Following the surrender of Japan in

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1 HERITAGE Reorganization of Forest Pest Control in Japan: An Account of Robert Livingston Furniss Socio-Entomological Experiences During Assignments in 1949 and 1950 Malcolm Furniss Following the surrender of Japan in August 1945, the United States established programs designed to help that devastated country recover and become a democracy. One such program, administered by the Natural Resources Section (NRS) of the occupying authority 1, sponsored visits by specialists in fields related to forestry. In 1949, bark beetles 2 were believed to be responsible for extensive mortality of pines on the island of Honshu. The assistance of a Visiting Expert Consultant was sought from the ranks of forest entomologists in the Division of Forest Insect Investigations, USDA, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Robert L. Furniss ( ), stationed at the Forest Insect Laboratory in Portland, OR, was contacted and assigned there from November 1949 to January 1950 and November 1950 to January Bob Furniss had no special knowledge of the customs of the Japanese or of their forest resources and forest insect problems; yet he was a natural choice for this assignment. He would have only a few months to analyze the pine mortality and attempts to control 1 After Word War II, the country was under control of the Allied Powers until 1952, when Japan gained its independence. During that time, General Douglas Mac Arthur was Supreme Commander, with headquarters in Tokyo. 2 The term bark beetles was used in Japan at this time to include all coleopterous insects that infested the inner bark (phloem) of their pine hosts, not just phloeophagous species of the family Scolytidae. As discussed later, scolytids actually played a minor role in this episode. 76 it and to recommend necessary changes in forest protection organization and practices. To succeed, the task would require gaining the confidence and respect of the Japanese, who were still enduring great hardship from the recent war. That he had the right stuff was evident throughout his scholastic and professional life. As a youth, he was attracted to the outdoors. He collected insects at an early age in the Maine woods and later at Waverly, NY, where he was valedictorian of his 1926 high school class. Thereafter, he studied forest management and minored in entomology at Syracuse University, graduating cum laude in While there, he was captain of the varsity lacrosse team, playing center fieldman (Fig. 1A). A B During the summer of 1929, he surveyed western white pines (Pinus monticola Douglas) killed by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on the McGee District of the Coeur d Alene National Forest, ID. The district contained only 7 miles of roads at the time, so he covered the mountains on foot, sometimes 20 miles a day, mapping dead trees from ridges and peaks (Larson 1977). Such physical activity continued into his later life and often involved climbing Cascade Mountains in the northwestern United States (Fig. 1B). He worked again in the West during the summer of 1930, this time on the Modoc National Forest, California. He assisted with studies of the western pine beetle, Den- Fig. 1. (A) Robert L. Furniss was Captain of the Syracuse University lacrosse team, (B) During , he and the author climbed several Cascade Mountains to collect scolytids from snowfields (Furniss and Furniss 1972). American Entomologist Summer 2006

2 droctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), which was decimating droughtstressed ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. His performance led to permanent work in 1931 at the Forest Insect Laboratory in Berkeley, CA, where he was associated with John M. Miller, who was prominent in the development of forest entomology in the western United States (Furniss and Wickman 1998). While there, he studied the effect of low winter temperatures on the survival of the western pine beetle. While working on the Sierra National Forest, he met Frances Arlene Heath at her parents cabin on Bass Lake. They were married in Fresno on 14 November In 1934, Bob was transferred to the Portland Forest Insect Laboratory and became Leader there in 1942 after F. Paul Keen replaced Miller at Berkeley. Bob specialized in forest insects of the Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirbel (Franco)] region encompassing the Oregon Washington Coast Range. There, he studied the involvement of wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in relationship to the rate of deterioration (decay) of old-growth Douglas-fir killed by the Tillamook burn of 1936 (Furniss 1937). The sapwood was invaded rapidly, but the heartwood remained sound, permittng salvage-logging of dead trees for decades after the burn. He also published the biology of the Douglas-fir twig weevil, Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is of importance in moisture-stressed plantations (Furniss 1942). At the time, Alaska was included in the area encompassed by the Portland Lab. During , Bob aerially mapped a spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), outbreak in southeast Alaska in what may be the first such aerial survey. During WWII, he hitched rides in military aircraft to survey an outbreak of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria lugobrosa (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), in