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8 s SiC Ceramics Heater for Free Piston Type of Stirling Engine A 2-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach to the Analysis of the Working Process of a Wankel-Type Stirling Machine Numerical study of the friction losses in Stirling engine heat exchangers A CFD Analysis of the Air Flow through the Matrix Regenerator of Stirling Engines Experimental and Theoretical Study of a 90-K Beta-Type Stirling Cooler with Rhombic-Drive Mechanism A non-conventional double acting Stirling Engine design methodology Figure of Merit Analysis of a Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrix through Experimental Studies Design, simulation, manufacture and testing of a free-piston Stirling engine electric generator Hybrid Stirling Engine-Adsorption Chiller for Truck APU Applications Mechanical design and first test results of an Ericsson engine Parametric optimization of a Gamma type Stirling engine New configuration of Medium Temperature Difference (MTD) Free-Piston Stirling Engine for Power Generation Assessment of the Performance of IC and Stirling engine based Micro Combine Heat and Power systems in UK residential conditions Regenerative Heat to Mechanical Energy Converter with Dense Working Fluid Design and building of a Stirling engine for microgeneration as a learning experience for future Industrial Engineers An Optimization Algorithm of Stirling Engine Performance for Low-Grade Heat Recovery How to start researching in thermoacoustics The Myth about Dead Volume in Stirling Engines Experiment of a Single-Piston Stirling Engine and its Simple Analysis Development of 150W at 70K Split Stirling Cryocooler for High-temperature Superconductors Analysis and Experiment on Exhaust Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine by a Stirling Engine A new heat driven compressor for heat pump application Modeling of the thermodynamic, kinematic and dynamic of a beta Stirling engine Which is better for regenerator matrix, metal gauze or smooth channel? Operating Characteristics of a Laboratory-Scale, Convertible Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid CHP System Including a Reversed-Rotation Stirling Mode Performance of Heat-powered Unconstrained 4 Cylinder Double-acting Alpha-type Liquid Piston Stirling Cooler Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a MILD Combustion Burner for Stirling Engines A Novel Solar Cooling system Based on a Fluid Piston Convertor An evaluation of energy saving potentials for districts served by distributed Stirling m-chp units Performance monitoring of Stirling CHP units in an industrial district in Poland A medium temperature solar powered Stirling engine a case of project based learning Development of a Stirling engine powered by parabolic trough collectors Setup of an integrated Stirling Engine - Fluidized Bed (SE-FB) experimental system Portable solar cooker that can also generate electric power Characterisation and simulation of a restored V160 Stirling engine

9 Performance testing of a Stirling engine, with implementation of high speed pressure measurements in the working gas channel Research results of the characteristics in the Stirling engine regenerator Analytical Modeling of Appendix Gap Losses in Stirling Cycle Machines Tribological study of different sealing solutions for a Stirling engine Numerical Analysis of Stirling Engines Using Advanced Thermodynamic Quasi-steady Approaches Performance Characteristics of the Vuilleumier Heat Pump A small-scale co-generation system fueled by wood pellets Preliminary design criteria of Stirling engines taking into account real gas effects Numerical Modelling of Free Piston Stirling Cycle Machines Concept of modified crank mechanism, characteristics and thermodynamic processes within the Stirling engine Heat exchange model in Stirling engine regenerator The passive generation system combined wood chip boiler and Stirling engine Proposal of the Performance Analysis for Stirling Engine Application of a transient model for simulation of a Stirling-Based CHP system A Meeting between Robert Stirling and Sadi Carnot in Tools for a Real Stirling Engine Cycle Thermodynamic Analysis Dynamic balance design technology for a V-type Stirling engine Development of a 500-W Beta-Type Stirling Engine by a Modified Non-Ideal Adiabatic Model Optimum design of piston rod used in Wobble Member Transmission Mechanism Design of an onboard auxiliary power and desalination unit powered by a Stirling engine Novel Auxuliary Power Unit Concept for Heavy Trucks Metallic materials for high temperature operation in Stirling engines STIRLING machine design with supplementary regenerators Experimental apparatus to test supplementary regenerators in STIRLING machines

