Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)"

Transcription

1 Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) K. Muralidharan, I.C. Pasalu Department of Crop Protection, Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Hyderabad , India Received 31 March 2005; received in revised form 21 June 2005; accepted 23 June 2005 Abstract A database created from insecticide control experiments conducted under the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project from 1965 to 1992 was used to derive empirical estimates of yield losses caused by stem borers. Each unit percent damage due to white earhead damage had a much greater impact on rice yield in the irrigated ecosystem than did damage due to dead heart. White earhead damage occurs later in the season and results in direct loss of a yielding panicle, and thus, no compensation (or very little) is possible. The grain yield loss from the two phases, dead heart and white earhead damage to rice, is more than additive. Based on 770 experimental units from 28 years data, our projections for damage over rice ecosystems due to 1% dead heart or white earhead, or to both phases of stem borer damage are 2.5%, 4.0%, and 6.4% yield loss, respectively. In terms of grain production loss over ecosystems, 1% dead heart, or white earhead, or both phases of stem borer damage would be 108, 174 and 278 kg/ha, respectively. In irrigated ecosystem, 1% dead heart resulted in 0.3% or 12 kg/ha loss whereas, 1% white earhead caused 4.2% or 183 kg/ha loss in grain yields; the loss due to 1% infestation in both phases of stem borer damage was 4.6% or 201 kg/ha. In rainfed lowlands, for 1% dead heart or dead heart and white earhead caused 2.3% or 76 kg/ha yield loss. Even at levels below the currently used economic threshold considerable losses can occur. This perception on losses assumes more importance because of the inadequate host-plant resistance to stem borer in rice. Although no insecticide gave total control of stem borer damage, many increased grain yields significantly. Emulsifiable concentrates of monocrotophos and chlorpyriphos appeared more economical for adoption by farmers as their application caused maximum mortality of larvae and unhatched eggs. Insecticide granules such as diazinon and carbofuran were equally efficient in preventing stem borer damage. r 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Rice; Oryza sativa; Stem borer; Dead heart; White earhead; Economic threshold; Yield loss; Insecticide control 1. Introduction Over 100 species of insects attack and damage rice (Pathak, 1968, 1977; Grist and Lever, 1969). Many of them often appear sporadically but do not cause economic loss. A few species, however, do cause significant damage and are extremely important. The stem borers, gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason), brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal), leaf folder Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (K. Muralidharan). (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Gunee), and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Dist.) are the major pests of economic importance in India and are among the production constraints consistently encountered in various rice growing environments (DRR, ; DRR, ). Stem borers in the order Lepidoptera are widely prevalent and serious insect pests of rice. In India, 18 stem borer species in the family Pyralidae and three species in the family Noctuidae have been recorded (Banerjee, 1964; Kapur, 1967). Usually one to four species are important in any given area. The predominant species in India include yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga (Tryporyza) incertulas (Walker), striped /$ - see front matter r 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi: /j.cropro

2 stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker). Of these species, S.inferens is restricted primarily to hill regions in northern India and Bengal in eastern India. Occasionally, other species like the white rice borer, S.innotata (Walker), may be encountered. The yellow stem borer, S.incertulas is the most dominant species in India (DRR, ; Kulshreshta et al., 1970). Varietal resistance to yellow stem borer has been investigated (Israel and Abraham, 1967). Land races of rice such as TKM 6, CB1 and CB2 have been used as resistant donors since 1964 in India (Roy et al., 1971). The resistance of TKM 6 was reported to result partially from non-preference and antibiosis (DRR, 1969). Research elsewhere on varietal resistance to rice stem borer has received a low priority and none of the varieties developed so far have more than a moderate degree of stem borer resistance (DRR, ; Chaudhary et al., 1984; Paroda and Siddiq, 1993). Stem borer adults are moths and three or more generations occur in a season. Most borer species are capable of flying only a short distance; however, they can travel 8 16 km if carried by wind (Pathak, 1968). A single female can lay eggs. An egg mass contains eggs and is covered with pale brown hairs from the anal tufts of female moths. The larvae live and feed inside the stem or rice culm. Both traditional cultivars and the modern semi-dwarf indica varieties produce numerous tillers (15 20), and thus provide conditions conducive for stem borer infestation. The newly hatched larvae may feed externally for some time, bore into the stems, usually throughout the upper nodes, and eat their way down to the base of the plants (Pathak, 1968). Crop production practices such as clipping seedlings to remove eggs laid at the leaf tips, density of plant populations, and N fertilizer application are known to alter the pest incidence (Pathak, 1977; Singh et al., 1990). Rice plants are most prone to stem borer infestation at the tillering and flowering stages (Viajante and Heinrichs, 1987). In a transplanted crop, stem borer larvae cut off the growing points of tillers causing them to die, a condition commonly known as dead heart. When the plants are attacked later, during the flowering stage, larvae feed on the meristem and empty, whitish-looking panicles called white earheads appear. In the infested fields these white earheads stand erect and contain empty and unfilled glumes. In addition to reducing rice yields, stem borer damage may also make plants more prone to invasion by pathogens. The estimated loss from stem borer damage varies from 3 95% (Ghose et al., 1960). In areas where 2 to 3 crops of rice are grown every year, the first crop is damaged severely (Israel and Abraham, 1967). The annual loss from pests and diseases on paddy rice in India was projected to be around $ 100 million; the share of paddy stem borer alone was considered as $ 10 million (Mehta and Varma, 1968). The most commonly cited crop loss figures from rice are those of Cramer (1967), who estimated worldwide losses in rice production due to insect damage to be 34.4%. An appraisal team charged with assessing the nature and scope of pest problems affecting the food supply in Southeast Asia concluded that stem borers were among the insect pests deserving the highest research priority (Glass, 1971). Yet, all these reports were only subjective estimates at best with extremely limited data. The magnitude of the loss caused by stem borers becomes apparent only when the grain yield harvested in an insecticide-protected plot is compared with that from an unprotected plot. Researchers at the Central Rice Research Institute in India estimated that for every 1% increase in white earheads, yields were reduced by 2.2% (Israel and Abraham, 1967). Stem borer attack was not completely prevented despite a regular treatment with insecticide (Israel and Abraham, 1967). However, a 48% yield increase in insecticide treated plots over untreated controls was found during the first two crop seasons in Tamil Nadu state in India (Ramakrishnan, 1972). Although stem borers are known to seriously affect crop yields in rice (Pathak and Dhaliwal, 1981; Litsinger et al., 1987; IRRI, 1990), few data are available on the actual yield losses derived for the different rice ecosystems. Savary et al. (1997) studied the relationship between rice cropping pattern, biotic constraints and yield levels in 251 farms. With principal component analysis of 14 injury variables, factors were identified for developing a multiple regression model in which the largest individual mean yield reduction (0.46 t/ha) was attributed to deadhearts. However, this model explained only 17.8% of yield variations. There are numerous reports on the ability of young rice plants to compensate for the loss from deadhearts to some extent by producing new tillers. The estimates available are from comparison of yields in unprotected and insecticide protected plots. The data included for such analyses were mostly from only one site in a single type of ecosystem. Injury yield relationships have been developed for stem borers (Israel and Abraham, 1967; Pathak, 1967; Pathak and Dyck, 1973; Gomez and Bernardo, 1974; Barr et al., 1981; Waibel, 1996). The relation between injury and yield is considered to be generally non-linear and to exhibit a high degree of tolerance to initial injury. Plants with as high as 30% dead hearts from stem borer attack may have no significant yield losses and as much as 10% white earheads can be tolerated (Teng et al., 1993). A higher degree of tolerance has been recorded under higher doses of fertilizer applications. Insect damage functions are thus speculated to depend on the crop age and nutritional status when the crop was infected, in addition to factors such as insect densities and feeding durations.