Clatsop County, OR. After the war, Bob hired John F. Wear, a former naval aviator, as a full-time forester-pilot assigned to developing aerial surveys that became standard procedure throughout the West (Wickman et al. 2002). The Bureau was a service organization without any forest resource administration function. Its personnel were assigned to do research, survey insect populations and damage, and to provide technical assistance on control projects conducted by federal, state, and private entities. Cooperation was central to their mission. The varied mix of forest ownership in the Pacific Northwest brought Bob into close association with prominent, influential individuals. Some measure of their esteem for him is reflected in an article entitled: The Timberman Presents as Tall Timber, Robert L. Furniss (Anon. 1957). The article commended his knowledge of forest insects and added, perhaps most important, he is a firm believer in the power of cooperation and has been a leader in fostering outstanding working relations between public and industrial foresters and entomologists. These attributes no doubt led to his selection for the Japan assignment and were essential in gaining acceptance by the Japanese people of his recommendations for improving organization and practices involving forest insect management and control. So it was that officials in Washington, DC, requested that he accept the assignment to Japan. His mission was To analyze the forest insect infestation problem in Japan and make recommendations for improved practical control measures. His recommendations (Furniss 1950a) were incorporated in Forest Pest Control Law 53, enacted in April 1950 (Furniss 1951). This account is based on his official reports and letters to his wife, Frances, which illuminate his personal experiences and feelings, including sidelights during his field trips, interaction with Japanese people professionally and socially, and the customs of the people. In addition to those documents are many 35-mm color slides, from which figures herein were selected (except as noted). This material is in my possession and destined for deposit in the Special Collections Library, University of Idaho, Moscow. The NRS Visiting Expert program was deactivated when Japan regained full sovereignty on 28 April In the intervening years, Japan has made great strides in the management of its forest resources. The seeds for that progress relating to forest insects were sown by Bob Furniss. Background: Japan s Population and Forest Resources The four main Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu (Fig. 2) lie between north latitude 31º to 45º. Honshu, the middle and largest island, is where Tokyo and Mt. Fuji are located. Climate is influenced by exposure to tropical airflow from the south, which brings warm humid winds in summer, and from the Asian interior, which brings cold northwest winds in winter. Thus, climate ranges from subtropical in the south to seasonally subfrigid on the northern island, Hokkaido (Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery 1981). The country is mostly mountainous with steep terrain that is subject to erosion, especially when deforested. 1 Fig. 2. The four main Japanese islands, aligned here 45º counterclockwise of North. The pine forests are on the three southernmost islands. Honshu and Kyushu experienced the most severe tree mortality. Source: Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Japan is about the size of California, but its people far outnumber that populous state. The 1948 population was 79 million (126 million in 2000). About 67% of Japan is forested (0.23 ha per person, which is 1/4 of the world average). Its forests provide only 30% of the country s consumption of wood products; the remainder is imported. Native tree species are diverse (more than 1,000 species). Among conifers, Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and two pines, Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. and Zucc.) and Kuromatsu (Pinus thunbergii Parl.), are most abundant. Concern about the accelerated mortality of these pines led NRS to seek an experienced and knowledgeable forest entomologist. His job was to evaluate the insect tree complex American Entomologist Volume 52, Number 2 77

3 and the effectiveness and noneffectiveness of attempts to control the damage, and to recommend measures needed to improve matters, which culminated in Japan s first pest control legislation. First Assignment, November 1949 to January 1950 Bob Furniss arrived at Alameda, CA, Naval Air Station on 2 November 1949 and boarded the Hawaii Mars Flying Boat to begin his journey to Japan. All government air travel to Japan was provided by the Military Air Transport Service. There were no windows near his seat because the airplane had been designed for mixed military use including cargo, troop, and casualty transport. Canvas obscured the few portholes, except the two fore and aft of seat 31, which was not his. Being cooped up thusly, and with the noise of four 3,000-hp engines, must have been uncomfortable. Cruising speed was a lumbering 221 mph at a service ceiling of 14,600 ft. After an overnight stay in Hawaii, Bob continued in an Army DC-4, making stops at Johnson Island, Kwajalein, and Guam. He arrived at Haneda airport, Tokyo, at 7:00 p.m., 5 November. In Tokyo, he stayed at the Dai Iti Hotel with personnel of the Forestry Division