RICE PEST SURVEILLANCE

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "RICE PEST SURVEILLANCE"

Transcription

1

2 MANUAL FOR RICE PEST SURVEILLANCE National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture Implementation Project Coordination Pest Surveillance Coordination : Natural Resources Management Division, ICAR, New Delhi : Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad : National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi and Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad

3 NICRA Contributors Bentur JS, Jhansi Lakshmi V : Directorate of Rice Research (DRR) Sampathkumar M Rajendranagar, Hyderabad Ramasubramanian GV, Jayaraj T : Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu Sidde Gowda DK : University of Agricultural Sciences Mandya, Karnataka Sanjay Sharma : Directorate of Research, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh Sarao PS : Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, Punjab Roy SK : Rice Research Station, Chinsura West Bengal Patil AS, Vaishali S : Regional Agriculture Research Station Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Karjat, Maharashtra Rao MS, Prasad YG, Prabhakar M : Central Research Institute for Dryland Desai S Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad Tanwar RK, Garg DK, Singh Niranjan : National Centre for Integrated Pest Kanojia AK, Singh SK, Singh SP Management (NCIPM), New Delhi Sathyakumar S, Mehta Neelam Singh Rajendra, Singh Dharmendra and Vennila S Technical Assistance : Ghosh Vishal and Kumari Alpana Published by : Dr. O.M. Bambawale, Director NCIPM, New Delhi Dr. B. Venkateswaralu, Director CRIDA, Hyderabad Dr. B.C. Viraktamath, Director DRR, Hyderabad Citation NICRA team of rice pest surveillance Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance. Jointly published by National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture and Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad. 40 pp. Printed at M/s Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi

4 NICRA Foreword Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launched the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) with three pronged objectives of strategic research, technology demonstrations and capacity building during Assessment of the impact of climate change simultaneous with formulation of adaptive strategies is the major focal point across all sectors of agriculture, dairying and fisheries. Evolving climate resilient agricultural technologies that would increase farm production and productivity vis-à-vis continuous management of natural and manmade resources constitute an integral part of sustaining agriculture in the era of climate change. Plant protection deserves prime importance in crop production because of the fact that potential yields of crops are limited by pest groups of various categories viz.,insects, diseases, weeds, nematodes and rodents. Since pests are biotic natural resources of Earth, their interdependent interactions amongst system variables are equally influenced by the factors of climate change. Climatic effects on pests could be direct as well as crop mediated. NICRA recognized the importance of pest risks associated with climate change and provided a research platform across crops of rice, pigeon pea, groundnut, tomato and mango during its first phase of implementation under eleventh plan. Assessing the changing pest scenario, mapping of vulnerable regions of pest risks and to evolve preventive as well as curative pest management strategies as adaptation towards climatic stress have been emphasized. Among many approaches to study impact of climate change on pests, the long term trend analysis of their association with climate is important. Most often the available historical datasets lack continuity and their holistic retrieval is cumbersome. Availability of information technological tools has made it possible to create centralized database of desired resources and associated activities with ease, in turn making scientific analyses and inferences more meaningful. In case of studies relating to pest dynamics, it is essential to streamline methods of surveillance through carefully designed data recording formats relating to crops, pests, and production and protection practices in addition to weather. Implementation of pest surveillance across seven different rice growing agro ecologies under NICRA offers per se heterogeneity of climate, upon comparison helps to draw the underlying mechanism of the observed pest status. Analyses with weather would further aid in delineating climate effects on pests. Making pest surveillance operational through provision of pest scouts and data entry operators make it possible to capture quality data at field level guided by scientific staff. Production of Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance has been a part of systematic attempt to give specific skills to the users to undertake sampling relating to rice pests. I appreciate the team work of the rice plant protection specialists of the nation, and wish that the research outcome would be useful for the present and future of rice pest management. (Dr. A. K. Singh) (Deputy Director General, Natural Resource Management, ICAR, New Delhi)

5

6 NICRA Contents Foreword 1. Introduction 1 2. Surveillance plan and procedures Nursery surveillance General information for Nursery Data sheet for nursery insect pests and diseases 2 Yellow stem borer egg mass 3 Hispa adults 3 Thrips damage 3 Blast Main field surveillance selection of fixed fields Experimental/Research station Fields of farmers General information for fixed fields Specific guidelines for observations in fixed fields 5 Plant observations Hills 5 Total tillers 6 Total leaves 6 Panicle bearing tillers 6 Insect pests Stem borer damage (Dead heart & White ear) 7 Leaf folder damage 7 Thrips damage 8 Case worm damaged leaves 8 Hispa damaged leaves 8 Hispa adults 9 Brown plant hopper 9 BPH tiller damage 9 BPH plant damage 9 White backed plant hopper 10 Zig-zag leafhopper 10 Green leafhopper 10 White leafhopper 10 Gall midge 11 Leaf mite 11 Panicle mite 11

7 NICRA Swarming caterpillar 12 Rice horned caterpillar 12 Yellow hairy caterpillar 12 Stink bug 13 Gundhi bug 13 Blue beetle 13 Black bug 14 Other pests 14 Beneficials Green mirid bug 14 Rove beetle 15 Ground beetle 15 Wolf spider 15 Diseases Leaf blast 16 Sheath blight 16 Bacterial leaf blight 16 Brown spot 17 Sheath rot 17 Tungro virus 17 Bakanae 18 False smut 18 Sampling with sweep nets Lady bird beetles 19 Web spinning spiders 19 Unusual pest events Rat damage 20 Crab damage Additional details to be recorded for fixed fields 20 Plant protection sprays 20 Fertilizer management 20 Weather of the week 20 YSB moth catch Random field survey Field selection for random survey Guidelines for pest observations Recording of species composition of stem borers Dead heart 22 White ear 22 Yellow stem borer 22 White stem borer 22 Pink stem borer 23