3 The use of inputs for plant protection was unimportant for rice prior to the mass introduction of modern varieties. Farmers had traditionally relied on host-plant tolerance, natural enemies, cultural practices and mechanical methods to contain the stem borer damage. In India, which has the world s largest area under rice production (44.6 m ha annually), losses increased in farmers fields as area planted to high yielding varieties increased. Most farmers protect their fields from the principal insect, stem borer, at least to a certain degree with insecticide application. Research and development in India is achieved mainly through the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AI- CRIP). This project tests breeding material, and promising production and protection practices in various experiments by involving the available scientific force at different institutions to find solutions to problems through joint efforts (Muralidharan and Siddiq, 1997). Insecticide control experiments on rice stem borers study the impact of pest on yield and identify products for commercial use. Thus, the objective of this study was to use the database created from AICRIP insecticide control experiments in rice from 1965 to 1992 to derive empirical estimates of stem borerinduced yield losses. 2. Materials and methods We used data from 86 AICRIP insecticide control experiments on stem borer control performed from 1965 to 1992 at 16 sites in different rice growing states in India (DRR, ). A total of 770 observations on the final percent incidence of dead heart and white earhead, and yield were available. In these experiments, the use of various insecticides resulted in the occurrence of a range of levels of both stem borer infestation and yield. Therefore, these relationships were used to provide estimates of the yield loss from stem borer infestation and damage. Efforts were made at each experiment site to ensure uniform stem borer infestation by using a highly susceptible local cultivar and adjusting the time of planting and fertilizer application to favour maximum pest infestation. However, locational influences on both stem borer incidence and yield were expected. Based on the assumption that losses from stem borer infestation would be more uniform within a climatic region, the data sets were regrouped into two major ecosystems as irrigated lands, and rainfed lowlands. The irrigated environment is more favourable for both crop growth and pest population build up and is more homogenous than the rainfed lowlands, where rain water starts accumulating in the fields from mid-july and starts receding with the cessation of the southwest monsoon in late October. In 69 of the 86 experiments, Jaya, a high yielding, fertilizer-responsive variety with a maturity period of 130 days was used; in the remaining experiments, a local variety with a similar duration to maturity was used (DRR, ). A randomized complete block design with four replications was used for each experiment. Treatments represented a range of insecticides such as acephate, agronule, ambithion, anthio, azinphos ethyl, bendiocarb, BPMC, carbaryl, carbofuran, cartap, chlorpyriphos, cytrolane, diazinon, endosulfan, ethofenprox, ethoprop, fenthion, fenitrothion, isazophos, leptophos, methyl parathion, MIPC, monocrotophos, phosphamidon, quinalphos and triazophos. In each experiment, water sprayed control plots were included. Thirty-day-old seedlings were planted at two seedlings per hill with a spacing of cm between rows and hills, respectively. All plots measured 6 4m in size. Prior to planting, 40 kg N, 60 kg P 2 O 5 and 60 kg K 2 O/ha were broadcast applied and incorporated in the final puddling. Top dressings were made twice (at tillering and panicle initiation stages) with 40 kg N/ha per application. All insecticides were applied at 30 and 50 days after planting, to control dead heart and white earhead damage, respectively, from stem borer. Percentage dead heart damage was calculated by counting healthy and infested tillers on all 10 plants selected at random from each plot; border rows in each plot were excluded from selection. Similarly, percentage white earhead damage was counted a week prior to harvest. In all treated and untreated plots, one border row was excluded and grain yield from the remaining plants was harvested and expressed in kg/ha at 14% moisture (DRR, ). In each ecosystem, irrigated or rainfed lowlands, the same variety was grown for all plots in a single year. In 17 experiments, rice cultivars other than Jaya were grown, and therefore, potential yield among varieties would differ. Each insecticide, depending on its efficacy, reduced the damage from stem borer and increased yields in treated plots in comparison to untreated plots. The influence of climate and environment preclude the direct use of the two independent variables, i.e. dead heart and white earhead. Hence, to circumvent this problem in our study, data from the gradation in both stem borer infestation and grain yields created by application of various insecticide treatments in each experiment were used. However, the overall percentage decrease in stem borer damage or the percentage increase in yields were not chosen as variables for this analysis because of the potential differences in actual yield among locations, ecosystems, years and varieties, which would cause large variations in yield values for control plots. Therefore, the reduction in dead heart (%) and white earhead (%) and the yield increase (kg/ha) were calculated in comparison with values obtained for unprotected plots for each location-year combination.

4 The initial regression model evaluated was lnðyþ ¼loc_yr b 1 ð%dhþ b 2 ð%weþ b 3 ð%dh þ %WEÞ. After a further evaluation of the graph of the original data, regression analysis was performed such that damage due to white earhead could be proportionately greater or less than 10% incidence a value commonly cited as an economic threshold (ET) value for stem borer damage (Teng et al., 1993). Yield values were transformed on ln (Y) prior to analysis to stabilize variance. All regression analyses were performed using Statistical Analysis Software System (SAS Institute, 1988). Residual plots were evaluated for occurrence of visual pattern and coefficients of determination were calculated. Percent grain yield loss at various projected levels of dead heart and white earhead incidence were calculated for both ecosystems combined and each ecosystem individually. 3. Results The degree of stem borer infestation varied between the two rice ecosystems (Table 1). The maximum levels of dead heart damage were higher than levels of white earhead damage in both ecosystems. Mean damage due to dead heart was slightly greater than due to white earhead damage in the rainfed lowlands; both types of damage occurred at similar mean levels in the irrigated ecosystem plots. Variability about the mean was fairly large which indicated the relatively large degree of variability of damage levels among the 28 years of data. Among the 770 experimental units (year location - treatment combinations), 71 in the irrigated ecosystem had only white earhead damage. A total of 281 (195 in irrigated and 86 in the rainfed lowlands) units had only dead heart damage. In both ecosystems, for both phases of stem borer damage, the majority of experimental units (426 for dead heart and 288 for white earhead) were in the range of 0 5% incidence of damage (Figs. 1 and 2). Overall, only in 22 units for dead heart and 10 for white earhead, were the damage levels greater than 25% in these insecticide control experiments on stem borer in rice. Such high damage levels were found in both insecticide treated and untreated plots. Of the 770 experimental units, a total of 489 could be used for regression analysis to produce a yield loss model. Similarly, for the irrigated ecosystems and rainfed lowlands a total of 295 and 194 units, respectively, could be used for the analysis. Our regression analysis indicated that the loss in yield due to damage by dead heart could be estimated with single regression coefficient throughout the range of damage encountered for all experimental units (Table 2). For white earhead, however, the relative yield loss at damage levels below ET (o10%) was greater than that which occurred at levels above ET (410%) for the model describing data from the irrigated ecosystem and the overall data set. The computation of grain yield loss was confined for illustrative purpose to three levels of stem borer damage, i.e. 5% (one-half of ET), 10% (ET) and 12% (overall means) (Table 1). Each unit percent damage due to white earhead damage had a much greater impact on rice yield in the irrigated ecosystem than did damage due to dead heart (Table 3). For example, calculated mean yield loss (using the regression equation given in Table 2) for 5% white earhead damage with no dead heart damage would be 19.35% or 844 kg/ha, whereas calculated mean yield loss for 5% dead heart damage with no white earhead damage would be only 1.32% or 58 kg/ha. The damage at 5% is slightly more than additive for a calculated mean yield loss of 23.44% or 1023 kg/ha. If both types of damage were present at levels of 12%, a loss of nearly 50% of the yield would be expected to occur. In the rainfed lowlands, only dead heart damage had a statistically significant effect on yield. Although a significant regression was found, the R 2 value (0.07 or 7%) was quite low and the predictive power of the model is doubtful. The indication is, however, that dead heart damage had an 8 10 fold greater effect on yield in the rainfed lowlands than in the irrigated ecosystem. The seven insecticides viz., carbofuran G, chlorpyriphos EC, chlorpyriphos G, cytrolane G, diazinon EC, Table 1 Incidence and severity of stem borer damage in AICRIP insecticide control experiments on rice, a Ecosystem Overall Irrigated Rainfed lowlands DH (%) WE (%) DH (%) WE (%) DH (%) WE (%) Maximum Minimum Mean Standard deviation a AICRIP All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad; DH Dead heart damage; and WE White earhead damage.