10 SiC Ceramics Heater for Free Piston Type of Stirling Engine Teruyuki Akazawa a *, Koichi Hirata b, Takeshi Hoshino c and Kazuhito Fujiwara d a e-stir Co., Ltd., Shimotara, Maibara City, Shiga , JAPAN b National Maritime Research Institute,6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo , JAPAN c Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo , JAPAN d Kumamoto University Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kurokami, Kumamoto , JAPAN Free piston Stirling engines with integrated linear alternators have the compact size and high conversion efficiency for the sake of the simplicity of mechanical movements. These engines have been developed with the conversion efficiency of 25%. The material property of ceramics heater is critical in order to achieve such high efficiency. In this paper, the successful design process of the ceramics heater is described. Temperature and stress of the ceramic heater have been calculated by the method of thermo-fluid dynamical analysis and the proper dimensions were decided. Several types of test products have also been designed and manufactured for the evaluation of actual efficiency. Heater efficiency of 63% was estimated from the analysis and the actual test data on free piston engine. It was concluded that the use of ceramics heater in Stirling engine is promising and the high performance of the engine can be realized. *Corresponding author, address: tel.81: A 2-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach to the Analysis of the Working Process of a Wankel-Type Stirling Machine A. Alexakis a, K. Mahkamov a * a Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University at Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK The implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) significantly extends capabilities for modelling of Stirling engines and allows conduction of the detailed analysis of complex heat transfer and gas dynamics processes which occur in the internal gas circuit of Stirling machines with complex configurations. In this paper a successful implementation of 2-D CFD modelling of a Wankel-type rotary Stirling machine is described. In this type of machines, unlike conventional Stirling machines, there is no fixed coupling of expansion and compression spaces. An expansion space in the Wankel type Stirling machine may be connected to different compression spaces during its operation. The standard k-ε turbulence model, with a dynamic mesh, reflecting the planetary motion of the kinematical mechanism in the Wankel machine, has been implemented for the analysis of its working process. The gas temperature and pressure variations and their distributions have been recorded during the modelling process and pressure-volume diagrams have been produced. The preliminary results of the simulation reveal that the particular mechanical configuration, which was under consideration in this paper, operates as a refrigerator/heat-pump and further work is required in order to explore the geometrical features that will result in this design arrangement functioning as an engine. It is shown that CFD can be used as the conclusive method for analyzing the operation characteristics of machines with a challenging complexity such as a Wankel-type Rotary Stirling Machine. * Corresponding author, address: tel.:

11 Numerical study of the friction losses in Stirling engine heat exchangers I. Barreno a *, S.C. Costa a, M. Cordon a, M. Tutar b,c, I. Urrutibeascoa b, X. Gomez b, G. Castillo d a CS Centro Stirling S. Coop, Aretxabaleta, Spain b Mechanical and Manufacturing Department, Engineering Faculty, Mondragon University, Spain c IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain d Civil Engineering, Materials and Manufacturing department, University of Malaga, Spain New time dependent correlation equations, to be valid for the friction coefficient calculation under the transitional reciprocating flow encountered in Stirling heat exchangers are numerically derived. Laminar and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based turbulence models are used to analyse laminar to turbulent reciprocating flow, focusing on the onset of turbulence and transitional reciprocating flow regime. The relative performance of these models in more accurately capturing the characteristics of the flow of interest is assessed in relation to overcoming the problems identified in previous numerical studies. The simulation results are compared with published and well-known experimental data for reciprocating pipe flows, indicating that the effects of the turbulence anisotropy need to be taken into account in order to accurately predict the laminar to turbulent transition. The anisotropic Reynolds stress turbulence model is selected as a best choice among the tested turbulence models for analysis of this transitory phenomenon based on the comparative qualitative and quantitative results. This model is used to evaluate the onset of turbulence in a range where the Stirling engine heat exchangers work. In the identified laminar and transitional regions, frictional losses are studied as a qualitative parameter of Stirling heat exchangers indicated power, and hence electrical power output performance to develop time dependent correlation equations. It is believed that the validated numerical model can be used with confidence for studying the transitional reciprocating flow and the obtained correlations, can be applied as a cost effective solution for the development of Stirling engine heat exchangers. * Corresponding author, address: tel.: A CFD Analysis of the Air Flow through the Matrix Regenerator of Stirling Engines Felice BELLO a, Annarita VIGGIANO a, Emanuele FANELLI b, Giacobbe BRACCIO b and Vinicio MAGI a, * a School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, viale dell Ateneo Lucano 10, Potenza, ITALY b ENEA, Technical Unit for Trisaia Technologies (UTTri), SS Jonica, Rotondella, ITALY In this paper, a thermo-fluid dynamic 3-D numerical model of the air flow through the stacked woven matrix of Stirling engines regenerators has been used to characterize the pressure drop and heat transfer through the regenerator. Firstly, an isothermal flow, at 293 K, through the porous media has been analyzed. Four different matrices have been considered, two aligned and two misaligned and the simulations have been carried out over a range of Reynolds numbers from 5 to Two friction factor correlations have been obtained for the aligned and the misaligned matrices, respectively, and the results are compared with experimental data in the literature. Following this, heat transfer between the air flow and the matrix has been considered by varying the inlet gas temperature, i.e K, and keeping the wall temperature of the regenerator at 300 K. In this case, the simulations have been carried out over a Reynolds number ranging from 8 to 1700 by using the misaligned matrix. The regenerator efficiency and the Nusselt number as function of Re are given. A correlation equation for Nusselt number is given and compared with experimental results in the literature. * Corresponding author, address: tel.:

12 Simulation of a latent heat thermal storage system within a Stirling based microchp residential installation Álvaro CAMPOS-CELADOR a, *, Iker GONZÁLEZ-PINO b, Tatyana BANDOS b and Luis María LÓPEZ-GONZÁLEZ c a ENEDI Research Group, Department of Thermal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Eibar, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Avenida Otaola 29, Eibar, Spain. b ENEDI Research Group, Department of Thermal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Alameda Urquijo s/n, Bilbao, Spain. c GI-TENECO Research Group, Area of Thermal Engineering of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, Luis de Ulloa 20, Logroño, Spain. In this paper an innovative compact plate-based latent heat thermal energy storage system of 7.5 kwh and m 3 is integrated in a microchp installation where the Stirling Whispergen unit runs as the prime mover. The phase change material used as the storage medium in the system is the commercially available paraffin RT60 whose phase change temperature is in the 53-61ºC range of temperature. The Whispergen unit presents a nominal thermal power of 8 kw and an electric power of 1 kw. The application whose energy loads are covered by that installation is a single-family house placed in Burgos (Spain). The paper assesses the physical integration of the storage systems and the performance of the plant and the microchp unit using TRNSYS as the evaluation tool. The results were compared with a conventional hot water storage tank of the same volume. It is obtained that the latent heat thermal energy storage system increases the efficiency of the microchp unit when compared to a conventional storage system, reaching up to 88.8%. Moreover, it reduces the number of ON-OFF cycles of the microchp unit extending its life. When conventional hot water storage is considered, it was observed that the best results are obtained when the unit is arranged in series in the returning flow. In this case the efficiency of the microchp reaches 86.7%. * Corresponding author, address: tel: Experimental and Theoretical Study of a 90-K Beta-Type Stirling Cooler with Rhombic-Drive Mechanism Chin-Hsiang CHENG a *, Chu-Yin HUANG a, and Hang-Suin YANG a a Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Shieh Road, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, R.O.C. In this study, a 90 K beta type Stirling cooler with rhombic drive mechanism and using pressurized helium as working fluid has been developed. In parallel, a thermodynamic model is also built. In the model, pressure drop, effectiveness of regenerator, effect of porosity, conductivity variations of working gas and cold head due to temperature change are taken in account. Heat losses by axial conduction, friction of working fluid, and shuttle loss due to displacer motion are also included in the energy equation for cold head. A parametric study under different operating and geometrical parameters such as charged pressure, operating speed, instantaneous speed fluctuation, and thermal inertia has been performed. On the other hand, experiments are conducted to measure the performance of the cooler and verify the thermodynamic model. In this study, the cooling capacity is supplied by an electric resistance heater. Results show that the cooler is able to reach 90 K no-loading temperature in ten minutes at operating speed of 1000 rpm, as using 3-atm helium as the working fluid. *Corresponding author, address: tel.: (ext ) 12