8 NICRA Dark headed borer 23 Striped stem borer Record of meteorological information Observation of insects trapped in light traps of insects caught in light traps 23 Yellow stem borer 23 Pink stem borer 24 White stem borer 24 Dark headed borer 24 Gall midge 24 Green leafhopper 24 BPH 25 WBPH 25 White leafhopper 25 Zig-zag leafhopper 25 Leaf folder 25 Green mirid bug 26 Coccinellids 26 Black bug 26 Ear head bug 26 Swarming caterpillar moth General instructions 27 Annexures I. Schedule for surveillance 28 II. Nursery survey (Proforma 1- Part I) 29 III. Nursery survey (Proforma 1- Part II) 30 IV. General information for fixed fields (Proforma 2) 31 V. Data sheet for pest surveillance (Proforma 3) 32 VI. Meteorological information (Proforma 4) 37 VII. Record of light trap catches at experimental station 38 (Proforma 5) VIII. Scientific names of important rice pests and beneficials 39

9

10 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance 1. Introduction Importance of Indian rice cultivation arises out of its contribution towards food and livelihood security for millions of consumers and producers. Rice is cultivated under dry, wet and semi dry systems covering diverse ecosystems such as irrigated, rainfed, low and upland, hill, shallow lowland, deep water, semi deep water and saline alkaline etc., spread across many States and Union Territories together numbering 25. Rice production in the country fluctuates in relation to weather during the crop season. Additionally different categories of pests viz., insects, diseases, weeds, nematodes, rats and crabs cause direct and/or indirect damage at various crop growth stages resulting in reduction of rice yields. Severity of rice pests is influenced both by crop growth and prevailing weather. In the context of climate change, we expect both the crop in terms of phenology and physiology and the pests in their occurrence and abundance likely to change. Study of impact of climate change on rice crop-pest interactions requires carefully collected data on long term basis. While already available historical data could form an approach for partial study of climate change impacts, formulation and implementation of a robust research strategy combining the present scenario of cropping patterns, cultivars, and production and protection practices across heterogeneous locations over time would yield improved and holistic understanding. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) has given emphasis to study the pest dynamics in relation to climate change. A plan to study rice pest dynamics in multiple locations over seasons along with other system components including weather was formulated to be implemented through surveillance integrating geographical, field, crop, agronomical and pest management practices. During the eleventh plan, seven rice centers (refer map) that represent dominant rice growing climatic zones have been included under NICRA for pest surveillance. Pre requisite for such surveillance is to devise a plan followed by design of data recording formats suiting to the purpose.the consultative group meeting of identified rice workers under NICRA finalized the structure of rice pest surveillance to be carried out in nursery and fields located at the research/experimental station of the identified rice growing region, and at villages in the fields of farmers. This manual presents the procedures to be followed towards selection of nursery and main fields of rice at the experimental/research stations, and villages besides the methods to be adopted for recording the observation of pests using the data recording formats finalised. 2. Surveillance plan and procedures One field at nursery stage and two main fields each at the experimental station and in ten villages of the region are to be selected for rice pest surveillance. Fixed fields are those fields that once selected in the beginning of the season would be continuously monitored till harvest on weekly basis for pests and diseases 1

11 NICRA using the specified data sheet formats. In addition, a random survey covering eight villages other than the ten selected villages has to be conducted during each week. The schedule of surveillance is given as Annexure I Nursery surveillance One nursery at the experimental station of the identified centre and one at each of the ten selected villages has to be selected for surveillance. General information on nursery (one time information), and on nursery insect pests and diseases (once a week) has to be collected General information for nursery One time collection of general information relating to one selected nursery at the experimental station and 10 across ten villages has to be done using Proforma 1 Part I (Annexure II), which is self explanatory Data sheet for nursery insect pests and diseases Five random spots of one square feet (four in the corners at least 3 feet inside the 2

12 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance borders and one in the centre) have to be used during the weekly observations of the selected nurseries using the Proforma 1-Part II (Annexure III). The procedure for observations is as below. Pest observations in the Nursery (Proforma 1-Part II) Yellow stem borer egg mass Egg mass of stem borer is found on the lower side of leaf blades and the stem, and is buff coloured. Egg masses vary in size and the number of eggs per egg mass also varies. The total number of stem borer egg masses on the seedlings in each spot of one square foot should be counted. Hispa adults The adult is a small, shiny, bluish black beetle measuring about 5.5 mm in length with spines over the body surface. The total number of Hispa adults found in each spot of one square meter on the seedlings should be counted. Thrips damage Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings and terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base are noticed with presence of nymphs and adults of thrips. Damage should be graded only when more than 1/3 rd rolling of leaves is seen on seedlings in the selected spot following the scale of traces, moderate and severe Stem borer egg masses and single egg mass Hispa adult Thrips damage in nursery 3

13 NICRA Traces: less than 25% of the seedlings showing presence and symptoms of thrips Moderate: 25-50% of the seedlings showing presence and symptoms of thrips Severe: more the 50% of the seedlings showing presence and symptoms of thrips Blast Symptoms of blast are seen on leaves as small grayish spots or as spindle shaped spots with grey centre and brown margins. Drying and death of seedlings occur when numerous spots occur on leaves. Disease should be graded only when more than 1/3 rd infection on of leaves is seen on seedlings in the selected spot following the scale of traces, moderate and severe. Traces : less than 25% of the seedlings showing symptoms of blast Moderate : 25-50% of the plants showing symptoms of blast Severe: more the 50% of the plants showing symptoms of blast Blast disease in traces 2.2. Main field surveillance selection of fixed fields Experimental/Research station Two fixed experimental fields-one unprotected without any plant protection measures (designated as Fixed 1) and the other protected with need based plant protection practices (designated as Fixed 2) are to be used for weekly observations. Area of fields should be near to one acre or as per standards followed at International level Fields of farmers Ten rice growing villages representing the agro-ecology of the identified region in the same and neighboring district, distributed randomly should be selected. In each village, two farmers fields (designated as Fixed 1 and Fixed 2) of near to one acre are to be fixed for weekly observations. Assigning fields of farmers as Fixed 1 and Fixed 2 should be made at time of field selection and same should be maintained from the first observation till the end of season. Care should be taken to select farmers growing common variety (ies) of the region. 4

