAM memory - RS 232 programmable serial output M 82-P0172/A Serial printer Characteristics Accessories 82-P0908/A Print method: impact with moving head Font: matrix 5x8 Columns: 24 Paper width: 57.5 mm Interface: serial RS 232 B Dimensions: 120x172x100 mm A Weight approx.: 1 kg s 82-P0172/1 Connection cable for RS 232 Electronic equipment 82-P0172/A s Code 35-T0116/57 35-T0116/55 82-P0908/A Description Linear displacement transducer, 50 mm travel Pressure transducer, bar 8 channels data acquisition and processing system 162

31 Compacted road base and subbase soils Bearing Capacity/ Rolling load deflection Plate bearing test apparatus, swiss method/ Modified Benkelman beam 35 Plate bearing test. Swiss method SNV M 35-T0121 Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kn capacity, 300 mm dia. loading plate M 35-T0121/B Plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kn capacity, 300 mm dia. loading plate The main feature of this apparatus, which is available in the 100 kn and 200 kn cap. version, is the lightweight and practicality in use. Being the basic parameters of this method identical to those of the ASTM, BS, CNR, etc. standards, and the typical Y measuring system well known worldwide, it may be used instead of the 35-T1160-T1163 Series apparatus even if the requirement are slightly different. Light alloy bridge for ease of location General description and specifications The relatively lightweight and small dimensions of the apparatus make it very easy to use and to move from one place to another. The measuring bridge made from aluminium alloy, is very light and has telescopic extensions so it can be positioned in a few minutes with minimum effort. The remote load control and gauge are mounted on the pump and it is not necessary to go near the platen for recording the load. The deformations are measured with three dial indicators so it is possible to verify the uniformity of deformation on 360. Measurement of a rolling load deflection by the modified Benkelman beam NF P M 80-B0180/B Bearing plate 600 mm dia. and Benkelman beam test set apparatus Used for the determination of the static deformation of road pavement (EV2). The apparatus consists of: s80-b0180/b1 An aluminium bearing plate 600 mm dia. with reinforcing ribs. Weight 30 kg s80-b0180/b2 A hydraulic jack 200 kn capacity. Weight 10 kg s80-b180/b3 An adjustable extension set with spherical seated foot. Weight 12 kg s80-b0180/b4 A hand pump with precision dial gauge 150 mm dia. Calibrated in bar (0 to 3.5) and in dan (0 to 10000). Complete with connecting hose. Weight 11 kg s80-b0180/b5 A carrying case for all of the above items except for the bearing plate 80-B0180/B1. Weight 10 kg s80-b0180/a Benkelman beam apparatus. Weight 25 kg s80-b0181 Wooden carrying case for 80-B0180 Note. All parts can be ordered separately. A Total weight approx.: 100 kg 35-T B0180/B Specifications s Models 35-T T0121/B Loading ram kn Gauge range MN/m Dial indicator 30x0.01 mm 3 3 Load plate dia. mm Carrying case dim. mm 1080x360x x360x x360x x360x250 Total weight approx. kg B0180, 80-B

32 35 Compacted road base and subbase soils Bearing Capacity - Plate load testing... Dynamic deformation module of soils Dynamic plate load test using the light drop-weight tester As per German technical test code for soil and rock in road construction TP BF StB part B 8.3/1997 M 35-T0120 Light drop-weight tester Introduction The dynamic plate load test employing the Light drop-weight tester is used in earthwork and road construction to determine the soil bearing capacity and the compaction or consolidation of soils and non-cohesive subbases, as well as for soil improvement applications. The test method is suited for coarse-grain and mixed-grain soils having a maximum grain size of 63 mm. The test method may be used to determine the dynamic modulus of deformation of soil in the range Evd = MN/m 2. Further fields of application include: - Road construction - Testing of pavement bedding - Quality assurance in canal construction - Compaction test in ducts and trenches - Backfill of foundations - Railway construction. The Light drop-weight tester being easy to handle is specifically suited for monitoring intra-company operations. Advantages over the plate load tester - Time-saving immediate evaluation of each measurement - Testing in locations not readily accessible - Low tester weight - No vehicle required for loading. The dynamic plate load test using the Light drop-weight tester has been approved as an indirect test method for determining the degree of ramming, in: ZTVE StB 94 ZTVE StB 95 ZTVE StB 97 NGT 39 Function Place the load plate on the prepared surface to be tested and position the loading unit on the load plate. Connect the settlement meter. The drop weight is allowed to drop onto the spring element, the loading unit produces a defined impact load and the overall amount of compaction (or settlement) of the soil under the load plate is measured. Once the measuring routine is started perform three impact cycles for the measurement. Following each cycle the meter displays the amount of settlement in millimetres. Upon completion of a series of measurements, the settlement is averaged, and the dynamic modulus of deformation is determined and displayed. Results can be printed out on a micro-printer or on a printer connected to a PC as necessary. Specifications Loading unit Total weight: 15 kg Drop weight: 10 kg Max. impact force: 7.07 kn Duration of impact: 18 ms Spring element: cup springs Load plate with integral acceleration transducer Diameter: 300 mm Plate thickness: 20 mm Total weight: 15 kg Electronic gauge Dimensions: 210x80x25 mm Settlement measuring range: mm ± 0.02 mm Temperature range: from 0 to 40 C Power supply: 4xR6 (rechargeable) batteries 35-T0120/2 Accessories 35-T0120 s35-t0120/1 Transport cart s35-t0120/2 Base plate with magnet. Used for easy positioning of the apparatus 35-T0120 with 35-T0120/1 164

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