of NRS. The NRS offices were in the Mitsubishi Shoji building, which was within walking distance. Lt. Col. Harold B. Donaldson was Chief of the Forestry Division. The staff included George Kataoka, interpreter, and Harold F. Wise, Scientific Consultant, who was also a forester. Bob wrote: The Dai Iti houses the majors and lieutenant colonels and occasionally a stray colonel. The Imperial Hotel houses the generals, admirals and VIP s. The story goes that they caught a colonel in there once, and that he is still serving time in Leavenworth for the crime. General MacArthur s headquarters and the Imperial Palace grounds were between the Dai Iti and the NRS office. Bob usually walked to the NRS office, sometimes diverting through the Ginza (principal shopping district). On 9 November, he got up early and walked around the palace grounds (Americans were not permitted to enter). He noted that beyond the surrounding moat were picturesque pines and buildings. Here and there, local people were fishing in the moat. 3 Bob was designated by Lt. Col. Harold B. Donaldson to coordinate Tojima s itinerary. In his 15 March 1950 letter to those concerned, he wrote, As to Dr. Kojima, He is a pleasant companion and an accomplished forest entomologist with a good understanding of silvicultural relationships...not a common characteristic of Japanese forest entomologists in general. On 28 March 1950, Kojima wrote to RLF, You can hardly imagine how very happy and relieved I felt when I was met by you at the moment that I printed my first step at Seattle pier. 78 A Fig. 3. (A) Geisha, Kawai, and foresters at Yamato Hotel, Hineji, Hyogo. Kneeling are George Kataoka, interpreter, and Dr. Jozo Murayama, who accompanied RLF on several field trips. 24 November (B) Dr. Tochibuma Kojima with wife and daughter at Palace moat, Tokyo, 23 December A. RLF slide #453, B. RLF slide #559. Children in uniforms were scurrying to school. Men were seen gathering small bundles of limbs little larger than twigs for fuel of which in general there is a great shortage. He saw four little boys hurrying home with a pigeon that the oldest boy had shot. Food is short also. Field Trips On 14 November, Bob set out on his first field trip (Furniss and Wise 1949) to visit Hiroshima, Okayama, Hyogo, and Osaka prefectures in western Honshu; he was accompanied by Wise, Kataoka, and two Japanese entomologists: Dr. Tochibuma Kojima and Dr. Jozo Murayama (Figs. 3A, B). He noted that Kojima feeds his family by working 2-1/2 days here (as a forestry consultant), lecturing at Tokyo University, and working at some business concern. He is one of the men working hard to recover from the impact of war. Later (1950), Kojima was one of the first Japanese forestry specialists to visit the United States after the war to view management practices here. 3 Bob had written Frances (11 November 1949) about the impending field trip: Apparently, one of the major problems will be to get near the woods. The Japanese foresters have an aversion for that sort of thing. His subsequent report (Furniss and Wise 1949) brought immediately to light a host of problems involving every aspect of the pine bark beetle problem. I was taken by 4 Trap tree refers to felling live trees with the intent of attracting beetles to them instead of live standing trees, after which broods in them are destroyed by salvage logging or some destructive treatment. Their use in the United States has been confined to Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry, and Douglas-fir infested with Dendroctonus species. B surprise at the directness of criticism of the control operation in general. Bob Furniss was not prone to criticize others, certainly not in any public way. He had earned his reputation by cooperation as much as his exceptional competence and industry. It is noteworthy that Wise was coauthor, no doubt to lend his authority as an NRS staff member. Also, the Chief of Forest Insect Control in the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was persuaded to take on the extraordinary task of writing to the governor of Okayama Prefecture, specifying changes to be made. And they were many. Places said to be infested were not. Where infested trees did occur, some control organizations were notably apathetic and ineffective, or entire stands were often clear-cut, worsening the situation by the resultant erosion. The control organizations were usually overstaffed, grotesquely so in one instance. No coordinated survey existed; forest owners provided most of the survey data (number and location of infested trees). It was evident in Hyogo Prefecture that even the control men do not understand sound survey procedures. Extensive use of trap trees 4 was being considered, but such a program would be worse than useless. He listed five compelling reasons that Based on experience in the United States, trap trees are not considered to be an effective method of controlling pine bark beetles (Furniss and Wise 1950). Also being considered at the time was a nationwide program of building birdhouses, which supposedly would result in predation on the beetles. The notion was put to rest by his noting that (Furniss 1950a): American Entomologist Summer 2006