14 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance General information for fixed fields The geographical, cropping system and agronomical details relating to general information (Proforma 2; Annexure IV) which are self explanatory should be collected once in the beginning of the season from main fields designated as Fixed 1 and Fixed 2 (both at experimental station and farmers fields) Specific guidelines for observations in fixed fields The recording of observations on insect pests and diseases should be initiated in main field from 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Fill in the details on field, field number ( Fixed 1 and Fixed 2), district, taluka, name of the village, date of observation, stage of crop and crop health in the Page 1 of Proforma 3 (Annexure V). Selection of 5 spots for observation in a field For stage of the crop, tick mark appropriate stage at the time of surveillance i.e.tillering or panicle initiation or flowering or grain maturity. For crop health, tick mark appropriate term as to excellent or good or poor based on the status of crop stand in the field relating to crop growth and development. In each field select five spots randomly as shown in the figure (four in the corners, at least 5 feet inside the borders and one in the centre). At each spot select four random hills for recording observations. Thus a total of 20 hills / field would be sampled. Observations relating to plant details, insect pests, beneficials and diseases should be recorded against each of the selected 20 hills from the five spots in page 3 to page 4 of Proforma 3 with due care. The spot and plant selections can be at random during each time of field visit. Plant observations Hills Bunch of tillers emerging from mother shoot (tiller) can be referred as a plant or a hill. Having selected the spot inside the field random selection of a hill has to be made for observations on number of tillers and leaves besides observations on insect pests and diseases. 5

15 NICRA Total tillers Tiller is a shoot including root, stem and leaves with or without panicle. A hill has many tillers with or without panicles depending on the crop stage. In each hill, count the total number of tillers and record. Total leaves Leaves are the leaf blades arranged alternately on a stem of tillers of a plant. In each hill, count the total number of leaves on all the tillers and record. Panicle bearing tillers Panicles are the floral parts that had emerged out of leaf sheath. The panicle may be at flowering, milk stage, dough stage and mature grain stage. In each hill, count the total number tillers possessing panicles of any stage such as flowering, milk stage, dough stage and mature grain stage. Hill with tillers Leaf blades Panicle bearing tillers 6

16 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Insect pests Stem borer damage Dead heart Dead heart is a dried up central shoot of a tiller on the rice plant occurring during the vegetative (seedling to maximum tillering) stage that has been attacked by any one species of stem borers. Dead heart White ear In the grown up rice plants with panicles, the stem borer attack results in white ear - a condition wherein whole panicle becomes dried and discolored. The grains of such panicles are empty or only partially filled. Count dead hearts (dried tillers) at tillering stage and white ear heads after panicle emergence in each hill. Leaf folder damage Rice plants have tubular folded leaves with or without larvae that are pale yellowish to green. Longitudinal and transparent whitish streaks are visible on damaged leaves. Sometimes leaf folder larva fastens the leaf tip to the basal part of leaf. Heavily infested hills appear scorched with many folded leaves. Count the number of folded leaves per hill when more than 30% of a leaf is damaged. Larvae scrape the green tissues of the leaves and the leaves become white and dry. White ear Leaf folder larva and its damage 7

17 NICRA Thrips damage Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings and terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base are noticed with presence of nymphs and adults of thrips. Once he thrips damage is ascertained, count the number of damaged leaves having the symptoms described above. Case worm damaged leaves Leaves damaged by case worm become whitish and papery. Tubular cases formed by cutting the apical portion of leaves float on water around the plants. The leaves are cut at right angles as with a pair of scissors. Larva if present is pale and translucent with orange head and has filamentous gills on the sides of the body. Count the damaged leaves due to case worm per hill and record. Thrips damage Case worm damage and its larva Hispa damaged leaves Scrapping the chlorophyll by the adults and long winding tunnels into leaves made by the grubs are seen. Affected leaves show whitish and membranous patches along with long axis of leaf or blister near leaf tips. Damaged leaves dry up ultimately. Count the Hispa damaged leaves on each hill and record. Damage due to Hispa 8

18 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Hispa adults Small bluish-black beetles, covered with spines are the Hispa adults. Count the number of adults of Hispa on each hill and record. Hispa adult and its damage Brown plant hopper (nymphs and adults) Two forms of Brown plant hopper (BPH) adults viz., macropterous (long winged) and brachypterous (short winged) are seen. Nymphs and adults are brown in colour with chestnut brown eyes and congregate at the base of the plant above the water level. For BPH, record the total number of hoppers (both nymphs and adults) on all tillers of each hill. BPH nymphs and adults BPH tiller damage Initial damage due to feeding by BPH causes drying of tillers. The tillers turn brown and lodge. For tiller damage, count the number of damaged tillers per hill due to BPH. BPH plant damage Affected hill dries up and gives a scorched appearance called hopper burn. For BPH plant damage, record hill damage as yes if all tillers are completely dried or no if partial or no damage is seen. Tiller and hill damage by BPH Hopper burn due to BPH 9

19 NICRA Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) Nymphs are white in colour with yellow pronotum and possess a diamond like marking on the thorax. They congregate at the base of the plant above the water level. Count the number of nymphs and adults of WBPH in each hill. Care must be taken to differentiate between BPH and WBPH. Count them from the base of the plant above the water level. WBPH nymphs and adults Zig-zag leafhopper Nymphs have brown patches on the vertex, deep brown thorax and white abdomen. Adult hoppers have characteristic zigzag white and brown pattern on the fore wings. Green leafhopper (GLH ) Many species of GLH are found. Nymphs are pale to yellowish green. Adults are wedge shaped and green with or without black spots. All species invariably have black patch on wing tips. Zig-zag leafhopper adult GLH nymphs and adults White leafhopper Largest of all hoppers, having central black spot on the vertex of head. Faint brown lines are seen on the forewings. Hoppers other than BPH and WBPH viz.,zig-zag leafhopper, green and white leafhoppers, if found should be counted together and filled under other hoppers. Count the number of nymphs and adults of all hoppers other than BPH and WBPH in each hill. 10