13 A non-conventional double acting Stirling Engine design methodology Marta CORDON a *, Igor BARRENO a, Germán CASTILLO b, Idoia URRUTIBEASCOA c and Xabier GOMEZ c a CS Centro Stirling S.Coop, Avda. Alava 3, Aretxabaleta, SPAIN b Civil Engineering, University of Málaga, Doctor Ortiz Ramos s/n, Málaga, SPAIN c Mechanical and Manufacturing Department, Mondragon University, Loramendi 4, Mondragón, SPAIN Scaling rules based on dimensional analysis appears to be a useful method in order to design a new Stirling engine from another whose performance is known. Similarity concepts introduced in different publications rely on keeping invariable several dimensionless parameters, such as the temperature ratio N T, swept volume ratio k, phase angle α and normalized dead spaces µ d between the prototype and the derivative, which assures that the fractional fluid mass distribution within the cycle is the same function of crank angle in both cases. In this paper, a non-conventional double acting Stirling engine has been scaled in power by means of different scaling proposals. A preliminary method, including the influence of the number of pistons, and therefore the phase angle between compression and expansion volumes has been proposed and compared with Strict Dynamic Similarity and Functional Similarity techniques developed by Organ. This preliminary design method makes both the derivative and the prototype not to be equivalent from the functional similarity point of view, which has been demonstrated by means of mass particle trajectory maps. However, it could be the starting point for those engineers who want to design a Stirling engine with different piston number than the known prototype * Corresponding author, address: tel.: Figure of Merit Analysis of a Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrix through Experimental Studies S.C. COSTA a *, I. BARRENO a, J.A ESNAOLA b and M. TUTAR b,c a CS Centro Stirling S.Coop, Avd. Alava 3, Aretxabaleta, SPAIN b Mechanical and Manufacturing Department, Mondragon University, Loramendi 4, Mondragón, SPAIN c IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain The figure of merit is a powerful tool to evaluate and compare the performance of different Stirling engine regenerator matrices. The figure of merit is usually defined as the ratio between the heat transfer performance and the pressure drop losses through the regenerator matrix. Depending on the considerations to define this ratio, different expressions for this figure are obtained as found in the literature. The aim of this study is to compare three different figures of merit for different Stirling engine regenerator matrices and their agreement with experimental efficiency results in a micro-chp Stirling engine. As the compared figures of merit do not correspond well with the obtained experimental results, a new preliminary figure of merit is proposed. The qualitative prediction performance for the proposed new figure of merit is not fully validated. Further experimental tests are required to confirm its validity for other types of Stirling engine regenerator matrix and configurations. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

14 Design, simulation, manufacture and testing of a free-piston Stirling engine electric generator I.N. DEETLEFS a and R.T. DOBSON a a University of Stellenbosch Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Corner of Banghoek and Joubert Streets, 7600, Stellenbosch, WESTERN CAPE, South Africa Free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) electric generators are still uncommon in the world and practical knowledge of these machines is very limited. FPSEs, unlike kinematic Stirling engines which have been researched in much greater detail, do not require a mechanism to physically link the piston and displacer. FPSEs do not exert side loads on the piston which generally means that lubrication is not required, operate at constant frequency and can achieve selfstarting. A FPSE however requires a linear electric generator as opposed to the more well known rotary electric generator. The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch is in the process of designing a tubular, transverse flux, reciprocating linear electric generator for short stroke, high frequency applications - specifically with resonant FPSEs. The Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch is currently conducting a master's degree program to manufacture a FPSE to be used with the aforementioned electric generator. This paper considers the design, theoretical simulation, manufacture and testing of a FPSE. The FPSE was manufactured around the piston and displacer of the Beale B-10B demonstrator engine by Sunpower Inc., but incorporates a linear electric generator. The theoretical simulation numerically solves the mass and energy equations for a one-dimensional network of nodes and control volumes spanning the working space of the engine. The pressure of the working fluid is assumed to be a function of time only and not its position in the working space. The equations of motion are solved to determine the motion of the piston and displacer. Force terms include pressure forces, spring forces, forces from the load and friction. Physical issues identified are the requirement of a close fit of the piston and displacer to ensure good sealing, low friction coefficient for the piston and displacer to ensure smooth motion, thermal isolation of the hot and cold spaces of the engine, adequate wear pairing materials to avoid seizing and effective heat exchangers to induce the required temperature variation of the working fluid. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