4 of Bob s assignments, nor would there have been time to do that in a comprehensive way. I think that it was evident to him that Monochamus was common to the dying trees of all ages and sizes; others, such as T. piniperda, were not. Some support for pinewood nematode as a cause of the pine mortality is found in Bob s report (Furniss 1950b): A Fig. 4. (A) Poster to inform private landowners about the cause of dying pine trees and to instruct them to fell them and burn the infested bark. The characters across the top read: Let s control bark beetles! In the circle, at left, is Pine eater ; at right is White spotted B pine elephant bug (weevils have trunklike snouts). Above the circle reads They suck nutrition from underneath the bark. On trunk, left of the chopper: To control bark beetles it is important to detect them at the early stage. Above chopper: Pines die! Detect sick trees and cut them. On trunk at right: Too late to control (as indicated by dead foliage). Above person at right: Cut pine trees must be peeled and burned. Pine wood can t be moved (in red). At bottom right: Hyogo-ken (Prefecture). See text regarding comment about the secondary nature of insects involved. Translation provided by Takuji Noma. (B) Worker peeling bark to destroy so-called bark beetles. Okayama Ken, November RLF slide #21. Much publicity in Japan has been given to the supposed effectiveness of birds in controlling pine bark beetles. The people, through posters and other media, have been encouraged to build bird houses to increase the bird population and thereby cut down on the pine beetle population. The trouble with this proposal is that only the woodpeckers feed to any extent on bark beetles, and woodpeckers are but little attracted to bird houses. Furthermore, there is not much hope of materially increasing the bird population in Japan where the custom of eating small birds is strongly established. He went on to say, however, that the fostering of birds is a worthwhile end in itself, but such a program does not warrant financial support for bark beetle control. Use of the term pine bark beetles in regard to the problem being investigated had led me to expect that the trees were being infested by Scolytidae, for which the accepted family common name is bark beetles. I had been puzzled, therefore, to read that no primary (able to kill) bark beetle was ever mentioned. However, on this very first look at the situation, Bob Furniss displayed his experience and perception: Control operations (Fig. 4A, B) on private land in Akaiwa Gun were examined in detail on November 17, largely to determine what insects were present. Monochamus tesserula White (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae; now identified American Entomologist Volume 52, Number 2 as M. alternatus Hope.), Cryptorhynchus insidiosus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Pissodes obscurus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in mixture were found to be the principal species. Ordinarily, all of these are secondary insects, species that attack only seriously weakened trees. This indicates that some basic physiological factor is responsible for the outbreak. What that factor may be is a point to be determined through research. (Furniss and Wise 1949) My (MMF) belief is that the underlying cause was the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), which is vectored by M. alternatus (Aikawa et al. 2003) (Fig. 5). The nematode was introduced to Japan earlier, and according to the Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (1981), Pine wilt disease caused by the pinewood nematode is the most serious (forest protection) problem and in spite of effort being made, it is spreading throughout the country. The other two mentioned insects (C. insidiosus and P. obscurus) would have invaded the trees dying from pine wilt disease. Even so, I am somewhat surprised that Bob did not mention that a scolytid, particularly, Tomicus piniperda (L), had infested the stressed trees, which it is prone to do (Kojima 1949). Doubtless, that beetle and others colonized some of the dying trees, but determining their composition was not the primary purpose According to Mr. Hitake, the first record of pine beetle infestation in Nagasaki Prefecture was in 1915 when some infested trees were found on the temple grounds in Nagasaki City.In 1926 an infestation broke out in Sasebo City. Much of the subsequent infestation is attributed to spread (of bark beetles ) from the Sasebo center. Mr. Hitake and others put much emphasis upon the hypothesis that infested logs imported to Obi and Yatsushiro contributed materially to the spread of infestation in southern Kyushu. The report continued, Mr. Furniss expressed the opinion that the imported log theory is open to considerable doubt. Reasonable doubt, considering that no one realized that the pinewood nematode was a problem in Japan at the time, and there was as yet little experience with pine wilt back in the United States, where the nematode originated but causes no notable mortality to native pines (Wingfield et al. 1984, Cram and Hanson 2004). Furthermore, all of the insects found to be infesting dying or dead Japanese pines were native there; hence, introduction of them in logs could hardly explain their becoming so abundant. Customary Customs in the Field Bob Furniss s personal letters and his extraordinary color slides show his broad interest and admiration for many aspects of Fig. 5. Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope, a vector of the pinewood nematode that causes pine wilt disease. The nematode was later determined to have been established in Japanese pines prior to the events described herein and was probably responsible for the pine mortality during this time period. Photo credit: USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region Archives, 79