20 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Gall midge Gall midge infestation results in formation of a tube like gall that is similar to onion leaf or silver-shoot. Gall is a silvery white hollow tube, 1 cm wide and cm long. Infested tillers produce no panicles. Count the number of silver shoots having appearance of onion leaves/hill. Onion leaf due to gall midge Leaf mite Feeding takes place behind the leaf sheath. The feeding lesion can be detected by cinnamon to chocolate-brown discoloration of the leaf sheath. Look for the presence of mites on leaves and symptoms. Record for presence as 1 or absence as 0 against each sampled hill. Panicle mite The panicle mite is not visible to the naked eye, and a minimum 20X hand lens is required to observe the mite inside of the leaf sheath. The mites are clear to strawcolored. When population levels are low the mite is found feeding on internal surfaces of leaf sheaths, but when population levels are high, the mite can be found on all plant parts, including the kernel. Necrotic bands and spots are developed on rice grains and leaf sheaths when mite populations are large. Symptoms should be confirmed with the presence of the panicle mites as described above. Leaf mite damage Panicle mite damage Look for the presence of panicle mites along 11

21 NICRA with symptoms and record for presence as 1 or absence as 0 against each sampled hill. Swarming caterpillar Leaves are cut in large scale with presence of caterpillars. Severe infestation gives cattle grazing appearance to the field. Mature larvae or caterpillars are nearly 4 cm long and are green, gray, or brown in colour with dull dark dorsal and sub-dorsal longitudinal stripes. Two rows of C-shaped black spots are visible along the backs. Count total number of caterpillars and damaged leaves in each hill and record them separately. Swarming caterpillar damage at seedling stage and its larva Rice horned caterpillar Due to its characteristic feeding leaf margins as well as leaf tips are devoured; leaf tissues and veins are removed. The larva or caterpillar is yellow-green with two pairs of horn like processes-a pair of red horn like processes on the head and another pair of yellow processes in the anal end. Count total number of caterpillars and damaged leaves in each hill and record them separately. Larva of horned caterpillar Yellow hairy caterpillar Defoliation of leaves with presence of larvae of yellow hairy caterpillar. Caterpillar is yellowish brown with red stripes, orange head and tufts of hairs all over the body. Count the number of caterpillars and damaged leaves in each hill. Yellow hairy caterpillar 12

22 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Stink bug Bugs are straw-colored, one fourth (1/4) to half (1/2) inch long, somewhat elongated and flattened with forward pointing spines on the shield-like segment behind the head. Count the number of nymphs and adults together on each hill and record. Stink bug nymph Gundhi bug Nymphs are green to brown. Adults are slender with long legs and antennae. Count the number of nymphs and adults together on each hill and record. Adult and nymph of Gundhi bug Blue beetle Adults are elongated, dark bluish green and shiny with striations on the elytra. Grubs are white with brown head and with tubular processes at tip of abdomen. Often grubs are found in aggregations. Count the number of immature stages and adults together on each hill and record. Adult and grubs of blue beetle 13

23 NICRA Black bug Nymphs are brown and yellow with black spots and adults are shiny dark brown to black, and are found in groups at the base of plants. Count the number of nymphs and adults together on each hill and record. Black bug adults Other pests Write the name of any other insect pests not included in the data sheet. Provision to enter maximum of three species is made in the data sheet. Count the number of the insects (stage specific) or the damage depending on the pest and specify also the units such as number of leaves or tillers or panicles or hills. If the insects belong to Hemiptera, count both adults and nymphs together and record. If the insect stage is caterpillar count the number and record. In addition, if the damage is noticed on leaves or tillers or panicles count them and record. Reporting should be made separately. Entry into database through software is not possible. Beneficials Green mirid bug Adults are light green and slender (about seven to nine mm long), with long legs and antennae. Nymphs are completely green in colour. Brown mirids are also common but are different from green mirids and need not to be counted. Count and record total number of younger and adult stages in each hill and record. Mirid bug adult 14

24 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Rove beetle Adult rove beetles are brown, reddishbrown, or black with gray markings on the wings and abdomen. Beetles are slender with slender elongate bodies. Count and record total number of adults in each hill and record. Ground beetle This group of beetles varies in size (1/8 to 1 inch), shape and color. Most are flattened, dark brown, hard-bodied beetles with many fine lengthwise ridges on their wing covers (elytra). Count and record total number of ground beetles in each hill. Adult rove beetle Adult ground beetle Wolf spider Wolf spiders range from about 1/2 inch to 2 inches in length, hairy, and are typically brown to gray in color with various markings or lines. Count and record the total number of younger and adult stages in each hill. Wolf spider with egg sac 15

25 NICRA Diseases The identity of the diseases has to be established before scoring for severity. Leaf blast Leaf lesions are spindle - shaped and often develop grayish centers and coalesce on leaves.lesions initially appear as graygreen and water-soaked with a darker green border that expand rapidly to several centimeters in length. Older lesions often become light tan in color with necrotic borders. Sheath blight Initial lesions are small, ellipsoidal or ovoid, greenish-gray and water-soaked. Older lesions are elliptical or ovoid with a grayish white center with light brown to dark brown margin. Lesions reach the uppermost leaf under favorable conditions. Lesions may coalesce forming bigger lesions with irregular outline and may cause the death of the whole leaf. Lesions due to blast Bacterial leaf blight ( BLB ) Seedling wilt is noted 1-3 weeks after transplanting. Leaves wilt and roll up and become grayish green to yellow. On mature plants leaves turn yellow or pale yellow. Water-soaked to yellowish stripes on leaf blades or starting at leaf tips that later increase in length and width with a wavy margin are seen. Appearance of bacterial ooze that looks like a milky or opaque dewdrop on young lesions is common. Sheath blight Wilting and graying to yellowing of leaves due to BLB 16

26 Manual for Rice Pest Surveillance Brown spot Infected seedlings have small, circular or oval, brown lesions, which may girdle the coleoptiles and cause distortion of the primary and secondary leaves (symptom is called seedling blight). Young or underdeveloped lesions on older leaves are small and circular, dark brown or purplish brown. A fully developed lesion on older leaves is oval, brown with gray or whitish center with reddish brown margin. When infection is severe, the lesions may coalesce, killing large areas of affected leaves. Brown spot Sheath Rot Infection occurs on the uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the young panicles at late booting stage. Initial symptoms are oblong or somewhat irregular spots or lesions, cm long, with dark reddish brown margins and gray centre. Lesions may also consist of diffuse reddish brown discoloration in the sheath. Tungro virus Leaves turn yellow or orange yellow. Stunting and slightly reduced tillering are always associated. Observe lesions/leaf drying/disease spots from tip to downward on the leaf margin first to properly identify the diseases based on the symptoms described above. Estimate the leaf area covered by disease on a hill (0-100%). Assign index value for all the observed diseases as per the per cent leaf area affected based on scale given below. Tungro virus 17

