Management of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer: Dilemma of Adopting Bt Brinjal over Integrated Pest Management Technology

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1 2012 Intrnational Confrnc on Clan and Grn Enrgy IPCBEE vol.27 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Prss, Singapor Managmnt of Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borr: Dilmma of Adopting Bt Brinjal ovr Intgratd Pst Managmnt Tchnology Anjali Mathur 1+, N.P.Singh 1 and Swaroop Singh 2 1 Dpartmnt of Zoology, Univrsity of Rajasthan, Jaipur , India 2 Dpartmnt of Entomology, Agricultural Rsarch Station, Durgapura, Jaipur Abstract. Brinjal shoot and fruit borr, Lucinods orbonalis Gun is a major pst of brinjal or ggplant which is an important and popular vgtabl grown in India. With th advnt of novl Bt brinjal, ky challngs ar raisd with Indian prspctiv. Thrfor, intgratd pst managmnt (IPM) stratgy coms as a dirct tool that includs svral old and nw tchniqus with altrnativs lik nwr botanicals and microbial formulation and us of fmal sx phromons and rsistant cultivars to cut down on pst infstations. Fild trials wr carrid out to valuat diffrnt IPM moduls for th managmnt of Lucinods orbonalis Gun. Local brinjal cultivars of smi arid rgion of Rajasthan lik pupl long - 74 and Navkiran wr found to b promising varitis with low shoot and fruit infstation. Nwr botanical oils of pungam (Pongamia pinnata L.) and iluppai (Madhuca indica) in IPM moduls provd to b quit ffctiv in lowring both shoot and fruit infstation and can thus b utilizd in rsistanc managmnt stratgy. In addition, us of fmal sx phromon for BSFB rsultd in significant numbr of moth traps. Thus th fforts to xpand th us of IPM tchnology can b bnficial in holistic mannr. Th currnt scnario of Bt brinjal can hav a grat scop if incorporatd as part of IPM tchnology. Kywords: Lucinods orbonalis, plant products, microbial psticids, botanical oils, IPM 1. Introduction Brinjal ggplant (Solanum mlongna L.) is an agronomical important, highly cosmopolitan and popular vgtabl grown as poor man s crop in India. It contributs 9 prcnt of th total vgtabl production of th country. Th ara undr brinjal cultivation is stimatd at 0.51 million ha with productivity of t/ha. Among th insct psts th most dstructiv and srious pst of brinjal is brinjal shoot and fruit borr (BSFB), Lucinods orbonalis Gun (Lpidoptra: Pyraustida). It rmaind a major pst of brinjal sinc two dcads. Th main difficulty in volving a suitabl control masur against this pst is that it blongs to on of th most srious catgoris of insct pst intrnal fdr. Onc th larva bors into ptiol and midrib of lavs and tndr shoots, it causs dad harts. In latr stags, it also bor into flowr bud and fruits. Th rsarch and dvlopmnt activitis to combat BSFB hav largly bn confind to scrning psticids to slct th most ffctiv chmical and dtrmining th frquncy of thir us. This has ld to incrasd dpndnc on psticids and consqunt advrs ffcts of highr costs of production, nvironmntal pollution, dstruction of natural nmis, and dvlopmnt of psticid rsistanc in BSFB. Th currnt psticid us is not only non-sustainabl but, if continud, it will advrsly affct ggplant and othr vgtabl production. Th advnt of gntically modifid crops (GMO) has alrady raisd many ky challngs in rsarch. With th pros and cons of GM foods still doing th rounds, a nw tchnology calld th IPM or Intgratd Pst Managmnt is now hitting th hadlins. Dspit th importanc of brinjal and svrity of BSFB control masurs ar still limitd to frqunt sprays of toxic chmical psticids. Any singl mthod of pst managmnt cannot achiv a lvl of BSFB control accptabl to producrs in th rgion. Intgratd Pst Managmnt which incorporats svral old and nw tchniqus to cut down on pst + Corrsponding author. Tl.: addrss: 93