5 Now comes the part at which the Japanese shine...about 9 PM we assembled in a Japanese style room for dinner. There we were sitting around in our kimonos on the floor being served with exotic food by a bunch of maids. It was a real sake party. Sake is natural rice wine served hot in special small cups. When the eating was over, the maids got out a portable phonograph (and) demonstrated several Japanese dances [they insisted that Bob and Wise participate]. Rather than prolong the agony [he claimed no aptitude for waltzing], I thought it best to teach them the California Schottische and Road to the Isles. The Mamasan was a dancing teacher and caught right on. The hotel owner s wife was also an apt pupil. Before the evening was over, they were all doing the Schottische, counting off the beat in Japanese. What a sight! Fig. 6. Japanese foresters and officials at Tomo, Niigata Prefecture. Robert Furniss was met at every prefecture by such gatherings, which often included governors and all levels of officials as well as personnel of the top-heavy control organizations. Typically, a luncheon would ensue, perhaps lasting several hours. RLF slide #430. Japan: its people, their culture and ways of life, and Japanese structures and flora. But some things tried his patience. As noted, Japanese foresters tended not to spend their time in the forest, as he was accustomed to doing (one individual sported a very long little-finger nail, signifying that he did no physical work). I find now (25 November 1949) that I came over-stocked with field clothes. An extra suit rather than the caulked boots would have been more suitable. The Japanese foresters have no field clothes have no need for them. Work days, if you could call them that, didn t start before 9:30 in the morning. On his first trip and continuing throughout others during his two assignments, his party was met at each stop by large numbers of political officials and personnel involved with pine beetle control in the particular area or prefecture (Fig. 6). Typically, a luncheon would ensue, and when finally underway, the going was often slow, as noted in a letter (20 November 1949): In due course we got out into the woods to see the bark beetle control operations. En-route, our retinue was met at various towns and villages by the mayor, vice-mayor or chief of police, usually all three and many others. At each place we were offered tea and a conference. It took time to decline all the hospitality. And it took time merely to drive along the roads which are just barely wide enough to accommodate a car. Sometimes, as in this case, when we finally got out into the woods to see the bark beetle control, [there were] no beetles. Nor were the foresters able to show us any in that prefecture (Hiroshima). Next, he was introduced to an unfailing custom, the evening party after each day s outing (20 November 1949): Fig. 7. Geishas Misuzu Noda with samisen (left) and Tomiko Komiya at Miyazaki Hotel, Miyazaki City, 16 December A. RLF slide #524, B. RLF slide # Robert Furniss was getting into the hearts of his Japanese acquaintances. That would stand him well in their willingness to accept and act on subsequent recommendations that minced no words when the situation required changes of what had been long-established custom and practice. The following day, the expedition traveled to Okayama and were met by the usual delegation, this time a 1934 Pierce Arrow for the flag car. They proceeded to the Shinmatsunoe Hotel to confer about plans for the morrow. Then came the party, this time American style, but with geishas (Figs. 7). We sat about on straw mats in our kimonos and were fed by the geishas and maids...after the meal, the geishas entertained by singing and dancing. Sadae, being the number 1 geisha of Okayama Prefecture, could really dance, and I must say that many of the Japanese dances are beautiful to watch. Tokamaku played the samisen and also danced. In due course we had some fox trots, a waltz or two, and a session with the California Schottische. Sadae had it pat about the second time through and Tokamaku wasn t far behind. Back to the bark beetles. We spent a couple days, more or less, in the woods in Okayama Prefecture and found lots of bark beetles and an extremely poor control organization. Yesterday afternoon we conferred with about 35 foresters and discussed their problems. Glimpses of Life and Landscape I was surprised to find no mention in Bob s letters of the culture of Bonsai (miniature trees), which is a tradition in parts of Japan. However, I recall him saying that a prized bonsai had been offered to him (an extraordinary gesture of esteem) but importation of living plants was prohibited. I found only two slides showing them: Fig. 8A, and a view of rows of them at Kyoshoen nursery at Kamokasi Mura, Kagawa Ken. Later, he American Entomologist Summer 2006