Insect identification sheet

Insect identification sheet information leaflet Insect identification sheet To enable you to identify the insect you have in your home, we have provided some identification sheets. These depict the most common pest species that you

More information

INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson)

INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson) INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson) A number of insect pests are capable of severely damaging soybeans. However, it is important to realize that soybeans can withstand considerable insect damage at

More information

SPECIES DESCRIPTION Picture

SPECIES DESCRIPTION Picture SPECIES DESCRIPTION Picture German Cockroach Cockroach egg case & nymphs 12-15mm (Adult Stage)Mid to dark brown body. Lighter area with 2 dark bars behind head. Wings. Very long antennae. Young are smaller

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY SMS (Entomology) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhemaji Assam Agricultural University Silapathar INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN PADDY Among the food grains paddy occupies

More information

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County Tree Integrated Pest Management Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County IPM Refresher Definition: The use of a combination of appropriate pest control tactics to reduce pest population

More information

Non-chemical Pest Management in Paddy An experience

Non-chemical Pest Management in Paddy An experience -chemical Pest Management in Paddy An experience D. Balaraju, M.Sc.,(Ag.) Training Associate-Plant Protection, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Yagantipalle 518 124 In Kurnool district, paddy is cultivated in an

More information

Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice

Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice Technical Brief # 17-2013 Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice CLIMARICE II: "Sustaining rice production in a changing

More information

Instruction to all the Pest Monitors/Data Entry Operators

Instruction to all the Pest Monitors/Data Entry Operators Instruction to all the Pest Monitors/Data Entry Operators Before entering the data, please check the data sheets thoroughly. Enter the data in the following order (Enter Scout Farm Information) Fig 1.

More information

Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum

Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics) Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology

More information

Table 3. List of descritors for maize

Table 3. List of descritors for maize Table 3. List of descritors for maize Descriptor Descriptor Descriptor state Recording stage Remarks number 1 Accession number 2 Total no. of leaves Record the total number of At flowering leaves per plant

More information

Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize. Defoliators: migratory. More Defoliators. Maize. BCCM 2012: IPM case studies. Sorghum Millet Tef

Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize. Defoliators: migratory. More Defoliators. Maize. BCCM 2012: IPM case studies. Sorghum Millet Tef Source: http://www.fao.org/ www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/123/crops BCCM 2012: IPM case studies Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize also Sorghum Millet Tef RPB 2011; tropical_cereals

More information

Garden Insects Some insects are very good at finding food and shelter in the garden. You will find many insects in this garden, but you must look

Garden Insects Some insects are very good at finding food and shelter in the garden. You will find many insects in this garden, but you must look Garden Insects Some insects are very good at finding food and shelter in the garden. You will find many insects in this garden, but you must look carefully. Most are smaller than your pinkie nail! Many

More information

FIELD RECOGNITION OF THE LARVAE OF NATIVE COCCINELLIDAE, COMMON TO THE POTATO FIELDS OF AROOSTOOK COUNTY

FIELD RECOGNITION OF THE LARVAE OF NATIVE COCCINELLIDAE, COMMON TO THE POTATO FIELDS OF AROOSTOOK COUNTY FIELD RECOGNITION OF THE LARVAE OF NATIVE COCCINELLIDAE, COMMON TO THE POTATO FIELDS OF AROOSTOOK COUNTY R. H. Storch Department of Entomolgy, University of Maine TECHNICAL BULLETIN 43 MAINE AGRICULTURAL

More information

A National Perspective

A National Perspective Changing Insect Pest Scenario in the Rice Ecosystem A National Perspective K. Krishnaiah * and N.R.G.Varma Former Project Director Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30 Page 1 I. INTRODUCTION

More information

Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides

Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides Sitesh Chatterjee 1 and Palash Mondal 2 ABSTRACT The experiments were carried

More information

The Alfalfa Weevil in Utah

The Alfalfa Weevil in Utah Page 1 of 5 The Alfalfa Weevil in Utah Fact Sheet No. 58 January 1989 Edward W. Evans Extension Entomologist Introduction The alfalfa weevil is a major pest throughout Utah. It is a beetle with one generation

More information

Grain Sorghum Insect Control

Grain Sorghum Insect Control Agriculture and Natural Resources FSA2066 Grain Sorghum Insect Control Glenn E. Studebaker Extension Entomologist Gus Lorenz Associate Department Head Extension Entomologist Scott Akin Extension Entomologist

More information

Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)

Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) Toxicological information Exosex contains 3.2 mg Technical Grade Pheromone per gram of food grade wax powder and poses virtually no hazard to health. Ecotoxicological information Non hazardous to the environment.

More information

Organic Control Methods of Almond Insect Pest

Organic Control Methods of Almond Insect Pest Big Tree Organic Field Day Turlock, CA, April 2nd, 2009 Organic Control Methods of Almond Insect Pest David Doll Farm Advisor UCCE Merced County Overview Organic Control Methods of Control of common pests

More information

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT 12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Conservation farming promotes a diversity of insect life, influences pest populations and also favours many beneficial insects. The beneficial insects which act as

More information

Virus diseases affect tomato production to some

Virus diseases affect tomato production to some A L A B A M A A & M A N D A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T I E S Virus Diseases Of Tomato ANR-0836 Virus diseases affect tomato production to some degree every year in Alabama. The amount of damage they cause

More information

Wheat Disease Identification

Wheat Disease Identification Wheat Disease Identification Fusarium root, crown, and foot rots Stripe rust Tan spot Leaf rust Cephalosporium stripe Stagonospora nodorum blotch Contents Diseases affecting heads and grain Black chaff...