15 Hybrid Stirling Engine-Adsorption Chiller for Truck APU Applications Barry FLANNERY a *, Robert LATTIN b, Harald BERRESHEIM c and Rory F. D. MONAGHAN a a Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland b Bloomington, Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States c Department of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland, Ireland This paper presents a feasibility study on the potential benefits of replacing conventional diesel enginevapour compression cooling systems (DEVC) with a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) coupled to a zeolitewater adsorption chiller system (Z-WACS) in heavy truck auxiliary power unit (APU) and cabin A/C applications. The zeolite-water adsorption chiller in the hybrid system is driven via waste heat from the Stirling engine cooling jacket. A reduced order model of how a coupled system would perform is made based on experimental data. This study shows that, when compared to the incumbent DEVC technology, a hybrid free-piston Stirling engine system would offer lower fuel consumption, higher electrical and cooling efficiency, lower maintenance, low noise, greater fuel flexibility and lower emissions without the need for expensive exhaust after treatment. An adsorption chiller would eliminate the need for conventional refrigerants and, if appropriately designed, could utilize waste heat from the main truck engine and operate independently of the free-piston Stirling engine. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the important variables governing a Stirlingadsorption system (SAS) are capital cost, fuel cost and chiller COP. Due to the fact that no such system is currently commercially available, there are large uncertainties associated with the values used. Future work will seek to lower these uncertainties through experimental work and more detailed sub-models. * Corresponding author, address: Mechanical design and first test results of an Ericsson engine Alejandro FULA a, Luc DANDO b and Pascal STOUFFS c * a LaTEP, Université de Pau et des Pays de l Adour, IUT, Avenue de l Université, F Pau, France b Ingénieur conseil, Salbaget, route de Montredon, F Alzen, France c LaTEP, Université de Pau et des Pays de l Adour, IUT, Avenue de l Université, F Pau, France The hot air engines family includes two subgroups: the Stirling engines, which have no valves, and the Ericsson engines with valves in order to close the cylinders during the compression or the expansion processes. So, an Ericsson engine is an external heat supply engine working according to a Joule thermodynamic cycle. It is based on reciprocating piston-cylinder machines. Such engines are especially interesting for low power solar energy conversion and micro-chp from conventional fossil fuels or from biomass. A prototype has been designed to work with air in open cycle as the working fluid. The nominal pressure ratio is 3 and the maximum operating temperature is 650 C. The prototype expansion cylinder capacity is 0.65 dm3. The expansion cylinder bore is 80 mm, the piston stroke is 129 mm and the maximum rotation speed is 750 rpm. While designing the prototype, it has been chosen to have a single cylinder with a doubleacting piston. The upper face of the piston closes the expansion space, while the lower face of the piston delimits the compression space. The double-acting piston is connected to a double contra-rotating crankshaft. Different innovative solutions have been introduced in the mechanical design of the prototype. The main difficulty in the design of a high temperature difference Ericsson engine consists in the hot part of the engine with the inlet and exhaust valves of the expansion cylinder. The technology used to guide the valves rods with a high degree of accuracy, the method used to cool different parts of the engine and to cope with differential dilatation are reported. Some preliminary experimental results are presented. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

16 Parametric optimization of a Gamma type Stirling engine Ramla GHEITH a *, Fethi ALOUI b and Sassi BEN NASRALLAH a a Université de Monastir, École Nationale d Ingénieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire LESTE, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar 5019, Monastir, TUNISIE b GEPEA UMR-CNRS 6144, École des Mines de Nantes, Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement, 4 rue Alfred KASTLER BP Nantes Cedex 03 France c Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, ENSIAME, Lab. TEMPO - EA 4542, DF2T, Le Mont Houy Valenciennes Cedex 9, France A gamma Stirling engine using compressed air as a working fluid was experimented. It endures a charge pressure of 10 bar, provide a maximal rotation speed around 600 rpm for a maximum mechanical shaft power of 500W. The purpose of this experimental work is to determine the influencing parameters on a Gamma type Stirling engine heat exchangers. A special care was gives to the engine heat exchangers. The regenerator material and porosity are experimentally determined. Three operation parameters are choosing: heating temperature (300 C 500 C), initial filling pressure (3bar- 8bar) and cooling water flow rate (0.2l/m 3 l/mn). The influence of the previous parameters are presented and explained. All heat exchangers parameters are critical to the performance of the Stirling engine. The regenerator performances are the most significant for the engine. The heating temperature is the parameter that greatly affects performances of heat exchangers. The cooling water flow rate is quite affecting the Cooler but has a slight influence on other exchangers. The initial filling pressure is significant for the regenerator and for the heater. *Corresponding author, address: tel.: New configuration of Medium Temperature Difference (MTD) Free- Piston Stirling Engine for Power Generation Salem GHOZZI a * and Rabah BOUKHANOUF a a Department of Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. This papers describes the design of a low temperature Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE). The design uses a special fabricated bellows as mechanical springs for both the displacer and power piston. The design parameters were modelled using a second-order mathematical models that considering heat and pressure loss in the heat exchangers of the engine. The parts of a prototype model are being manufactured, yet has not been tested waiting for some accessories in request. The computer model shows that the overall thermal efficiency of the engine for a heater head temperature of 300oC will be about 10%. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