5 No. of observations Overall Irrigated Rainfed lowland >25 Dead hearts (%) Fig. 1. Frequency distribution of observations (total n ¼ 770) from the all India coordinated insecticide control experiments for for percent dead hearts damage in rice caused by stem borers overall ecosystems, and in the irrigated and rainfed lowland ecosystems. No. of observations Overall Irrigated Rainfed lowland >25 White earheads (%) Fig. 2. Frequency distribution of observations (total n ¼ 770) from the all India coordinated insecticide control experiments for for percent white earheads damage in rice caused by stem borers overall ecosystems, and in the irrigated and rainfed lowland ecosystems. monocrotophos and quinalphos listed in Table 4 did not eliminate white earhead or dead heart damage in rice. Levels of damages for both phases of the pest damage were, however, reduced relative to the untreated controls. Yield increases with two applications using one of the seven insecticides listed ranged from 28% with quinalphos to 42% with diazinon (Table 4). Mean yield increase was 35.3% among the seven insecticides. 4. Discussion In earlier studies to analyze crop yield-stem borer relationships, the percent incidence of dead heart and white earhead damage has been used as a predictive set of independent variables for estimating losses (Israel and Abraham, 1967). The potential yield of cultivars has also often been derived from a plot with maximum protection against damage (Pathak, 1969; Waibel, 1996). Ours, however, is the most extensive study conducted in terms of numbers of years and is one of the first to take into account the potential differences in crop loss due to stem borer that result from ecosystem differences. The all India coordinated insecticide control experiments in rice provided a database of 28 years from which to calculate yield losses due to the two distinct phases of stem borer damage dead heart and white earhead. Location year differences in potential yield were taken into account through the use of a location - year term as the intercept in our regression analysis. This use of a variable intercept for the zero percent damage level allowed us to make valid comparison among years within and across rice ecosystems. The estimation of the regression coefficients could then proceed without the possible introduction of undesirable covariance s into the data set which could have occurred if data from the various plots were normalized in relation to either locations- or year-specific control plot yields. The coefficients of determination for our regression models were low, but acceptable for the combined data (R 2 ¼ 0:25) and for the irrigated ecosystem (R 2 ¼ 0:32) (Table 2). For the rainfed lowlands, the coefficient of determination value was very low (R 2 ¼ 0:07) and the model is of questionable value. Our results show that white earhead damage in irrigated ecosystems was of much more importance relative to yield loss than was dead heart damage. There are many reports on the ability of rice plants to compensate for the early loss of tillers to dead heart infestation by stem borers (Wyatt, 1957; Israel and Abraham, 1967; Rao et al., 1987). Plants have time to compensate for damage due to dead heart, because it occurs earlier in the season. White earhead occurs later in the season and results in direct loss of a yielding panicle, and thus, no compensation (or very little) is possible. Unlike the rainfed lowlands where the water level depends on the actual rainfall, in irrigated ecosystems, there is always an assured availability of water for the pest to survive and multiply. This may be the reason for the greater importance of stem borer in the irrigated ecosystem than in the rainfed lowland system. The grain yield loss from the two phases, dead heart and white earhead damage to rice is more than additive (Table 3). At 5% level of stem borer damage in irrigated

6 Table 2 Regression model for yield projection in percent for stem borer damage in rice ecosystems a Regression Degree of correlation b Ecosystem combined R 2 ¼ 0:25; n ¼ 489 If white earhead is o10%: lnðyþ ¼8:3739 0:0253ð%DHÞ 0:0410ð%WEÞ If white earhead is 410%: lnðyþ ¼8:3739 0:0253ð%DHÞ 0:0410ð10%WEÞ 0:0109ð%WE 10Þ Irrigated ecosystem R 2 ¼ 0:32; n ¼ 295 If white earhead is o10%: lnðyþ ¼8:3801 0:0027ð%DHÞ 0:0430ð%WEÞ 0:0016ð%DH þ WEÞ If white earhead is 410%: lnðyþ ¼8:3810 0:0027ð%DHÞ 0:0430ð10%WEÞþ0:0067ð%WE-10Þ 0:0016ð%DH þ WEÞ Rainfed lowlands ecosystem R 2 ¼ 0:07; n ¼ 194 lnðyþ ¼8:0898 0:0236ð%DHÞ a DH Dead heart damage and WE White earhead damage b R 2 ¼ Coefficient of determination all significant at Pp0:05; R 2 is the proportion of within year and location sum of squares that is accounted by the significant variables, DH, WE or DH*WE in the model. The parameter estimates (the relative rate of loss) for WE and DH*WE in rainfed lowlands ecosystem were non-significant, and hence were omitted; for all other variables, the estimates were significant at Pp0:05. n ¼ number of observations. Table 3 Computation of grain yield loss in relation to the level of stem borer damage in rice ecosystems a, based upon equations presented in Table 2 DH (%) b WE (%) Grain yield loss c Overall Irrigated Rainfed lowlands % kg/ha % kg/ha % kg/ha a Computation was limited for illustrative purpose to 5% (one-half ET economic threshold), 10% (ET) and 12% (overall mean DH and WE). Mean yields (over all years and appropriate locations) predicted without stem borer damage. b DH is dead heart damage and WE is white earhead damage. c Overall ¼ 4332 kg=ha; irrigated ¼ 4363; rainfed lowlands ¼ 3261 kg=ha. ecosystem for example, the derived yield loss would be: 1% from dead heart, 19% from white earhead, and over 23% for both dead heart and white earhead. This greater than additive effect is reported for the first time and is more pronounced as the degree of damage increases. Initial infestation and the wide occurrence of dead hearts promote the pest population (DRR, ). Further, if there were early dead heart damage, mother tillers or primary tillers would be the most affected. Insect feeding is also known to induce excessive tillering in rice. However, these secondary tillers have a lesser ability to produce grain yield compared to mother tillers or primary tillers. As a result, a greater than additive effect on yields was observed with the later phase, white earhead infestation.