6 requirements for four months or more than enough to supply the entire annual need for railroad ties, if it could have been salvaged for those purposes. The significance of losses from bark beetle damage is further demonstrated by the fact that coniferous timber, of which about 25 percent is pine, is supplying more than 85 percent of Japan s saw log requirements. A B As bad as the pine mortality was in places, the reaction to it was sometimes worse than the perceived problem (24 November 1949): Fig. 8. (A) Bonsai at Kyoshoen nursery, Kagawa Ken. Man at left was horticulturist at the nursery; the other man was mayor of Kamokasi Mara. Bob Furniss was offered a bonsai (a gesture of extreme gratitude and respect) but regulations prohibited transporting it to the United States. (B) Bob at his Portland, OR, home with a mugo pine bonsai that he created after his Japan experiences. A. RLF photo #258, B. Author photo. devoted a section of his garden in Portland, OR, to culturing bonsai (Fig. 8B). His first bonsai was a spruce given to him in 1963 by Lillian Keen, wife of F. Paul Keen, with whom he had worked earlier at the Portland Forest Insect Laboratory. Bob was contacted in January 1980 for ideas about a proposal to deposit a natural (wild) American bonsai in the U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC, commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Forest Service. In his reply 5, he said that he liked the idea and favored a western conifer, of which he listed several possibilities and suggested that Dan Robinson, a trained forester, bonsai expert, and landscaper, has numerous fine specimens for sale at his nursery in Bremerton, Washington. Alternatively, he [Robinson] might be employed to collect and groom one or more trees to specifications. Bob dismissed any thought of the selection coming from among his stock: They are amateurish examples of the art. Someday I hope to shape them into the real thing. After 17 years of effort, that remains only a hope. Soon after Bob died, Dennis Hamel of the Forest Service Washington office informed me that, at Bob s suggestion, Robinson had been contacted to secure from nature a truly magnificent dwarf ponderosa pine on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington. It became the first tree in the American Bonsai Collection of the U.S. National Arboretum at a dedication on 28 October Bob s sensitivity to the plight of the rural Japanese people was evident (19 November 1950): 5 Letter from RLF to Dennis R. Hamel, Coordinator for Bonsai Birthday Activity, Forest Service, Washington, DC, 29 January In possession of author. On the 17th, we spent an interesting day in Gunma Prefecture. Among other things, we saw the weaving of silk at Isezaki both mechanical and hand weaving. We stood and watched a farm girl at her hand loom. She didn t watch us. Time is not to be wasted when there is 31 feet of silk cloth to be completed at the end of every day and a half, if one is to make the average 100 yen per day (official rate, 360 yen = $1.00 U.S.). Somehow the beautiful pattern in that silk cloth faded a little as we stood there and watched that bare footed girl hunched over her loom working toward the next day at noon when her loom could be rethreaded and a start made on the next piece of cloth. Components and Consequences of the Bark Beetle Problem As noted, wood is basic to the Japanese economy, and at best, its forest resources provide only 30% of the nation s needs for wood products. Thus, the losses being sustained were of great concern. According to Kojima (1949): The largest loss of forest resources ever reported in this country is the dying of pine forests from bark beetles, the epidemic of which is raging and spreading in many parts of Japan. The damage to pine forests, both private and national, during 1932 to 1947 amounted to 28,410,000 trees. The importance of the damage was further apparent in NRS Preliminary Study No. 45 (Furniss 1951): Sustained heavy losses of pine timber killed by bark beetles are contributing materially to the acute shortage of timber confronting Japan. For the past four years losses caused by bark beetles have more than offset the total annual increment in the pine stands. The volume of timber killed in 1950 was sufficient to supply Japan s pulpwood The national forests have been largely clear-cut, the policy being to log selectively. They select an area and then clear cut it. There are classic examples of erosion whole mountains being washed away. When the erosion gets well started, an erosion program is initiated. Great hillsides are terraced, and the valleys are filled with dams, one right after the other. These dams are all filled up, and the rocks were waiting for the first freshets to roll them down to the rice fields. Follow-up In November 1950, Bob returned at the request of NRS to see how things were progressing under the new forest insect control law that incorporated his recommendations (Furniss 1950a,c). He arrived 4 November after an uneventful trip across some 40 hours elapsed time. He noted that the Forestry Division had been reduced to five people (who included Donaldson and Wise), and he was now located at the Sanno Apts., two to a room and rather far out... The Sanno Apts. are 30 minutes walking time from the Mitsubiushi Shoji building (NRS). I walk when it is not raining. Plans are afoot for two extensive field trips to southern Honshu and Kyushu. Now (14 November 1950) in the field at Matsumoto, Nagano prefecture, he wrote Today we were to have a light lunch in Ina Machi and spend most of the day looking over the bark beetle problem. As matters turned out, we had one of the biggest banquets yet. I ll have to admit there were only a few speeches; consequently the meal took only about 2-1/2 hours. Probably cutting out the speeches made it a light lunch. We didn t see many bark beetles, principally because there weren t many to be seen. Nagano is one of the many prefectures where the foresters want subsidy money to control the beetles they haven t got. 6 He had chosen to start with four northern prefectures because winter was approaching 6 Of the 15 prefectures, that he visited where control work was being done, 7 were not experiencing epidemic infestations of pine bark beetles as of December 1950 (Furniss 1951). American Entomologist Volume 52, Number 2 81