2 infstations can hlp nsur th growth of halthy crops. Th incorporation of biopsticids and IPM tchnology is also gaining importanc in rcnt yars. 1, 2, 3, 4 Thus an attmpt has bn mad for to valuat various componnts of Intgratd Pst Managmnt (IPM) for th control of L. orbonalis. 2. Objctivs Our primary objctiv is thrfor to manag this pst so as to bring down pst population to low bb rathr than to totally annihilat th spcis. Intgratd Pst Managmnt coms as a dirct tool that includs array of altrnativs lik xploration of botanicals & microbial formulations. Sinc, IPM is a continuum that will chang with tim, prsnt study aims at valuation of nwr botanical oils, lik oil of iluppai (Madhuca indica), pungam (Pongamia pinnata), and microbial formulation lik Entomopathogn Fungi, (Bauvria bassiana) for th ffctiv managmnt of L. orbonalis. 3. Study dsign and Mthodology Fild xprimnt was conductd at Agricultural Rsarch Station (ARS), Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan), (Study ara) situatd at 450 mtrs abov man sa lvl on altitud and longitud Biofficacy of nwr botanicals biopsticids and microbial formulations for th managmnt of L. orbonalis wr valuatd with Brinjal varity, Krishna Gold in Randomizd Block Dsign (RBD) with thr rplications. Th plot siz was 2m 2m. with 50cm and 50cm spacing. Endosulfan was kpt as chck inscticid. Watr was dirctly addd to all foliar spray of inscticids to gt dsird concntration. A knapsack sprayr was usd for spraying and inscticids wr litrs pr hctar according to th growth stag of th plants. In all tratmnts thr wr thr foliar sprays in ach sason, starting aftr 25 days of transplanting and rpatd subsquntly at 15 days intrval. Car was takn to avoid drifting of inscticids to nighboring plots. Th borr infstation was rcordd on shoot and fruits on randomly slctd fiv plants from ach tratmnt pr plot. Th borr damag in shoot was assssd on fiv taggd plants by counting th numbr of damagd shoots pr plant to total numbr of shoots of th plant and xprssd in prcntag. Finally damagd shoots wr takn alon for stimation. Shoot damag by L. orbonalis was assssd by rcording total numbr of shoots obsrvd as wll as affctd shoot from ach tratmnt and th prcntag of damag was workd out. Fruit borr incidnc was stimatd by rcording th total numbr as wll as wight of th affctd and unaffctd fruits from ach plot sparatly at vry picking and th cumulativ pr cnt damag was workd out. Th prcntag data for th damagd shoots and fruits wr convrtd into its angular transformation. Data wr subjctd to analysis of varianc (ANOVA). 4. Rsults: IPM moduls using rsistant cultivars, biopsticids, nwr botanicals and microbial formulations and us of fmal sx phromons 4.1. BSFB rsistant cultivars Insct rsistanc in crop plants is an important componnt of intgratd pst managmnt (IPM) and is considrd as non-montary input at farmrs nd. Us of both tolrant and rsistant cultivars is hlpful in IPM as quantum of inscticid us is rducd and it also improvs th prformanc of natural nmis in plants. Local six brinjal varitis/cultivars studid for rsistanc to brinjal shoot and fruit borr in smi arid rgion of Rajasthan rvald that purpl long-74 and Navkiran wr fairly rsistant with low shoot and fruit infstation (Tabl-1). Non of th six varitis wr immun to brinjal shoot and fruit borr. Th suscptibl varitis wr BR-112 and Navnt whil rmaining varitis wr gradd as tolrant basd on prcnt fruit damag. Efforts hav also bn mad in India with fw dozns of ggplant accssions and thy 5, 6,7 ndd with fw or non as rsistant to EFSB 4.2. Biofficacy of botanicals and microbial formulation Th managmnt of insct psts using botanicals and biopsticids ar proving to b cornrston in intgratd pst managmnt. Thr wr six tratmnts in all including control using Iluppai oil (2%), Pungam oil (2%), Pungam oil (1%) + Iluppai oil (1%), Entomopathogn 750ml /ha (Bauvria bassiana), and Endosulfan 35 EC ( 1ml/l) as chck inscticid. Rsults as shown in Tabl-1 94