7 Table 4 Overall performance of insecticides in controlling stem borer in rice Treatment n Mean damage xy (%) Grain yield increase Dead heart White earhead kg/ha Percent a Carbofuran G b Chlorpyriphos EC Chlorpyriphos G Cytrolane G Diazinon EC Monocrotophos Quinalphos Control (untreated with insecticide) n ¼ Number of observations. a Percent increase in yields estimated over the respective control plots at experimental sites where a particular insecticide was used. b Granules (G) at 1.0 kg a.i./ha (in 2 00 deep standing water by manual broadcast), and emulsified concentrates (EC) at 0.75 kg a. i./ha (as foliar sprays with hand compression knapsack sprayer) were applied respectively, at 30 and 50 days after planting. IRRI (1965, 1966) reported that plants can compensate for a low percentage of early dead hearts, but for every 1% white earheads a 1 3% loss occurred. Israel and Abraham (1967) estimated that for every 1% increase in dead hearts, the yield decreased by 1.6%, and for every 1% increase in white earhead, the loss was 2.2%. Based on a regression analysis, 2% dead heart and 2% white earhead were estimated to cause 4.4% yield loss at a level of a 3 t/ha and 6.4% yield loss at a level of 4 t/ha (Gomez and Bernardo, 1974). Based on 770 experimental units from 28 years data, our projections for damage due to 1% dead heart or white earhead, or to both phases of stem borer damage at the 1% level are 2.5%, 4.0%, and 6.4% yield loss, respectively. In our studies the most dominant variety was Jaya; other varieties were very similar to Jaya in yielding ability; and most of the high-yielding, semidwarf rice varieties released in India have yields comparable to Jaya (Muralidharan et al., 1997). Therefore, in terms of grain production loss over ecosystems, 1% dead heart or white earhead, or a 1% occurrence of both phases of stem borer damage would be 108, 174 and 278 kg/ha, respectively. In irrigated ecosystem, 1% dead heart resulted in 0.3% or 12 kg/ha loss whereas, 1% white earhead caused 4.2% or 183 kg/ha loss in grain yields; the loss due to 1% infestation in both phases of stem borer damage was 4.6% or 201 kg/ha. In rainfed lowlands, for 1% dead heart, or dead heart and white earhead caused 2.3% or 76 kg/ha yield loss. There are many reports on the use of 10% stem borer incidence as a threshold level for taking plant protection action (Israel and Abraham, 1967; Teng et al., 1993). In deep water rice in Bangladesh and Thailand, 1% yield loss was associated with 2% damaged stems at harvest. Yield loss was mainly due to a loss of bearing stems and lighter panicles borne by compensatory nodal tillers. Still a tentative damage threshold of 10% damaged stems at the booting-flowering stage and 20% damaged stems at plant maturity was proposed (Catling et al., 1987). Our results indicate clearly that even at levels below the threshold limit considerable losses can occur. This perspective on losses assumes more importance because of the non-availability of host-plant resistance to stem borer in rice. Variable results were obtained in the evaluation of commercial insecticides for controlling yellow stem borer in the Philippines (Heinrichs et al., 1986). At white earhead stage, no single compound effectively reduced damage (Das and Ray, 1984). In the all India coordinated trials during the 28 years studied, although no insecticide gave total control of stem borer damage, many increased grain yields significantly. Among from the insecticides studied, emulsified concentrates of monocrotophos and chlorpyriphos appeared more useful for adoption by farmers as their application caused maximum mortality of larvae (Pandya et al., 1987a) and unhatched eggs (Pandya et al., 1987b). Compared to other equally efficient insecticide granules such as diazinon and carbofuran, monocrotophos is known to be more economically viable (Sasmal et al., 1983). In fields of hybrid rice, stem borer damages were 28 36% higher than in other rice fields and there were % more egg masses. There were 7 17 times as many egg masses of S.incertulas in hybrid rice than in other rice. Survival rates of both species were also higher in hybrid rice, and larvae and pupae weighed more (Chieng, 1985). In order to increase the productivity to meet the food requirement, more areas are producing hybrid rice. The fine-grained aromatic and Basmati rice cultivars that receive premium price at markets are known to attract stem borers, and therefore, suffer serious damage from dead hearts and white earheads (Siddiq et al., 1994). The optimum time and

8 concentrations of insecticide application to control stem borer in rice depend on many factors including crop susceptibility to damage, population dynamics, crop yield in unit area, unit price of production, insecticide availability, degradation rate of insecticide and its efficiency, and weather. Therefore, there is a need to focus research attention on all these aspects and to reconsider the economic threshold level for taking plant protection action. Acknowledgements We dedicate this article to Late Prof. C. L. Campbell, North Carolina State University, USA for motivating us to venture into yield loss studies. The authors express their gratitude to all the scientists responsible for the conduct of all India, coordinated insect control experiments at different centers in various years. The support from World Bank (National Agricultural Research Project on IPM in Rice) and Food and Agricultural Organization is gratefully acknowledged. We also express our appreciation to Ms. Karen Nauman and Dr J. O. Rawlings, Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, for their support and diligence in performing the statistical analyses of the data. References Banerjee, S.N., Paddy pests. In: Pant, N.C., et al. (Eds.), Entomology in India. Entomological Society of India. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp Barr, B.A., Koehler, C.S., Smith, R.F., Crop losses. Rice field losses to insects, diseases, weeds and other pests. UC/AID Pest management and related environmental protection project report, University of California, Berkeley. Catling, H.D., Islan, Z., Pattrasudhi, R., Assessing yield losses in deep water rice due to yellow stem borer, Sciropophaga incertulas (Walker), in Bangladesh and Thailand. Crop Prot. 6 (1), Chaudhary, R.C., Khush, G.S., Heinrichs, E.A., Varietal resistance to rice stem borers in Asia. Insect. Sci. 5, Chieng, C.Y., Stem borer infestation on hybrid rice. Int. Rice Res. Newslett. 10, 21. Cramer, H.H., Plant protection and world crop production. Pflanzenschutz-Nachr. Bayer. 20, Das, B.B., Ray, S., Field control tests with 10 insecticides conducted against Chilo suppressalis and Tryporyza incertulas (Scirpophaga incertulas). Pesticides 18, DRR: Directorate of Rice Research, Annual Progress Reports. All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AI- CRIP). Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. DRR: Directorate of Rice Research, Annual Progress Reports. All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP). Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. DRR: Directorate of Rice Research, Production oriented survey. Annual reports. All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP). Hyderabad, India. Ghose, R.L.M., Ghatge, M.B., Subramanyan, V., Rice in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Glass, E.H., Plant protection problems in Southeast Asia. University of California/US agency Int. Dev.(UC/AID) Report, University of California, Berkeley. Gomez, K.A., Bernardo, R.C., Estimation of stem borer damage in rice fields. J. Econ. Entomol. 67, Grist, D.H., Lever, R.J.A.W., Pests of Rice. Longmans, Green and Co, London, Harlow. Heinrichs, E.A., Antonio, L.C., Elesango, M., Field evaluation of commercial insecticides for controlling yellow stem borer (YSB) in the Philippines. Int. Rice Res. Newslett. 11, IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, Annual Report for International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, The Philippines. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, Annual Report for International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, The Philippines. IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, Crop Loss Assessment. International Rice Research Institute, The Philippines. Israel, P., Abraham, T.P., Techniques for assessing crop losses caused by rice stem borers in tropical areas. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Major Insect Pests of Rice Plant. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, pp Kapur, A.P., Taxonomy of stem borers. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Major Insect Pests of Rice Plant. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, pp Kulshreshta, J.P., Kalode, M.B., Prakasarao, P.S., Misra, B.C., Varma, A., High yielding varieties and the resulting changes in the pattern of rice pests in India. Oryza 7, Litsinger, J.A., Canapi, B.L., Bandong, J.P., DeleCruz, C.G., Apostol, R.F., Pantua, P.C., Lumabhan, M.D., Alviola III, A.L., Raymundo, F., Libetario, E.M., Loevinsohn, M.E., Joshi, R.C., Rice crop losses from insect pests in wetland and dryland environments in Asia with emphasis on Philippines. Entomology Department Report. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines (Mimeographed.) Mehta, P.R., Varma, B.K., Plant Protection. Farm Information Unit, Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Community Development, Government of India, New Delhi, pp Muralidharan, K., Siddiq, E.A., Harnessing crop research data in developing expert systems. In: Kropf, M. J., et al. (Eds.), Application of System Approaches at the Field Level, vol. 2. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp Muralidharan, K., Prasad, G.S.V., Rao, C.S., Breeding for rice improvement: where do we stand? Curr. Sci. 71, Pandya, H.V., Shah, A.H., Purohit, M.S., 1987a. Effect of some insecticide formulations against newly emerged yellow stem borer (YSB) larvae. Int. Rice Res. Newslett. 12 (6), Pandya, H.V., Shah, A.H., Purohit, M.S., 1987b. Ovicidal activity of insecticides against yellow stem borer. Int. Rice Res. Newslett. 12 (6), 28. Paroda, R.S., Siddiq, E.A., Accomplishments of the all India coordinated rice improvement project An overview. In: Muralidharan, K., Siddiq, E.A. (Eds.), New Frontiers in Rice Research. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India, pp Pathak, M.D., Recent developments and future prospects for the chemical control of rice stem borer at IRRI. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Major Insect Pests of Rice Plant. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, pp Pathak, M.D., Ecology of common insect pests of rice. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 13, Pathak, M.D., Insect Pests of Rice. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines.