7 Fig. 9. Robert Furniss signing copies of the book, Western Forest Insects, Portland, OR, This book continues to be the basic reference used by foresters and forest entomologists in western North America. Author photo. and My experience with the hotels in the sunny south [said facetiously] led me to believe that it would be a good idea to plunge right in and get the worst over right away. But he found that although snow was visible in almost any direction, the northern hotels had a compensating feature: we have kotatsu. A kotatsu has it all over a hibachi [as used in the south] for a source of heat. In each case, charcoal is burned, but in the case of the kotatsu, the heat is cooped up under a futon. The trick is to crawl under the futon without scorching the feet. Still at Matsumoto, he wrote that (at dinner last night): We had the works bee larvae, raw fish, etc. The bee larvae, a special product of Nagano prefecture, weren t bad. Back at Tokyo (19 November 1950), he had a few days before the second field trip, which was to extend from 22 November to 23 December. He was invited to dinner at Dr. Kojima s home in Matsudo. We spent several pleasant hours talking about this and that, having sukiyaki, and seeing some of Dr. Kojima s slides that he took in the states [after Bob s last trip, and during which he visited Portland]. Naturally, I couldn t get away without being given a miyage (a presento ) to take back to Mrs. Furniss. It is something Mrs. Kojima made. How one ever comes out even with these people on the exchange of gifts is something that has me completely baffled. It isn t that they are rolling in wealth and can afford all these kindnesses. 82 Conclusion As Bob s first assignment drew toward its end, much remained to do, particularly in reporting details of his trips and conferences and making recommendations for bark beetle control. He wrote (27 December 1949): it is necessary to suggest some basic changes in (1) the centuries-old customs of the people, (2) the laws of the prefectures and the nation and, finally, (3) the forestry practices of the land. His recommendations (Furniss 1950a) were based on his three field trips since 6 November 1949 to Kyushu, Shikoku, and western Honshu; one reconnaissance flight over Shikoku and western Honshu; numerous conferences with Japanese foresters and insect control specialists; and literature on habits of the pine beetles. Recommendations included reorganization, coordinated comprehensive detection surveys, law changes, cessation of clear cutting for control, studies on management methods to increase resistance of pine stands, and opportunity for specialists and students to study methods in the United States. They were incorporated in Law No. 53. Law for exterminating and preventing pine bark beetles and other similar borers, and other destructive forest pests and diseases, which became effective 1 April 1950 through the combined efforts of the Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and the NRS. In his final publication (Furniss 1951), Bob explained that the basis for his recommendations included his various field trips (to 15 prefectures) including reexaminations on his second assignment and consultations with officials at all levels and many forest owners. At these conferences, the local problems were discussed in open forum and every attempt was made to help the people solve their forest insect control problems. He continued: Throughout the study of the pine bark beetle problem in Japan, the writer has recognized and has advised the Japanese people that it would be a mistake for them to copy the American or any other control techniques blindly. Before such techniques are used in Japan, they should be tested thoroughly to make sure they are workable under the new conditions. Social customs of the people, the character of the forest, and especially the habits of the insects, all have a bearing on selection of the most suitable control methods. Certain principles, however, are basic to the success of control in all lands. These principles have been stressed, along with such technical details as were considered applicable to Japan. 7 See obituary, Am. Entomol. 49: (Spring 2003). 8 Letter from R.W. Stark to K.H. Wright, Portland, OR, 13 October In possession of author. In retrospect, it is clear that Bob Furniss had a profound effect on Japanese forestry in terms of his recommendations on control organization, detection surveys, and the need for long-term studies to undertake to determine the best methods of managing pine stands so as to make them beetle-resistant and thereby reduce the need for direct control measures. Bob s work also advanced the level of professionalism because of his recommendation that Japanese forest protection specialists and students be given opportunity to study methods in the United States. Many did so, as shown in their personal letters to him and photos of them in Oregon. A measure of Bob s lasting influence was provided by Ronald W. Stark, a prominent forest entomologist, 7 who attended a meeting in Kyoto of the 17th Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) in 1981, 30 years after Bob s last visit. While in Japan, I was asked by several people if I knew Bob Furniss. My status rose appreciably when I informed them he had been a friend and a contemporary, for Bob is a folk hero in Japan. They provided me with copies of two reports Bob made in 1950 and 1951 when acting as a consultant on their bark beetle problem. 