3 rvald that as compard to Endosulfan with prcnt fruit damag, both iluppai oil and pungam oil wr significantly ffctiv in controlling shoot and fruit borr with prcnt and 16.3 prcnt fruit damag rspctivly. Th data for fruit yild also showd that both iluppai oil and pungam oil wr abl to incras th yild significantly ovr control and wr found to b at par with ndosulfan. Efficacy of iluppai oil and pungum oil in managmnt of shoot and fruit borr was also shown by arlir workrs. 8 Th microbial inscticid Bauvaria bassiana was found ffctiv only for control of shoot borr at arly stag of plant growth. Th high fficacy of microbial formulation of fungi was not obsrvd probably du to lack of high humidity conditions in fild as rquird for growth of fungus which was probably not suitabl owing to th smi-arid conditions Fmal sx phromons as part of IPM modul Sx phromons ar important componnt of IPM programs and thy ar mainly usd to monitor as wll as mass-trap th mal inscts.(e)-11-hxadcnyl actat (E11-16: Ac) was idntifid as th major componnt of EFSB sx phromon in China. 9 It was synthsizd in th laboratory and usd at th rat of ug pr trap to attract th EFSB mals in th fild and was also idntifid from th sx phromon glands of EFSB in Sri Lanka. 10,11 Dlta traps, sticky traps and funnl traps could b usd for th EFSB sx phromon lurs in fild conditions. Th optimal trap hight is also important factor and varis with locations. Th traps placd at crop canopy lvl caught significantly mor mal moths than traps placd 0.5 m abov or blow th crop canopy in Bangladsh 12 whras traps installd 0.25 m abov crop canopy caught highr moths than ithr at crop canopy or at 0.25 m blow crop canopy in Uttar Pradsh. 13 Th traps should b rctd at vry 10 m or lss for ffctiv attraction. 14 Prsnt studis rvald that us of phromon traps was found ffctiv in rducing shoot damag and fruit infstation with prcnt protction and 25.6 prcnt protction ovr control rspctivly, thus, th BSFB sx phromon traps as a componnt of IPM significantly rducd th fruit damag Futur thrust of IPM tchnology and biotchnology input: Bt brinjal A farmr s choic of which crops to plant and thus th ability to slct disas and pst rsistanc ons has always bn a cornrston of IPM. Th adoption of IPM application is still low owing to a numbr of socio-conomic, institutional and policy constraints. Crop varitis with disas and pst rsistant charactristics which includ GM crops hav gaind quit a controvrsy. Undr prvailing Indian conomical and cological conditions, dcision making for th us of novl Bt binjal still nds a srious thought. Bacillus thuringinsis (Bt) brinjal has som obvious advantags. It also has som apparnt and som potntial problms. Sol promotion of GM crops may lad to a monocultur with unprdictabl and irrvrsibl nvironmntal and halth hazards. At th sam tim thr is an mrging consnsus that modrn ptrochmical- basd farming is unsustainabl and thr is a nd to dvlop and promot cological approachs to food production. Currnt scnario rflcts that GM crops can b most ffctiv whn thy ar usd as part of IPM stratgis. On th sam lins th prospcts of India s first GM vgtabl, Bt brinjal is still undr considration for commrcial us. Thrfor, rsistanc managmnt is a primary challng in th currnt dirction of biotchnology in pst managmnt. IPM promots a mor divrsifid approach which will limit ovr rlianc on any spcific tchnology and its consquncs such as rsistanc dvlopmnt. Thrfor a holistic planning in a synchronizd mod will hlp th farmrs to manag biological complx farming systms in a profitabl mannr. 5. Acknowldgmnts Th first author is thankful to Univrsity Grants Commission, Nw Dlhi for providing financial grant to carry out th rsarch work. 6. Rfrncs [1] Kumar. Prabhat, and Johnsn. Stffn. Lif cycl studis on fruit and shoot borr, Lucinods orbonalis and natural nmis of insct pst of ggplant (Solanum Mlongna). J. Appl. Biol. 2000, 10 (2):