9 Pathak, M.D., Defense of the rice crop against pests. In: Day, P. R. (Ed.). The Genetic Basis of Epidemics in Agriculture. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 287, Pathak, M.D., Dhaliwal, G.S., Trends and strategies of rice pest problems in tropical Asia. IRRI Research Paper Series 64, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, pp Pathak, M.D., Dyck, V.A., Developing an integrated method of rice insect pest control. PANS 19, Ramakrishnan, C., Control of rice stem borer, Tryporyza incertulas Wlk. with application of insecticdes in irrigation water. Madras J. Agric. 59, Rao, A.V., Mahajan, R.K., Ramprasad, A.S., Distribution of productive tillers and yield loss due to stem borer infestation of rice. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 57, Roy, J.K., Israel, P., Pawar, M.S., Breeding for resistance to insect pests. Oryza 8, SAS Institute, SAS users guide: Statistics, version 6.03 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Sasmal, S., Kulshrestha, J.P., Rajamani, S., Chlorpyriphos spraying is economical in controlling stem borer in rabi rice. Int. Rice Res. Newslett. 4 (3), 3. Savary, S., Srivastava, R.K., Singh, H.M., Elazegui, F.A., A characterization of rice pests and quantification of yield loss in the rice-wheat system of India. Crop Prot. 16, Siddiq, E.A., Muralidharan, K., Shobharani, N., Pasalu, I.C., Pillai, K.G., Rao, J.R.K., Basmati Rice, second ed. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. Singh, P., Sukhija, H.S., Gill, P.S., Bhangoo, B.S., Influence of agronomic manipulations on stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker incidence in rice. J. Insect. Sci. 3 (2), Teng, P.S., Heong, K.L., Moody, K., Advances in tropical rice integrated pest management research. In: Muralidharan, K., Siddiq, E.A. (Eds.), New Frontiers in Rice Research. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India, pp Viajante, V., Heinrichs, E.A., Plant age effects of rice cultivar IR 46 on the susceptibility to the yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Crop. Prot. 6, Waibel, H., The Economics of Integrated Pest Control in Irrigated Rice. Springer, Berlin, NY. Wyatt, I.J., Field investigations of paddy stem borer, , Bull no Department of Agriculture Federation of Malaya, pp. 42.

Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article

Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article Received: 5 th Dec-2013 Revised: 15 th Dec-2013 Accepted: 17 th Dec-2013 Research article SCREENING OF RICE GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO YELLOW STEM BORER SCIRPOPHAGA INCERTULAS WALKER. 1 V. Visalakshmi*,

More information

RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD

RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD Pak. J. Bot., 37(2): 319-324, 2005. RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD RASHID A. KHAN, JUNAID A. KHAN, F. F. JAMIL

More information

SCREENING OF SIX RICE VARIETIES AGAINST YELLOW STEM BORER, Scirpophaga incertulus WALKER. SAID MIR KHAN*, GHULAM MURTAZA* and HINA MIR**

SCREENING OF SIX RICE VARIETIES AGAINST YELLOW STEM BORER, Scirpophaga incertulus WALKER. SAID MIR KHAN*, GHULAM MURTAZA* and HINA MIR** Sarhad J. Agric. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2010 591 SCREENING OF SIX RICE VARIETIES AGAINST YELLOW STEM BORER, Scirpophaga incertulus WALKER. SAID MIR KHAN*, GHULAM MURTAZA* and HINA MIR** * Department of Entomology,

More information

Survey on the occurrence, distribution pattern and management of stem borers on rice in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu

Survey on the occurrence, distribution pattern and management of stem borers on rice in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu 2014; 2 (6): 8690 ISSN 23207078 JEZS 2014; 2 (6): 8690 2014 JEZS Received: 21102014 Accepted: 05112014 C. Gailce Leo Justin Professor (Entomology), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilpatti 628 501,

More information

Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides

Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides Management JBiopest 5(1): of 1-6 rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker using some biorational insecticides Sitesh Chatterjee 1 and Palash Mondal 2 ABSTRACT The experiments were carried

More information

Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum

Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics) Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology

More information

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AEROBIC RICE: WATER SAVING RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY E. Subramanian 1, G. James Martin 2, E. Suburayalu 3 and R. Mohan 4 Abstract Field experiments were conducted at Central Farm, Coimbatore to develop

More information

Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)

Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) Toxicological information Exosex contains 3.2 mg Technical Grade Pheromone per gram of food grade wax powder and poses virtually no hazard to health. Ecotoxicological information Non hazardous to the environment.

More information

FIELD COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES FOR THEIR RESISTANCE AGAINST RICE STEM BORERS (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA)

FIELD COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES FOR THEIR RESISTANCE AGAINST RICE STEM BORERS (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA) ISSN 1023-1072 Pak. J. Agri., Agril. Engg., Vet. Sci., 2013, 29 (2): 137-145 FIELD COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES FOR THEIR RESISTANCE AGAINST RICE STEM BORERS (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA)

More information

Materials and Methods

Materials and Methods International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. Vol., 3 (8), 295-299, 2012 Available online at http:// www.ijappjournal.com ISSN 2051-1914 2012 VictorQuest Publications Management of aromatic rice

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY SMS (Entomology) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhemaji Assam Agricultural University Silapathar INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN PADDY Among the food grains paddy occupies

More information

Evaluation of efficacy of different insecticides and bioagents against Sesamia inferens Walker in maize.