17 Assessment of the Performance of IC and Stirling engine based Micro Combine Heat and Power systems in UK residential conditions G. Gkounis a, A. Alexakis a, K. Mahkamov a *, C. Underwood a a Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University at Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK Two mchp units based on Stirling and IC engines, respectively, have been tested under transient and steady state operation conditions. The experimental results obtained on efficiencies, taking into account start-up and run down phases, were used for dynamic thermal simulations of a residential house using EnergyPlus software. A typical semi-detached house with average UK thermal and electric domestic demands was considered in simulations and the economic and ecological advantages over the application of a conventional heating system with a condensing domestic boiler were estimated. The introduction of economic incentives in the form of the government feed-in tariff scheme significantly improved the economical feasibility of the deployment of mchp systems. The analysis carried out also demonstrates that the noticeable reduction in the carbon footprint of the house can be achieved. * Corresponding author, address: tel.: Regenerative Heat to Mechanical Energy Converter with Dense Working Fluid Maxim GLUSHENKOV a, Martin SPRENKELER a and Alexander KRONBERG a * a Encontech B.V. P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Regenerative heat to mechanical energy converter with a dense working fluid is proposed as a simple and economical alternative to state-of-the-art types of heat engines. Being an external combustion engine the converter can use heat sources typical of not only Stirling engines but Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines as well. Various safe and environmentally friendly liquid working fluids such as water or carbon dioxide can be used in the engine. The engine is noiseless and can be fully balanced. The operation of the engine is based on a unique cycle having the same efficiency as the Carnot cycle. The engine has very simple, reliable and inexpensive design. As a result cost per kw of the engine can be much lower compared with that for contemporary Stirling and Rankine engines. The engine is more versatile than any other known prime mover and has very broad application area. *Corresponding author, address: 17

18 Design and building of a Stirling engine for microgeneration as a learning experience for future Industrial Engineers Alvaro GONZALEZ a *, Amaia GOMENDIO a and Jaime GROS c a Mondragon University, Loramendi 4, Mondragón (Gipuzkoa), Spain c Member of the Circe Foundation, Mariano Esquilor Gómez, 15, Zaragoza, Spain The University of Mondragon has developed a Stirling Engine as a way to introduce the students into the Stirling cycle and educate them in industrial engineering. The Polytechnic School of Mondragon implements the PBL (Problem or Project Based Learning) approach [1] during the first semester of the Industrial Engineering Master Degree. This is based on a multidisciplinary project that integrates courses from different areas of knowledge: Thermal and Fluids Engineering, Electric Technology, Energetic Engineering and Industrial Safety. The main objective is to design and build a model of Stirling gamma engine for microgeneration. Students form teams to develop this project, which consists of two main parts: one academic, in which we assess the scientific-technological knowledge competence, and the second which includes a competition that encourages students motivation [2] to reach deep and effective learning [3]. The most efficient engine is the winner which will be displayed in the ISEC 2014 congress showroom. To begin with the project, the theoretical cycle has been analyzed in order to understand properly why the engine works. The following task has been to design and build the Stirling engine in the workshop of the university with the resources provided. This experience has been highly educative as to reach the targeted learning in this PBL [4]. We finally succeeded in building a Stirling engine consisting of a steel cylinder containing a steel displacer and a steel cylinder in which an aluminum piston moves. The final step is to set a series of sensors so that all the working parameters of the engine can be obtained and visualized. In this way, the real working cycle can be calculated, providing a more real comprehension of the engine. At the same time a generator has been connected to the engine s crankshaft to measure the energy which can be generated and therefore its efficiency. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