More information

Onion & Leek Planting Guide

Onion & Leek Planting Guide Onion & Leek Planting Guide Important Remove plants from box immediately. Do not put in soil or water before planting. Keep cool and dry until you can plant. Follow the instructions inside for best results.

More information

RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD

RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD Pak. J. Bot., 37(2): 319-324, 2005. RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD RASHID A. KHAN, JUNAID A. KHAN, F. F. JAMIL

More information

Predictive Analysis on Nutritional Disorders in Rice Plants using Regression

Predictive Analysis on Nutritional Disorders in Rice Plants using Regression Predictive Analysis on Nutritional Disorders in Rice Plants using Regression B.Srividhya 1, G.SudheerKumar 2, K.JhansiLakshmi 3 D.SandeepKumar 4, L. Ravi Kumar 5, Dr.J.Rajendra Prasad 6 1,2,3,4 B.Tech,

More information

Major Insects of Apple, Peach and Pear Trees in the Home Orchard

Major Insects of Apple, Peach and Pear Trees in the Home Orchard Major Insects of Apple, Peach and Pear Trees in the Home Orchard Henry W. Hogmire West Virginia University Tree Fruit Research and Education Center Kearneysville, WV Apple Pests Plum Curculio Beetle (snout

More information

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Figure 1. A fall installed tall fescue sod showing the first signs of summer stress following the arrival of record setting heat in central Virginia in

More information

Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution.

Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution. Diseases, Deficiencies, and Toxicities in Plants Part 1: Knowing how to identify the problem. Author: Damon Polta, Friendly Aquaponics Farm Manager. For free distribution. Diseases Beet Western Yellow

More information

System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Ramasamy Selvaraju Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC), FAO Fifth annual Investment Days, Rome, Italy; 17 December 2013 Contents What is SRI? Main concepts of

More information

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources J. Sugano, J. Uyeda, S. Fukuda, K. Wang, M. Kawate, C. Tamaru, B. Fox, and T. Radovich College of Tropical Agriculture

More information

Life Cycle of a Butterfly

Life Cycle of a Butterfly Name: Date: Life Cycle of a Butterfly Life cycle refers to the stages of development, growth and reproduction that a living thing goes through. The butterfly's life cycle is made up of four stages: egg,

More information

Control of rice insect pests

Control of rice insect pests Control of rice insect pests Table of Contents OVERVIEW...3 BASICS OF CULTURAL CONTROL OF RICE INSECT PESTS...4 Lesson 1 - Definition of cultural control... 4 Lesson 2 - Advantages and disadvantages of

More information

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide NOTES ON FRUIT PRODUCTION Aim and Objective The aim and objective of RIPPLE Africa as an organisation is to make Nkhata Bay District one of the leading

More information

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees 148 Appendix A Diagnosing Disorders of Trees Diagnosing tree problems can be difficult. Symptoms and signs can be subtle or only visible using special techniques, important information can be missing,

More information

Plant Physiology Critical Stages in the Life of a Corn Plant

Plant Physiology Critical Stages in the Life of a Corn Plant Plant Physiology Critical Stages in the Life of a Corn Plant Heather Darby and Joe Lauer Nature greatly influences corn growth and yield. However, the corn producer can manipulate the environment with

More information

This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is

This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is useful for proper management. 1 In order to appreciate

More information

Macadamia problem solver & bug identifier

Macadamia problem solver & bug identifier Macadamia problem solver & bug identifier Reprint information current in 2003 REPRINT INFORMATION PLEASE READ! For updated information please call 13 25 23 or visit the website www.deedi.qld.gov.au This

More information

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS PEST - Derived from French word Peste and Latin term Pestis meaning plague or contagious disease - Pest is any animal

More information

Deficiency Symptoms in Vegetable Plants (Corrective Treatments Per 30ʼ-long Row)

Deficiency Symptoms in Vegetable Plants (Corrective Treatments Per 30ʼ-long Row) Deficiency Symptoms in Vegetable Plants (Corrective Treatments Per 30ʼ-long Row) BORON (1-2 ounces Borax) General Symptoms Rosette Crown terminal buds; Death of terminal buds; leaves are an off-green color;

More information

Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India

Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India S.Senthilnathan, K.Palanisami, C.R.Ranganathan and Chieko Umetsu 2 Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore,

More information

Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage

Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. Agricultural Chemicals Research

More information

Pest Control in Home Vegetable Gardens WSU EXTENSION MANUAL EM009

Pest Control in Home Vegetable Gardens WSU EXTENSION MANUAL EM009 Pest Control in Home Vegetable Gardens WSU EXTENSION MANUAL EM009 PEST CONTROL IN HOME VEGETABLE GARDENS A.L. Antonelli, Washington State University Extension Entomologist These control measures for common

More information

Strawberry Leaf Spot

Strawberry Leaf Spot Strawberry Leaf Spot Cathy Heidenreich and Bill Turechek Introduction - Leaf spot is one of the most common and widespread diseases of strawberry. Mycosphaerella fragariae is also the cause of black seed

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article

Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article SCREENING OF RICE GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO YELLOW STEM BORER SCIRPOPHAGA INCERTULAS WALKER. 1 V. Visalakshmi*,

More information

Symptoms Include: Stippled, bronzed or bleached appearance of leaves

Symptoms Include: Stippled, bronzed or bleached appearance of leaves Common Tree Pests & Diseases Of Central Texas Lara Schuman City of Austin Urban Forestry Program Stress and Trees City life can be stressful, and trees feel stress too. Common urban tree issues include:

More information

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in crops and pastures Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means using a combination of biological, cultural and chemical control methods to manage pest problems. The term

More information

A Visual Guide to Detecting Emerald Ash Borer Damage

A Visual Guide to Detecting Emerald Ash Borer Damage cfs.nrcan.gc.ca A Visual Guide to Detecting Emerald Ash Borer Damage Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication A visual guide to detecting emerald ash

More information

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com 1. THE GROWER Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com Hung is a new grower in his third year of independent farm management. He completed a Diploma in Horticulture while working on his parent

More information

ALFALFA INSECTS: AN OVERVIEW OF CUTWORMS, ALFALFA WEEVIL, AND APHIDS. Steven E. Salisbury 1 ABSTRACT

ALFALFA INSECTS: AN OVERVIEW OF CUTWORMS, ALFALFA WEEVIL, AND APHIDS. Steven E. Salisbury 1 ABSTRACT ALFALFA INSECTS: AN OVERVIEW OF CUTWORMS, ALFALFA WEEVIL, AND APHIDS Steven E. Salisbury 1 ABSTRACT Insect pests present a significant threat to alfalfa production. There are several alfalfa insect pests

More information

suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture

suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture suscon Green is a dust free, controlled release granule that controls Grass Grub in newly established pasture

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name Focus Areas: Pest Control: Biological; Environmental Science, Language Arts Focus Skills: critical thinking, conducting research, observing, graphing, interpreting data Objectives To explore human attitudes

More information

Evaluation of efficacy of different insecticides and bioagents against Sesamia inferens Walker in maize.