4 [2] Bajpai. N.K, Swami. Hmant, Kumar. Ashok, and Gupta. I.N. Dvlopmnt of IPM moduls for brinjal shoot and fruit borr, Lucinods orbonalis Gun. National confrnc on Applid ntomology: currnt status, challngs and opportunitis. 2005, Sptmbr [3] Sardana. H.R, Bambawal. O.M, Kadu. L. N, and Singh. D.K. Dvlopmnt and validation of adaptabl IPM on okra Ablmoschus sculntus Monch through farmr s participatory approach. Ann. Pl. Protc. Sci. 2004, 13(1):54-59 [4] Srinivasan. R. Intgratd Pst Managmnt for ggplant fruit and shoot borr (Lucinods orbonalis) in south and southast Asia: Past, Prsnt and Futur. Journal of Biopsticids 2008, 1 (2): [5] Darkar. K. S, Gaikwad. B. P, and Chavan. U. D. Scrning of ggplant cultivars for rsistanc to fruit and shootborr. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Univrsitis, 1991, 16(3): [6] Singh. T. H, and Kalda. T. S. Sourc of rsistanc to shoot and fruit borr in ggplant (Solanum mlongna L.). PKV'Rsarch Journal, 1997, 21(2): [7] Bhra. T.K, Narndra. Singh, Kalda. T. S, and Gupta. S.S. Scrning for shoot and fruit borr incidnc in ggplant gnotyps undr Dlhi condition. Indian Journal of Entomology, 1999, 61(4): [8] Adirouban, D, and Raghuraman, K. Plant products and microbial formulation in th managmnt of brinjal shoot and fruit borr, Lucinods orbonalis (Gun). Journal of Biopsticids 2008, 1 (2): [9] Zhu. P, F. Kong, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Jin, X. Hu. and J. Xu. Idntification of th sx phromon of ggplant borr Lucinods orbonalis Gun (Lpidoptra: Pyralida). Zitschrift Fur Naturforschung C-A Journal of Bioscincs, 1987, 43C: [10] Attygall. A. B, Schwarz. J, and Gunawardna. N. E. Sx phromon of brinjal shoot and pod borr Lucinods orbonalis Gun (Lpidoptra: Pyralida: Pyraustina). Z. Naturforsch, 1988, 43C: [11] Gunawardna, N. E., Attygall, A. B, and Hrath, H. M. W. K. B. Th sx phromon of th brinjal pst, Lucinods orbonalis Gun (Lpidoptra): problms and prspctivs. Journal of th National Scinc Council of Sri Lanka, 1989, 17(2): [12] Cork. A, Alam. S. N, Rouf. F. M. A, and Talkar. N. S. Fmal phromon of brinjal fruit and shoot borr, Lucinods orbonalis: trap optimization and prliminary mass trapping trials. Bulltin of Entomological Rsarch, 2003, 93: [13] Alam. S. N, Rashid. M. A, Rouf. F. M. A, Jhala. R. C, Patl. J. R, Satpathy. S, Shivalingaswamy. T. M, Rai. S, Wahundniya. I, Cork. A, Ammaranan. C, and Talkar. N. S. Dvlopmnt of an intgratd pst managmnt stratgy for ggplant fruit and shoot borr in South Asia, Tchnical Bulltin TB28, AVRDC - Th World Vgtabl Cntr, Shanhua, Taiwan, 2003, 66 PP. [14] Prasad. H, Singh. H. M, and Singh. A. K. Effctiv rang of sx phromon of Lucinods orbonalis Gun. Journal of Applid Zoological Rsarchs, 2005, 16(1):

5 BSFB rsistant cultivars cultivars %shoot damag purpl long-74 purpl clustr anmaol BR-112 Navkiran Tabl 1: IPM moduls using rsistant cultivars, nwr botanicals and microbial formulation % fruit damag( wt. basis) 1.06(5.91) 14.29(22.21) a b Iluppai oil(2%) 2.86(9.74) 3.42(10.66) Krishna 3.77(11.20) 31.98(34.44) c d 31.34(34.04) c d Biofficacy of botanicals & microbial formulation Tratmnts %shoot % fruit damag damag( wt. basis) Pungam oil(2%) Iluppaioil(1%)+Pungam oil (1%) 6.99(15.33) 37.97(38.04) f Entomopathogn fungi 1.05 (5.88) 11.64(19.95) a Endosulfan 34.30(35.85) c d Sm Control Sm 4.72 (12.53) 4.64 (12.42) 7.64 (16.02) 8.52 (16.94) 4.31 (11.96) (23.15) (23.49) (23.77) % yild gain(q/ha) (26.44) (28.50) (22.13) (37.58) % gain ovr control CD at 5% CD at 5% CV CV * Fig. in parnthsis ar arc sin valus 97

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