1 DOSSIER ON TETRAMOERA SCHISTACEANA AS A PEST OF SUGARCANE Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Grapholita schistaceana Snellen, 1890 Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen, 1891) Argyroploce schistaceana Meyrick, 19 Eucosma schistaceana (Snellen) Cydia schistaceana (Snellen) Laspeyresia schistaceana (Snellen) Olethreutes schistaceana (Snellen) Enarmonia schistaceana (Snellen) Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) Diakonoff, 1967 Common names Sugarcane gray borer, white borer, sugarcane shoot borer. Distribution Caroline Islands (Pacific Ocean), China, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mariana Islands (Pacific Ocean), Mauritius, Philippines, Réunion, Ryukyu Islands (Japan), Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Vietnam (CAB 1965; Williams 1978; Pan & Lim 1979; Perez et al. 1980; Alba 1990). Host plants Sugarcane Symptoms Tetramoera schistaceana is a borer of early shoots that mainly causes dead heart in young plants (Williams 1978; Cheng & Wang 1997). In mature plants, larvae feed externally on the internodes and around the buds (Fig. 1) but usually cause minor damage (Sallam, personal observation). Fig. 1. Tetramoera schistaceana damage symptoms (Nader Sallam, BSES) Economic impact In Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China, heavy infestations averaging 29%, and in some cases reaching as high as 98% of the crop, were caused by Tetramoera schistaceana, Chilo infuscatellus and C. sacchariphagus collectively, with T. schistaceana being the predominant species (LiangZhen et al. 00). Similarly, studies in Taiwan showed that, out of five borer species, T. schistaceana was the predominant borer and was responsible for 8. ±1.% damaged internodes in autumn cane and 4.42 ± 0.% damaged internodes in spring cane (Cheng 1999). This species is a minor pest of sugarcane in Indonesia (Sallam, unpublished).
2 Morphology Fig. 2. Tetramoera schistaceana life stages (ISRI Indonesia) Detection methods Check young shoots early in the season for dead heart symptoms and dissect the shoots to retrieve the larva. In mature cane, check the internodes for external feeding symptoms particularly around the bud. Biology and Ecology Traps baited with virgin female moths were used to study population dynamics of T. schistaceana in spring cane fields at the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute experiment farm. First peak of male catch was recorded between March and June with the catch of males/trap/night. A second peak was recorded from October to February of the following year with the highest catch of males/trap/night, while only males/trap/night were caught in July through September (Cheng et al. 00). Management Chemical control A mixture of trichlorfon and dimehypo applied to the whorl of sugarcane plants gave % control (LiangZhen et al. 00). Biological control Parasitoids Allorhogas pyralophagus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Larval ectoparasitoid. Introduced to Mauritius from Mexico for the control of Chilo sacchariphagus, and was found to attack larvae of Tetramoera schistaceana in the laboratory (Rajabalee & Banymadhub 1986). Cotesia flavipes (Apanteles flavipes) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Larval parasitoid, recorded to result in low parasitism rates in Taiwan (Cheng et al. 1987). Trichogramma australicum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid, Taiwan (Cheng et al. 1978). Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid, Taiwan and the Philippines (Alba 1990; Cheng 1999). Trichogramma confusum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid, China (Liu 1987). Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid. This species was introduced into Guangdong, China, from the USA in Inundative releases in China reduced infestation by Tetramoera schistaceana specially during summer months (Liu 1987). Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid, Taiwan (Cheng et al. 1998). Trichogramma sp. nr. nana (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Egg parasitoid, Mauritius (Williams 1978). Pathogens Beauveria amorpha: Entomopathogenic fungus. Laboratory trials in Taiwan showed that a strain of this fungus kills larvae of Tetramoera schistaceana (ZuNan 1996).