Evaluation of efficacy of different insecticides and bioagents against Sesamia inferens Walker in maize. Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com European Journal of Zoological Research, 2013, 2 (4): 98-102 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN: 2278 7356 Evaluation of efficacy

More information

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION Compiled by Directorate Communication National Department of Agriculture and W. Willemse,

More information

Pests of Woody Ornamental Plants An Online Resource for IPM Information

Pests of Woody Ornamental Plants An Online Resource for IPM Information Title: Pests of Woody Ornamental Plants An Online Resource for IPM Information Project Leaders: Shari Romar, Lead Writer; Gary Couch, Technical Advisor, NYS IPM Program; Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, Project

More information

Enterprise Guide for Southern Maryland: Growing Broccoli

Enterprise Guide for Southern Maryland: Growing Broccoli 1 Fact Sheet 450 Enterprise Guide for Southern Maryland: Growing Broccoli Broccoli is a popular vegetable in both fresh and frozen forms and has become a common vegetable in salad bars. Recently it has

More information

Common diseases of nectarines

Common diseases of nectarines OCTOBER 2009 PRIMEFACT 890 Common diseases of nectarines L. Ullio Cleanfresh Project, Intensive Industries, Sydney Markets Bacterial canker Bacterial canker is considered a major disease of stone fruit

More information

Carpet Beetles In Homes Phil Pellitteri/UW Insect Diagnostic Lab

Carpet Beetles In Homes Phil Pellitteri/UW Insect Diagnostic Lab Carpet Beetles In Homes Phil Pellitteri/UW Insect Diagnostic Lab One can expect to find a few carpet beetles in any home. Larvae can feed on animal hair, dead insect, wool, horn, silk, plant seeds, feathers,

More information

SECTION 1 : INTRODUCTORY. Chapter 1 Introduction. Pest status and economic damage

SECTION 1 : INTRODUCTORY. Chapter 1 Introduction. Pest status and economic damage SECTION 1 : INTRODUCTORY Chapter 1 Introduction Cotton production systems The cotton pest situation Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Pest status and economic damage COTTON BOLLWORM CONTROL species,

More information

A REVIEW OF PEST CONTROL IN AVOCADOS

A REVIEW OF PEST CONTROL IN AVOCADOS California Avocado Society 1979 Yearbook 63: 58-65 A REVIEW OF PEST CONTROL IN AVOCADOS C. Don Gustafson Farm Advisor, Cooperative Extension Service, University of California, San Diego County. Introduction

More information

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Lawn Care FAQ s Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Why do we have so many weeds? Dandelions in particular, weeds in general, do not seem concerned about how long lawn has

More information

MANGO PEST SURVEILLANCE

MANGO PEST SURVEILLANCE MANUAL FOR MANGO PEST SURVEILLANCE National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture Implementation Project Coordination Pest Surveillance Coordination : Natural Resources Management Division, ICAR,

More information

Survey on the occurrence, distribution pattern and management of stem borers on rice in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu

Survey on the occurrence, distribution pattern and management of stem borers on rice in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu 2014; 2 (6): 8690 ISSN 23207078 JEZS 2014; 2 (6): 8690 2014 JEZS Received: 21102014 Accepted: 05112014 C. Gailce Leo Justin Professor (Entomology), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilpatti 628 501,

More information

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd.

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Sugarcane It is an important cash crop, Pakistan is the fifth largest cane producing country. However, its yield

More information

Wheat Disease Identification and Control

Wheat Disease Identification and Control Wheat Disease Identification and Control 2009 MELVIN NEWMAN, Professor Plant Pathologist Entomology and Plant Pathology Department UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Objectives To present detailed information on

More information

Strawberry Anthracnose

Strawberry Anthracnose Strawberry Anthracnose Bill Turechek and Cathy Heidenreich Introduction - The term anthracnose is a general term used to describe plant diseases. Strawberry anthracnose refers to several diseases of strawberry

More information

2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents?

2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents? 2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents? offspring Offspring are young plants and animals. Offspring

More information

Beneficial Insects Predators, Parasitoids and Pollinators

Beneficial Insects Predators, Parasitoids and Pollinators Beneficial Insects Predators, Parasitoids and Pollinators Beneficial insects and mites belong to three categories: predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. January, 2016 Predators capture and eat other

More information

CHECKLIST INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

CHECKLIST INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Before introducing a crop into a greenhouse remove weeds, algae, pet plants, and any plant and growing medium debris located throughout the greenhouse. Repair any drainage

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region Growing Cocoa Beans All chocolate begins with cocoa beans, the fruit of the cacao tree (also called a cocoa tree). Scientists know that the cacao tree originated somewhere in South or Central America.