8 Thus, just as he had been characterized by The Timberman magazine as Tall Timber for his contributions to Northwest forestry, he was still remembered among the ensuing generation of Japanese foresters for his contributions. His manual, Western Forest Insects, was published in 1977 (Furniss and Carolin 1977) (Fig. 9) and is still the standard reference used by the foresters and forest entomologists of western North America. Acknowledgments The manuscript was enhanced by reviews by Sandra J. Kegley, Forest Service, Coeur d Alene, ID; Boyd E. Wickman, Bend, OR.; and Takuji Noma, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, who also translated the poster in Fig.4. References Cited Aikawa, A., K. Togashi, and H. Kosaka Different developmental responses of virulent and avirulent isolates of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), to the insect vector, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Anon The Timberman presents as Tall Timber, Robert L. Furniss. The Timberman 58(9): 14, 76. Cram, M., and J. Hanson How to identify and manage pine wilt disease and treat wood products infested by the pinewood nematodes. American Entomologist Summer 2006

8 USDA Forest Service. NA-FR Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Forestry in Japan. Tokyo. Furniss, M. M. and R. L. Furniss Scolytids (Coleoptera) on snowfields above timberline in Oregon and Washington. Can. Entomol. 104: Furniss, M. M., and B. E. Wickman Photographic images of forest insect investigations on the Pacific Slope, Part 1. California. Am. Entomol. 44: Furniss, R. L Salvage on the Tillamook burn as affected by insect activity. The Timberman Dec. 1937: 11 13, Furniss, R. L Biology of Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan on Douglas-fir. J. Econ. Entomol. 35: Furniss, R. L. 1950a. Recommendations for forest insect control in Japan. Natural Resources Section, GHQ, SCAP (General Headquarters/ Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers), Tokyo. 23 January p English + Japanese version. Furniss, R. L. 1950b. Field trip to Kyushu and southern Honshu. 17p + Itinerary and principal persons interviewed. 18 January Furniss, R. L. 1950c. Summary of Visiting Expert s observations and recommendations on pine bark beetle control in Japan. 20 January p. Furniss, R. L Forest Insect Control in Japan. Preliminary study No. 45, Natural Resources Section, GHQ, SCAP, Tokyo. February p English + Japanese version. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin Western Forest Insects. U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv. Misc. Publ Furniss, R. L., and H. F. Wise Field trip to Hiroshima, Okayama, Hyogo and Osaka Prefecture. 6p + Itinerary and letter from Director, Forestry Agency, to Okayama Prefectural Governor requiring correction of very unsatisfactory control being done there. 3 December Furniss, R. L., and H. F. Wise Conference regarding trap trees for pine bark beetle control. 5p. 6 January Kojima, T Forest insect pests of economic importance occurring in Japan. 6 May p. Larson, R. C Western forest entomology history Interview of Robert Livingston Furniss, Portland, OR, Oct. 14, Forest History Society, Duke University, Durham, NC. (edited copy in possession of author). Wickman, B. E., T. R.Torgersen, and M. M. Furniss Photographic images and history of forest investigations on the Pacific slope, ca Part 2. Oregon and Washington. Am. Entomol. 48: Wingfield, M. J., R. A. Blanchette, and T.H. Nicholls Is the pinewood nematode an important pathogen in the United States? J. Forestry 82: Mal Furniss studies insects that inhabit the forests of western North America. He is Chair of the History Committee, Western Forest Insect Work Conference, and has contributed related articles to Heritage since its inception. Bob and Mal were brothers, 18 years apart. Mal migrated west from Waverly, NY, as did Bob, and studied forestry at UC Berkeley. He became interested in forest entomology through temporary employment by F. Paul Keen at the Berkeley CA Forest Insect Laboratory in Join Us! Announcing... a NEW Insect Rearing and Diet Technology Workshop Insect Diet and Rearing Research, LLC Workshop led by Allen Cohen October 2-6, 2006 Tucson, AZ, USA Genetics of Domesticated Insects, taught by Dr. Alan C. Bartlett Pathogens and Contaminants in the Insectary, taught by Dr. J. Robert Harkrider Tour of the USDA, APHIS Pink Bollworm Facility, led by Mr. Ernie Miller Visit to the USDA, ARS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center Electron Microscopy of your specimens at the University of Arizona Imaging Center Multiple Hands-on activities that help you learn by doing. To register, visit our website or contact us at American Entomologist Volume 52, Number 2 83

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