Evaluation of efficacy of different insecticides and bioagents against Sesamia inferens Walker in maize. Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com European Journal of Zoological Research, 2013, 2 (4): 98-102 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN: 2278 7356 Evaluation of efficacy

More information

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM Improving Control Systems in Thailand for Plant and Plants Products Intended for Export to the European Union co-funded by the European Union and Thai Department of Agriculture Preharvest Use of Pesticides

More information

EXPERIENCES ON TRANSFER OF MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF CHICKPEA IN TURKEY. Nevin AÇIKGÖZ

EXPERIENCES ON TRANSFER OF MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF CHICKPEA IN TURKEY. Nevin AÇIKGÖZ ANADOLU, J. of AARI 7 (1) 1997, 1-8 MARA EXPERIENCES ON TRANSFER OF MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF CHICKPEA IN TURKEY Nevin AÇIKGÖZ Aegean Agricultural Research Institute POB. 9 Menemen,

More information

Forecasting areas and production of rice in India using ARIMA model

Forecasting areas and production of rice in India using ARIMA model International Journal of Farm Sciences 4(1) :99-106, 2014 Forecasting areas and production of rice in India using ARIMA model K PRABAKARAN and C SIVAPRAGASAM* Agricultural College and Research Institute,

More information

CROP INSURANCE IN INDIA - A BRIEF REVIEW

CROP INSURANCE IN INDIA - A BRIEF REVIEW Pinnacle Research Journals 20 CROP INSURANCE IN INDIA - A BRIEF REVIEW VISHITA KHANNA*; KEYUR UPADHYAY**; HARSHIL GANDHI*** ABSTRACT *International Agribusiness Management Institute, **International Agribusiness

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

RICE CULTIVATION: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND WATER SAVING APPROACHES

RICE CULTIVATION: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND WATER SAVING APPROACHES RICE CULTIVATION: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND WATER SAVING APPROACHES Ragab Ragab 1 Introduction Globally, rice is the most important food crop with more than 90% produced in Asia. In most of Asian countries,

More information

Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice

Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice Technical Brief # 17-2013 Climate Adaptation and Mitigation through ICT Innovation - Exploring Potentials for Forecasting Pest and Disease Risks in Rice CLIMARICE II: "Sustaining rice production in a changing

More information

Pest and Disease Control with Low Doses of Pesticides in Low and Ultralow Volumes Applied to Intensive Apple Trees

Pest and Disease Control with Low Doses of Pesticides in Low and Ultralow Volumes Applied to Intensive Apple Trees Pestic. Sci. 1976, 7, 30-34 Pest and Disease Control with Low Doses of Pesticides in Low and Ultralow Volumes Applied to Intensive Apple Trees Barry K. Cooke, Pamela J. Herrington, Kenneth G. Jones and

More information

Kaushik Chakraborty and Debes Chandra Deb. Department of Zoology, Alipurduar College, Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, 736122 West Bengal, India

Kaushik Chakraborty and Debes Chandra Deb. Department of Zoology, Alipurduar College, Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, 736122 West Bengal, India World Applied Sciences Journal 17 (10): 1370-1376, 01 ISSN 1818-495 IDOSI Publications, 01 A Mathematical Model for Pesticide Recommendations in Contemplation of Alternative and Variable Threshold Combinations

More information

Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage

Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage Applied Development of Delaus, a Rice Blast Control Fungicide: Delaus Prince Granule and Its Treatment into Seedling Boxes at the Sowing Stage Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. Agricultural Chemicals Research

More information

Formal Insurance, Informal Risk Sharing, and Risk-Taking. A. Mushfiq Mobarak Mark Rosenzweig Yale University

Formal Insurance, Informal Risk Sharing, and Risk-Taking. A. Mushfiq Mobarak Mark Rosenzweig Yale University Formal Insurance, Informal Risk Sharing, and Risk-Taking A. Mushfiq Mobarak Mark Rosenzweig Yale University Background Formal insurance markets largely absent where they are needed 75% of the world s poor

More information

suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture

suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture suscon Green One application. 3 years control against grass grub. Grass grub damaged pasture suscon Green is a dust free, controlled release granule that controls Grass Grub in newly established pasture

More information

Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle

Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle FS 905 Economic Thresholds in Soybeans Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle Michael A. Catangui, Ph.D. Extension entomologist & assistant professor Plant Science Department South Dakota State University Economic

More information

Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice cultivation

Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice cultivation J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 6(2): 409 414, 2008 ISSN 1810-3030 Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice cultivation M.M.H. Oliver 1, M.S.U. Talukder and M. Ahmed Department of Irrigation and Water

More information

Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize. Defoliators: migratory. More Defoliators. Maize. BCCM 2012: IPM case studies. Sorghum Millet Tef

Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize. Defoliators: migratory. More Defoliators. Maize. BCCM 2012: IPM case studies. Sorghum Millet Tef Source: http://www.fao.org/ www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/123/crops BCCM 2012: IPM case studies Pest Management in Tropical Cereals: Rice & Maize also Sorghum Millet Tef RPB 2011; tropical_cereals

More information

Impact of dry seeding with alternate wetting and drying on rice productivity and profitability in Punjab-Pakistan

Impact of dry seeding with alternate wetting and drying on rice productivity and profitability in Punjab-Pakistan Impact of dry seeding with alternate wetting and drying on rice productivity and profitability in Punjab-Pakistan Mann RA 1, Hussain S 1, Saleem M 2 1 Rice Program, National Agricultural Research Centre

More information

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS PEST - Derived from French word Peste and Latin term Pestis meaning plague or contagious disease - Pest is any animal

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Andrea Veres Junior Technical Officer FAO REU andrea.veres@fao.org Yerevan, Armenia 2013 Why develop IPM? Agriculture was: not sustainable optimized inputs for maximum profit

More information

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP.

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. Planted acreage reached a high in 1981 with 14.4 million acres planted for all purposes and has hovered near 12.5 million acres since the early

More information

Index Insurance in India

Index Insurance in India Index Insurance in India Kolli N Rao, PhD Aon Benfield, India Indian Agriculture & Risks What s Index Insurance? Why Index Insurance? The Outline Architecture of Indian Crop Insurance Coverage: The Numbers

More information

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching Unit D: Controlling Pests and Diseases in the Orchard Lesson 1: Managing and Controlling Pests of Fruit and Nut Crops Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) STRATEGIES FOR NERICA VARIETIES

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) STRATEGIES FOR NERICA VARIETIES INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) STRATEGIES FOR NERICA VARIETIES Contributors: Nwilen i n i n Jones on s on s Brar r r r r You ou ou A Togo Adebayo Kehind MN Ukwungwu I Kamara and A Hamadoun Unit 1 Major

More information

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 The active ingredients in many pesticides are chemical compounds that kill organisms such as insects, molds, and weeds. Proponents claim that

More information

Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice

Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice Agriculture, Environment and Food Security in the Context of Rice Impact of Water Saving Irrigation Systems on Water Use, Growth and Yield of Irrigated Lowland Rice W. M. W. Weerakoon, T. N. N. Priyadarshani,

More information

Some elements of economic efficiency of biological treatment to combat corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn) in the conditions of Transylvania

Some elements of economic efficiency of biological treatment to combat corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn) in the conditions of Transylvania MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Some elements of economic efficiency of biological treatment to combat corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn) in the conditions of Transylvania Felicia Mureşanu and Voichiţa

More information

Current capabilities in the analysis of climate risks and adaptation strategies in critical areas

Current capabilities in the analysis of climate risks and adaptation strategies in critical areas Current capabilities in the analysis of climate risks and adaptation strategies in critical areas M. Arif Goheer Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) Islamabad- 44000, Pakistan Symposium on Climate

More information

Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India

Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India Deficit Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Most Vulnerable Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India S.Senthilnathan, K.Palanisami, C.R.Ranganathan and Chieko Umetsu 2 Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore,

More information

Introduction to the concepts of IPM

Introduction to the concepts of IPM DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Principles of Integrated Pest Management Deanna Chin and Brian Thistleton, Entomology, Diagnostic Services What is a pest? Principles of IPM Introduction to

More information

Development and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Major Pests of Cabbage Using Indian Mustard as a Trap Crop

Development and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Major Pests of Cabbage Using Indian Mustard as a Trap Crop 57 Development and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Major Pests of Cabbage Using Indian Mustard as a Trap Crop K. Srinivasan and P.N. Krishna Moorthy Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,

More information

Efficacy of different management practices against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Kharif maize in Western Uttar Pradesh

Efficacy of different management practices against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Kharif maize in Western Uttar Pradesh Journal homepage: http://www.journalijar.com INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH RESEARCH ARTICLE Efficacy of different management practices against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Kharif maize in

More information

CARBARYL (8) First draft was prepared by Dr Arpad Ambrus, Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary

CARBARYL (8) First draft was prepared by Dr Arpad Ambrus, Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary Carbaryl 1 CARBARYL (8) First draft was prepared by Dr Arpad Ambrus, Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary EXPLANATION Carbaryl residues were last evaluated by the JMPR in 2002 when a number

More information

PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN

PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN BY DR. HABIB IQBAL JAVED National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, Pakistan INTRODUCTION

More information

Pesticides, rice productivity, and farmers health an economic assessment. Agnes C. Rola and Prabhu L. Pingali

Pesticides, rice productivity, and farmers health an economic assessment. Agnes C. Rola and Prabhu L. Pingali Pesticides, rice productivity, and farmers health an economic assessment Agnes C. Rola and Prabhu L. Pingali The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was established in 1960 by the Ford and Rockefeller

More information

THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL.

THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL. THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL. WHERE WE HAVE BEEN CANOLA PRODUCTION HAS SURPASSED THE INDUSTRY TARGET OF 15 MMT. This was achieved

More information

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Makerere University and Humidtropics collaboration Soybean Seed production Training of Kiboga-Kyankwanzi platform members in Soybean Seed Production

More information

Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Introduction Pests are an inevitable problem faced by nursery growers. For the purposes of this document, the term pest refers to insects, diseases, weeds, slugs,

More information

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Farmers are more likely to adopt new practices and technologies if they expect to benefit from them. Benefits are usually thought of in monetary

More information

Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management

Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research EAER Agroscope Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management Franz Bigler, Michael Meissle and Jörg Romeis Agroscope ART Zürich,

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL

INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL 19 TOPIC 3 INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL Scope Chemical pesticides are now the traditional solution to pest problems, and they have saved lives and crops. Their use, however, has created significant problems,

More information

THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE STEM BORERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. Okweche, Simon Idoko and Umoetok, Sylvia B. A

THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE STEM BORERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. Okweche, Simon Idoko and Umoetok, Sylvia B. A Accepted: Dec-2011 Research Article THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE STEM BORERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. Okweche, Simon Idoko and Umoetok, Sylvia B. A Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture,

More information

1826 Yield compensation from simulated bollworm injury in New Mexico

1826 Yield compensation from simulated bollworm injury in New Mexico 1826 Yield compensation from simulated bollworm injury in New Mexico Dr. Jane Breen Pierce, New Mexico State University, Artesia, NM Mrs. Patricia Yates Monk, New Mexico State University, Artesia, NM Cotton

More information

COMPARISON OF NEW INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF HELIOTHINE SPECIES IN COTTON

COMPARISON OF NEW INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF HELIOTHINE SPECIES IN COTTON COMPARISON OF NEW INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF HELIOTHINE SPECIES IN COTTON Donald R. Johnson, Gus M. Lorenz, John D. Hopkins, and Larry M. Page 1 RESEARCH PROBLEM The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens,

More information

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology Fact Sheet for Adaptation Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology: Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest

More information

BCR for Seed and Fibre Production with Seed and Cutting Treatments at Different Sowing Methods at JAES and KRS, BJRI in O-9897 Variety

BCR for Seed and Fibre Production with Seed and Cutting Treatments at Different Sowing Methods at JAES and KRS, BJRI in O-9897 Variety Universal Journal of Plant Science (6): 11-17, 2015 DOI: 10.1189/ujps.2015.0060 http://www.hrpub.org BCR for Seed and Fibre Production with Seed and Cutting Treatments at Different Sowing Methods at and,

More information

ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CROP INSURANCE A CASE OF ONION CROP (ALLIUM CEPA) Abstract

ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CROP INSURANCE A CASE OF ONION CROP (ALLIUM CEPA) Abstract International Conference On Applied Economics ICOAE 2010 85 ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CROP INSURANCE A CASE OF ONION CROP (ALLIUM CEPA) SAIKUMAR C. BHARAMAPPANAVARA 1, MALLIKARJUN S. HASANABADI 2, DR. JAYASHREE

More information

Best Management Practices for Tarnished Plant Bug in Cotton

Best Management Practices for Tarnished Plant Bug in Cotton Introduction Best Management Practices for Tarnished Plant Bug in Cotton Jeff Gore, Angus Catchot, Don Cook, and Fred Musser Mississippi State University Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and

More information

FACT SHEET. Production Risk

FACT SHEET. Production Risk ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL & MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY SMALL FARMERS RESEARCH CENTER FACT SHEET Production Risk Any production related activity or event that is uncertain is a production risk. Agricultural production

More information

Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management

Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 59-63 (2011) Printed in India Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management S. M. NAWLAKHE 1 AND D. D. MANKAR 2 Department

More information

What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests. How do insects become pests? Problems with Pesticides. What is most commonly used to control insect pests?

What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests. How do insects become pests? Problems with Pesticides. What is most commonly used to control insect pests? What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests How do insects become pests? Introduction outside of native range Becomes disease vector Plant or animal (inclu. human) disease vector Host shift in native insect

More information

Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM. Terminology Related to Pests. Types of damage. Strategies of Pest Control or Management

Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM. Terminology Related to Pests. Types of damage. Strategies of Pest Control or Management Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH November, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved The evolution

More information

Modern techniques and agronomic packages for hybrid rice cultivation in India

Modern techniques and agronomic packages for hybrid rice cultivation in India Advances in Agriculture & Botanics International Journal of the Bioflux Society OPEN ACCESS Research Article Modern techniques and agronomic packages for hybrid rice cultivation in India Praveen Pandey,

More information

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda Maize Production in Uganda Farmers have improved maize yields from 1,000Kg/ha to 3,000-5,000 Kg/ha using the recommended technologies Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries

More information

Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation

Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation PBIO*3110 Crop Physiology Lecture #2 Fall Semester 2008 Lecture Notes for Tuesday 9 September How is plant productivity measured? Introduction: Growth analysis and crop dry matter accumulation Learning

More information

Sustainability in Agricultural Marketing:

Sustainability in Agricultural Marketing: International Journal of scientific research and management (IJSRM) Special Issue On National Level Conference Business Growth and Social Development Pages 19-24 2014 Website: www.ijsrm.in ISSN (e): 2321-3418

More information

Economic Threshold for Three Lepidopterous Larval Pests of Fresh-Market Cabbage in Southeastern New Brunswick

Economic Threshold for Three Lepidopterous Larval Pests of Fresh-Market Cabbage in Southeastern New Brunswick HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Economic Threshold for Three Lepidopterous Larval Pests of Fresh-Market Cabbage in Southeastern New Brunswick P. M. MALTAIS, 1 J. R. NUCKLE, 1 AND P. V. LEBLANC 2 J. Econ. Entomol.