More information

PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION. Introduction

PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION. Introduction PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION Introduction The pineapple is a tropical and subtropical fruit grown in many countries in Africa. In Uganda it is mainly grown south of Lake Kyoga and western Uganda. Ii is a tradable

More information

PETERSFIELD PONY CLUB

PETERSFIELD PONY CLUB PETERSFIELD PONY CLUB MAIN ACHIEVEMENT BADGE BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS Name : Complete the multiple choice Quiz Complete the TWO diagrams Complete the Wordsearch Complete the Crossword The Ultimate Butterflies

More information

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Western Pecan Production Short Course September 27, 2012 Natalie Goldberg Extension Plant Pathologist Diseases of Pecan Phymatotrichum root rot Root-knot nematode Powdery mildew

More information

Culture in field conditions - Challenges A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina

Culture in field conditions - Challenges A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina EUSTAS 6 th Stevia Symposium Leuven, July 3 rd and 4 th I. Area of cultivation II. Environment III. Production of seedlings IV. Planting

More information

Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort

Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort The Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort Name Help Sheets: Things Plants Need There are certain things that every living thing needs in order to live and grow. Just like you, plants need

More information

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Occasionally, fruit trees decline and often die. Diseases affecting the leaves, fruit, and twigs of fruit trees usually

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Science and Language Arts Brief Description: This lesson will focus all of the information the students have learned about pests in the other insect lessons in a decision-making

More information

Protected Cultivation

Protected Cultivation Workshop on Implementation Strategy for MIDH 24 January 2014, NAAS Complex, Pusa, New Delhi Protected Cultivation NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON PLASTICULTURE APPLICATIONS IN HORTICULTURE (NCPAH) Why Protected

More information

AGFACTS. Strawberry disease control guide MAJOR DISEASES OF STRAWBERRIES

AGFACTS. Strawberry disease control guide MAJOR DISEASES OF STRAWBERRIES AGFACTS AGFACTS AGFACTS www.agric.nsw.gov.au Strawberry disease control guide Agfact H3.3.1 third edition, May 2004 Lawrence Ullio, District Horticulturist Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute Camden

More information

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology Fact Sheet for Adaptation Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology: Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest

More information

The Simple Truth: We Can t Live Without Them

The Simple Truth: We Can t Live Without Them The Great Pollinator Partnership poster has been reproduced as part of a cooperative effort of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign to raise awareness of the importance of pollinators to our

More information

Class Insecta - The insects

Class Insecta - The insects A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced

More information

Best Lawns News. Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit. Featured in This Issue

Best Lawns News. Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit. Featured in This Issue Best Lawns News Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit Featured in This Issue Stilt Grass 2 National Arboretum s Grass Roots Exhibit 4 Grub Control 5 All content was

More information

Insect Pests of Pecan. Will Hudson Extension Entomologist

Insect Pests of Pecan. Will Hudson Extension Entomologist Insect Pests of Pecan Will Hudson Extension Entomologist How important is nut drop to production? Pecan trees typically lose 75% of the pecans between nut set and shell hardening even when protected from

More information

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Outline! Understanding weeds! Behavior of wandering perennials! Tillage and emergence cues! Life and death of weed seeds in the soil!

More information

Advanced Intelligence Report Tree & Shrub Insect Control: Protecting Trees from Emerald Ash Borer

Advanced Intelligence Report Tree & Shrub Insect Control: Protecting Trees from Emerald Ash Borer Advanced Intelligence Report Treating For Emerald Ash Borer With Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Insect Control Soil Drench Dr. Bruce Stewart, Bayer Advanced Consumer Products Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is

More information

Hop Pest Control. H. E. Morrison. jpf^vrsiolnrru; - «ibntoj."' «- '',orto JUN 6 I-JJ3

Hop Pest Control. H. E. Morrison. jpf^vrsiolnrru; - «ibntoj.' «- '',orto JUN 6 I-JJ3 Hop Pest Control H. E. Morrison its of jpf^vrsiolnrru; - «th ' s ibntoj."' «- '',orto JUN 6 I-JJ3 Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State College Corvallis Circular of Information 589 May 1958 Hop

More information

Scouting and Thresholds for Blueberry Pests and Diseases

Scouting and Thresholds for Blueberry Pests and Diseases Scouting and Thresholds for Blueberry Pests and Diseases This field guide is intended to be used as a tool to aid in sampling and decision-making for managing key insect, mite, and disease pests in blueberry

More information

Pineapples. Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom. Version - October 2011

Pineapples. Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom. Version - October 2011 Pineapples Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom Version - October 2011 1 Definition Of Produce This Standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananascomosus(L).

More information

LOUISIANA RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS IN COMMERCIAL PECAN ORCHARDS: AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE

LOUISIANA RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS IN COMMERCIAL PECAN ORCHARDS: AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE LOUISIANA RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS IN COMMERCIAL PECAN ORCHARDS: AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE Control of insects is essential for profitable pecan production in Louisiana. Commercial pecan

More information

Dieback, Twig blight or Canker (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- asexual stage, Glomerella cingulata.)

Dieback, Twig blight or Canker (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- asexual stage, Glomerella cingulata.) Camellia Camellia spp. Propagation Camellias are usually propagated by cuttings of new growth taken just as the stem is changing from green to brown. Wound the stem, use 3000-8000 ppm IBA-talc and grow

More information

Scarab Beetles and White Grubs

Scarab Beetles and White Grubs Scarab Beetles and White Grubs O & T Guide [T-#08] Carol A. Sutherland Extension and State Entomologist Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture and Home Economics October 2006 Probably the

More information

WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN?

WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN? WHAT IS WRONG WITH MY LAWN? Lawn problems can occur in small areas or larger patches and entire lawns can be affected. Sometimes the problems are due to poor growing conditions, improper lawn care practices,

More information

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY E. Subramanian 1, G. James Martin 2, E. Suburayalu 3 and R. Mohan 4 Abstract Field experiments were conducted at Central Farm, Coimbatore to develop

More information

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING Pruning Citrus Trees Citrus trees are pruned in order; to allow light penetration into the canopy; to prevent crowding of main scaffold branches and to remove branches which cross; to remove or shorten

More information

Custard apple information kit

Custard apple information kit information kit Reprint information current in 1998 REPRINT INFORMATION PLEASE READ! For updated information please call 13 25 23 or visit the website www.deedi.qld.gov.au This publication has been reprinted

More information

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12)

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces water quality problems related to pesticide use. Track your

More information

Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle

Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle FS 905 Economic Thresholds in Soybeans Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle Michael A. Catangui, Ph.D. Extension entomologist & assistant professor Plant Science Department South Dakota State University Economic

More information

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA As you are probably aware, we have seen a significant amount of dying ash trees in the Plymouth, Canton, Northville area. This prompted

More information