19 An Optimization Algorithm of Stirling Engine Performance for Low- Grade Heat Recovery Raffaele Davide GORGA a, *, Annarita VIGGIANO a, Emanuele FANELLI b, Giacobbe BRACCIO b and Vinicio MAGI a a School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, viale dell Ateneo Lucano 10, Potenza, ITALY b ENEA,Technical Unit for Trisaia Technologies (UTTri), SS Jonica 106, km ,75026 Rotondella (MT), ITALY This paper deals with the optimization of the performance of Stirling engines for power generation by recovering low-enthalpy sources. A thermodynamic model, together with a Single Objective Genetic Algorithm (SOGA) to optimize the engine performance in terms of efficiency and specific power output, has been employed. The second order Simple Analysis model has been improved by including both heat transfer through the cylinder walls and mechanical losses. The new Improved Simple Analysis (ISA) model has been validated by considering the performance of the GPU-3 engine. The overall accuracy of the simulations is satisfactory with respect to measurements available in the literature. Two cases have been studied with a temperature gap between thermal sources of 80 and 60 K, respectively. The results show that the Gamma configuration is the best choice for the recovery of low-enthalpy energy sources, since it provides, for both cases, a higher specific power output than the other configurations, with a comparable efficiency. The geometry details of the optimal engines are given, thus providing guidance for the engine design. Finally, the engine performance has been analysed by varying the hot source temperature and engine mean pressure. *Corresponding author, address: tel.:

20 How to start researching in thermoacoustics Jaime GROS a a CIRCE, Mariano Esquillor Gomez nº 15, 50018, Zaragoza This paper is intended as technical suggestions to help students starting the research in thermoacoustics. The next step after have produced sound with a glass test tube, an alcohol burner and a rudimentary stack made from steel wool, is frightening thinking in a stainless steel device with 40 bars pressurized helium inside. But it is possible to start researching thermoacoustics with air at atmospheric pressure, using standard cooper fittings, flexible plastic pipes and glass test tubes. Some low cost pressure sensors connected to a cheap microcontroller like Arduino or similar, allow you understand what happened inside your device. To encourage students to make practical devices, a variety of models of standing and traveling wave thermoacoustic engines have been developed and a serial of experiments have been written. In the firsts experiments, drawings and pictures with all the dimensions are given, and easy suggestions allow start to understand what is happend inside. In the following, a complete description of each device is presented in a DeltaEC model, and now the suggestions introduce the way to compare the results of a theoretic model with reality. With manual tools it is possible to build different layout of the engines. For example in the case of a traveling wave thermoacoustic model, making different feedback forms, different thermoacoustic cores and finally using the pressure sensors and a PC connected to the Arduino, it is possible to measure the power wasted in the resonator, the power supplied to a variable RC load and the power circulating in the feedback pipe. With these power measurements the student can optimize the engine and test the behavior of each part of the engine. All of the experiments have been written in English and Spanish and a small video in each one will be uploaded at Youtube. *Corresponding author, address: tel.: The Myth about Dead Volume in Stirling Engines Michael GSCHWENDTNER a, b * and George BELL c a Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, NEW ZEALAND b TS-dot Engineering Limited, Auckland 0604, NEW ZEALAND c Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, NEW ZEALAND The effect of dead volume on the power output and efficiency of an alpha-stirling engine is investigated in the form of an exploratory parameter study using the 3rd order simulation software Sage. This paper aims at identifying the underlying mechanisms in order to better understand the resulting design implications of this phenomenon that is in clear contradiction to what can be found in the literature. It turns out that additional passive dead volume that does not even take part in the heat transfer processes leads to a phase shift of the pressure, resulting in increased pv-work output, especially at lower heat source temperatures. Of even greater significance, dead volume has a positive effect on the efficiency at lower heat source temperatures by reducing the temperature swing in the heat exchangers and by bringing the gas temperatures closer to the wall temperatures of the respective heat exchangers, and thus increasing the effective temperature difference. Furthermore, to a large extent the beneficial effects of dead volume can also be achieved by changing the phase angle. *Corresponding author, address: tel.: (ext. 8079) 20

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