3 Pheromone attractants Studies in Japan showed that a 100:1 mixture of (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate and (E)-9,11-dodecadienyl acetate plus a synergist, (E)-7,9-decadienyl acetate, was strongly attractive to Tetramoera schistaceana males. Best results were achieved when a mixture of the two pheromone components and the synergist at a ratio of 1000:10:1 was used (Kinjo et al. 1996). In Guangdong Province, China, a sex pheromone has been identified as cis-9-dodecenyl acetate and it was shown to cause mating disruption. The pheromone remained active for about 5 days when supplied on a small rubber tube, resulting in a noticeable drop in the total number of dead hearts in the field (Anon 1981). Means of Movement The most likely means of entry of this species into Australia would be by the introduction of infested planting material. The chance of the introduction of moths or eggs on aircraft, in luggage, or on people is much smaller, though still significant. Phytosanitary Risk Entry potential: High, present in Java, and proven to disperse globally and colonise new habitats. Colonisation potential: High in northern Australia. Spread potential: High. Establishment potential: High in all sugarcane growing areas of Queensland and NSW (see Match Indexes for climate in principal Australian areas below). Match Index Rangoon, Myanmar Colombo, Sri Lanka Bangkok, Thailand Guangzhou, China Taipei, Taiwan Iloilo, Philippines Match index 60
4 60 Pasuruan, Indonesia Mahajanga, Malagasy 80 Vacoas, Mauritius Match Index References Alba MC Use of natural enemies for controlling sugarcane pests in the Philippines. FFTC-NARC International Seminar on 'The use of parasitoids and predators to control agricultural pests', Tukuba Science City, Ibaraki-ken, 5 Japan, October 2-7, pp. Anon Grey borer control in sugarcane by synthetic pheromone in disrupting communication between sexes. Entomology Newsletter, International Society of Sugar-Cane Technologists 10, CAB International Argyroploce schistaceana. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests Map 197. Cheng WY Borer infestation of millable cane. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 165, Cheng WY, Chang CH & Wang ZT Occurrence of Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hym: Braconidae) in autumn sugarcane fields. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 117, Cheng WY, Chen SM & Wang ZT Parasitism of Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma ostriniae on different host eggs. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 166, Cheng WY, Su TH, Jiang PH, Yang WY, Yu TS, Hung TH & Hung JK Mass liberation of Trichogramma australicum Girault for the control of sugar cane moth borers in Taiwan. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute Cheng WY & Wang ZT Occurrence of different dead hearts in the spring-planted cane fields. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 157, 1-. Cheng WY, Wang ZT & Chen SM Trapping of Trichogramma with sterilized host eggs in spring-planted cane fields. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 159, Cheng WY, Wang ZT & Chen SM. 00. Catches of male gray borer moths by virgin female traps in spring cane. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 167, -48. Kinjo N, Nagamine M, Sugie H & Tamaki Y Sex pheromone of the sugarcane shoot borer, Tetramoera schistaceana Snellen (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae). Isolation and identification. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology (3), LiangZhen G, RongYang F, EnYi L, DongTian W & FuGuo K. 00. Infestation by Tetramoera schistaceana Snellen, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen and C. sacchariphagus of sugarcane plants and their control by chemicals. Plant Protection 26(1), 23-. Liu WH, Guo MF, Han SC, Wu HH & Li LY Inundative release of Trichogramma nubilale Ertle & Davis to control sugarcane borers in large areas. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 3(4), Pan YC & Lim G The biological control of sugarcane borers in Gula Perak Plantation, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Agriculture 52(2), Perez JR, Van Khu N, Thi Van T & Castro S Diseases and pests of sugar-cane in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Ciencias de la Agricultura 6,
5 Rajabalee A & Banymadhub N Elevage et tentative d'implantation d'allorhogas pyralophagus Marsh, un braconid ectoparasitaire de Chilo sacchariphagus Boj., le foreur ponctue de la canne a sucre a l'ile Maurice, avec quelques notes sur sa biologie. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de l'ile Maurice 65(2-3) Williams JR An annotated check list of the invertebrates (insects, mites, nematodes) of sugarcane in Mauritius. Occasional paper No. 31. Mauritius Sugar Industry Research institute, 22pp. ZuNan W Three entomogenous fungi from Taiwan and their pathogenicity to some insects. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 154, 15-.
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