More information

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT 12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Conservation farming promotes a diversity of insect life, influences pest populations and also favours many beneficial insects. The beneficial insects which act as

More information

Decision Support System for Trait Specific Germplasm Identified Through Multi-location Evaluation

Decision Support System for Trait Specific Germplasm Identified Through Multi-location Evaluation International Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. ISSN 0974 3073 Volume 5, Number 2 (2014), pp. 127-132 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Decision Support System

More information

ECONOMIC YIELD, FIBER TRAIT AND SUCKING INSECT PEST INCIDENCE ON ADVANCED GENOTYPES OF COTTON IN PAKISTAN

ECONOMIC YIELD, FIBER TRAIT AND SUCKING INSECT PEST INCIDENCE ON ADVANCED GENOTYPES OF COTTON IN PAKISTAN RESPONSE OF SOME COTTON GENOTYPES AGAINST SUCKING INSECTS PESTS Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 (161) / 2015 ECONOMIC YIELD, FIBER TRAIT AND SUCKING INSECT PEST INCIDENCE ON ADVANCED

More information

Control of rice insect pests

Control of rice insect pests Control of rice insect pests Table of Contents OVERVIEW...3 BASICS OF CULTURAL CONTROL OF RICE INSECT PESTS...4 Lesson 1 - Definition of cultural control... 4 Lesson 2 - Advantages and disadvantages of

More information

Delayed Planting & Hybrid Maturity Decisions

Delayed Planting & Hybrid Maturity Decisions Corn AY-312-W Delayed Planting & Hybrid Maturity Decisions R.L. (Bob) Nielsen 1 and Peter Thomison 2 Delayed planting of corn shortens the available growing season. Fortunately, corn hybrids adjust to

More information

Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera:Anthomyiidae) as a Major Pest of Wheat in the Major Cereal Belt, Southeast Ethiopia

Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera:Anthomyiidae) as a Major Pest of Wheat in the Major Cereal Belt, Southeast Ethiopia African Crop Science Conference Proceedings Vol. 8. pp.965-969 Printed in El-Minia, Egypt ISSN 123-7X/27$ 4. 27, African Crop Science Society Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera:Anthomyiidae) as a Major Pest

More information

Yield Response of Corn to Plant Population in Indiana

Yield Response of Corn to Plant Population in Indiana Purdue University Department of Agronomy Applied Crop Production Research Update Updated May 2016 URL: http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/seedingrateguidelines.pdf Yield Response of Corn to Plant Population

More information

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County Tree Integrated Pest Management Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County IPM Refresher Definition: The use of a combination of appropriate pest control tactics to reduce pest population

More information

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA As you are probably aware, we have seen a significant amount of dying ash trees in the Plymouth, Canton, Northville area. This prompted

More information

3.7 Implied Labor Hours

3.7 Implied Labor Hours 3.7 Implied Labor Hours USDA data for the period 1990 through 2011 is presented to describe the implied amount of labor that is used to produce an acre and unit of output (e.g., labor hours per bushel

More information

Insects That Kill Trees. Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops

Insects That Kill Trees. Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops Insects That Kill Trees Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops Topics Introduction websites, IPM strategies Ips bark beetles Tree borers flatheaded,

More information

0, {j /V ~Ve~cJr\ yvic^j

0, {j /V ~Ve~cJr\ yvic^j TERMITES AS PESTS OF GROUNDNUTS P.W. AMIN and D. MCDONALD International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324, India. Though teraites have

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Ecology and Human Impact R. Bruce Chapman Insect Science Ltd Pest organisms When do organisms become pests? When an organism s population exceeds a threshold level, and control

More information

Agricultural Mechanization Strategies in India

Agricultural Mechanization Strategies in India 050 India Agricultural Mechanization Strategies in India Dr. Champat Raj Mehta Project Coordinator, All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Farm Implements and Machinery (FIM), Central Institute

More information

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd.

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Sugarcane It is an important cash crop, Pakistan is the fifth largest cane producing country. However, its yield

More information

THE COMMODITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUP WORLD BANK

THE COMMODITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUP WORLD BANK THE COMMODITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUP WORLD BANK Agricultural Insurance: Scope and Limitations for Rural Risk Management 5 March 2009 Agenda The global market Products Organisation of agricultural insurance

More information

ROLE OF FENVALERATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)

ROLE OF FENVALERATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) Science Research Reporter 2(3): 281-285, Oct. 2012 ROLE OF FENVALERATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) Singh Mamta 1 and S. D. Narkhede 1 Research Associate, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan-II,

More information

04-02. Evaluation of Foliar Fungicides for the Control of Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis) in SRWW in the Northern Texas Blacklands

04-02. Evaluation of Foliar Fungicides for the Control of Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis) in SRWW in the Northern Texas Blacklands 04-02. Evaluation of oliar ungicides for the Control of Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis) in SRWW in the Northern Texas Blacklands COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT 2004 Donald J. Reid, Agronomist Texas A

More information

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics Module #4 What is a Threshold? p. 1 www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ne.ipm.region What is a Threshold? By James VanKirk Overview Concept Activity Handouts The Economic Injury Level and the Action Threshold

More information

Overview of DFC-N AU in Benin

Overview of DFC-N AU in Benin Overview of DFC-N 10-025AU in Benin Increasing value of African mango and cashew production is a project financed by DANIDA. It is introducing, developing and optimizing weaver-ant Integrated Pest Management

More information

Improved Envirosol fumigation methods for disinfesting export cut flowers and foliage crops

Improved Envirosol fumigation methods for disinfesting export cut flowers and foliage crops Improved Envirosol fumigation methods for disinfesting export cut flowers and foliage crops Z Zhang & C W van Epenhuijsen September 2004 A report prepared for MAF Sustainable Farming Fund, Central Flower

More information

RURAL INFORMATICS CENTRE FOR FARMERS: THE NEED OF AN HOUR

RURAL INFORMATICS CENTRE FOR FARMERS: THE NEED OF AN HOUR RURAL INFORMATICS CENTRE FOR FARMERS: THE NEED OF AN HOUR MERCY LYDIA D a and STEPHEN T b a&b Assistant Professor, PG Department of Library & Information Science, Vellalar College for Women(Autonomous),

More information

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees 148 Appendix A Diagnosing Disorders of Trees Diagnosing tree problems can be difficult. Symptoms and signs can be subtle or only visible using special techniques, important information can be missing,

More information

S. Navarro and E. Donahaye Departmenr of Stored Products, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel

S. Navarro and E. Donahaye Departmenr of Stored Products, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel SENSITIZATION OF INSECTS TO FUMIGATION TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING REDUCED PRESSURE* S. Navarro and E. Donahaye Departmenr of Stored Products, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel Abstract The unique properties

More information

Practical Uses of Crop Monitoring for Arizona Cotton

Practical Uses of Crop Monitoring for Arizona Cotton Practical Uses of Crop Monitoring for Arizona Cotton J. C. Silvertooth The use of crop monitoring and plant mapping has received a considerable amount of attention in the cotton production arena in recent

More information

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE 1 Leonard Gianessi and 2 Nathan Reigner CropLife Foundation, Crop Protection Research Institute,

More information

CHAPTER 11. GOODNESS OF FIT AND CONTINGENCY TABLES

CHAPTER 11. GOODNESS OF FIT AND CONTINGENCY TABLES CHAPTER 11. GOODNESS OF FIT AND CONTINGENCY TABLES The chi-square distribution was discussed in Chapter 4. We now turn to some applications of this distribution. As previously discussed, chi-square is

More information

INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson)

INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson) INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson) A number of insect pests are capable of severely damaging soybeans. However, it is important to realize that soybeans can withstand considerable insect damage at

More information

FINAL REPORT. Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80

FINAL REPORT. Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80 FINAL REPORT Identification of termites causing damage in maize in small-scale farming systems M131/80 Project Manager: Dr MS Mphosi Co-workers: SH Nthangeni, UM du Plessis, AL Rossouw DETAILS PROJECT

More information

Effects of Wilting, Drought, and Temperature Upon Rotting of Sugar Beets During Storage 1

Effects of Wilting, Drought, and Temperature Upon Rotting of Sugar Beets During Storage 1 Effects of Wilting, Drought, and Temperature Upon Rotting of Sugar Beets During Storage 1 JOHN O. GASKILL 2 Storage of sugar beets, Beta vulgaris L., in large piles at receiving stations between time of

More information