FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES

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1 C A N A L D E E X P E R I E N C I A S H I D R O D I N Á M I C A S, E L P A R D O Publicación núm. 195 FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES POR J. GONZÁLEZ-ADALID G. PÉREZ GÓMEZ M. PÉREZ SOBRINO E. MINGUITO A. GARCÍA J. MASIP R. QUEREDA P. BELTRÁN Ministerio de Defensa MADRID MARZO 2006

2 FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES POR J. GONZÁLEZ-ADALID G. PÉREZ GÓMEZ M. PÉREZ SOBRINO E. MINGUITO A. GARCÍA J. MASIP R. QUEREDA P. BELTRÁN Trabajo presentado en la conferencia World Maritime Technology Conference, WTMC Londres, Reino Unido, Marzo 2006

3 Full scale comparison of a superferry performance fitted with both High skewed and CLT blades G. Pérez Gómez, PhD Naval Architect, and J. González Adalid, BSc Naval Architect SISTEMAR S.A., ES A. García Gómez, PhD Naval Architect, J. Masip Hidalgo, PhD Naval Architect R. Quereda Laviña, PhD Naval Architect, and L. Pangusion, Naval Architect Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas del Pardo, ES E. Minguito Cardeña, BSc Naval Architect NAVANTIA S.A., ES P. Beltrán, PhD Naval Architect, and C. Galindo, BSc Naval Architect TSI S.L., ES M. Pérez Sobrino, PhD Naval Architect Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales, UPM, ES SYNOPSIS The use of CLT propellers has been avoided in many opportunities because of the lack of correlation coefficient knowledge for this type of propellers with end plates. The shipbuilding group IZAR (nowadays NAVANTIA), EL PARDO Model Basin (CEHIPAR) and SISTEMAR, designer of the CLT propellers, have been jointly and intensively cooperating since 1997 with the aim to deduce the necessary empirical know-how to extrapolate, at full scale, model test results with CLT propellers. As a result of this co-operation a specific procedure to extrapolate at full scale model test results with CLT propellers has been developed as well as a new procedure to correctly establish the conditions of cavitation tests. As a further step in the research, CLT blades have been installed on a twin-screw ferry of KW. A very extensive program of model tests and sea trials (including pressure pulses, vibrations and noise measurements) have been carried out to enable the comparison of the ship performances fitted with high skew blades and with CLT blades. The research team in this case has been composed by IZAR, CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR together with the shipping company TRASMEDITERRANEA, owner of the ferry Fortuny used for the research, and the company TSI, responsible of all the full scale measurements of power, noise, vibration and pressure pulses. The CLT blades have reduced significantly the propulsion power, at constant ship speed. These results are indeed in accordance with the extrapolation of model tests. Besides of that, and as a major result, the CLT blades have eliminated the severe hull vibrations and noises appeared during manoeuvring at constant rpm. The aim of this paper is to show the advances obtained in the experimental methodology and the evaluation of the procedures developed in this field as well as to present the results at full scale from the comparative sea trials carried out

4 1. INTRODUCTION It is very well known that since new technological developments are suggested up to their acceptance by the maritime community between twenty and thirty years must be elapsed. In fact this has happened in the case of the tip loaded propellers. The first claims about the potential advantages of tip loaded propellers (TVF propellers) were published in October 1976 in Ingeniería Naval (Ref. 11). Since 1976 tip loaded concept has been evolved continuously. From several years ago the design of tip loaded propellers has been improved due to the reduction at the trailing edge of the diameter of the tip section. So the new generation of SISTEMAR tip loaded propellers has been named CLT propeller (Contracted and Loaded Tip Propeller). Traditional design theories have been generalised (Ref. 1) to enable the design of CLT propellers. But the scale effects which affect to the CLT propellers are not properly evaluated by the ITTC 78 extrapolation procedure and this has been a major obstacle to the implementation of CLT propellers in new ships. Before to decide the installation of a CLT propeller in a new ship for a shipyard it is absolutely necessary to rely in the predictions deduced from the results obtained from model tests, with a similar level of confidence as in the case of a high skewed propeller. For these reasons, AESA, later on IZAR and finally NAVANTIA, sponsored a strong co-operation together with the Spanish Model Basin CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR, with the aim to make feasible for CEHIPAR to extrapolate at full scale the results of model tests with CLT propellers and to carry out cavitation tests with the same level of reliability than in the case of model tests with high skewed propellers. From 1997 an R&D program with several projects has been successfully carried out (Ref. 3, 8, and 9). A new extrapolation procedure for resistance, open water and propulsion tests has been developed, mainly consisting of a different set of correlation factors for the open water test results. Also, and in accordance with the new predictions, a new procedure for testing propellers in cavitation conditions has been developed. The final step in this program has been to validate all these findings with a new case study. IZAR, CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR invited to TRASMEDITERRANEA and TSI to join them for the development of a new and definitive project (Ref. 9) consisting in the comparison, both at model and full scale, of the performance of the super-ferry Fortuny owned by TRASMEDITERRANEA, with their existing high skewed blades and with new ones of CLT type designed by SISTEMAR. The aim of this paper is to present the results and measurements proving that the predictions deduced with the new extrapolation procedure match very well with full scale results. Also the measured pressure pulses at model field are reasonably in accordance with full scale measurements. Not less important is the conclusion of this R&D project that the CLT blades, at constant ship speed, request about 11% less of fuel than the one corresponding to the high skew blades. A small part of this reduction could be associated to the roughness state of the hull surface. But the major effect predicted and checked was that the pressure pulses transmitted to the hull were more favourable, and the vibration problems associated to the high skewed blades in off-design conditions have been completely eliminated by the CLT blades. 2. THE DESIGN OF THE CLT BLADES 2.1 Technical fundaments of CLT propellers The fundamental success of the CLT propeller is to improve the propeller open water efficiency by reducing the hydrodynamic pitch angle, through the reduction of the magnitudes of induced velocities at the propeller disk. In accordance with the new momentum theory, to reduce the magnitude of the induced velocities at the propeller disk it is necessary to reduce the ε coefficient which defines how is obtained the propeller thrust combining the under-pressure (p o -εδp) existing at the suction side of the propeller blades with the overpressure (p o + (1-ε)Δp) existing at the pressure side of the propeller blades

5 As lower is the ε coefficient, lower are the magnitudes of the induced velocities at the propeller disk. To make feasible the existence of great differences between the pressure forces acting on the suction and pressure sides of the propeller blades, it is necessary to place barrier elements (tip plates) at the blade tips and also to resort to use in the design of CLT blades a thrust per unit of radial length distribution monotonously increasing towards the blade tips. The generalised lifting line theory also reaches the same conclusions. All these particulars are clearly explained in Chapter 3 of Ref. 1. A new cascades theory has been developed to define the three-dimensional geometry of any type of propeller. By means of this cascade effect, the ε coefficient of a CLT propeller could be improved being smaller than the one corresponding to an alternative conventional or high skewed propeller. Due to the fact that the working principles of a CLT propeller are quite different than those corresponding to the alternative (same power, same rpm, same blade area ratio, etc.) high skewed propeller, the rules of the classification societies concerning the strength checking are not valid for CLT propellers. So, it was necessary to develop an analytical procedure to calculate the mechanical stresses of the propeller blades annular sections that has been approved by most of the classification societies. Of course, a procedure to predict the cavitation extension in each blade annular section to complete the design exercise has been also developed. 2.2 Design of CLT blades for the case study The first step to elaborate the constructive drawings for the CLT blades of the Super-Ferry Fortuny was the realisation of a preliminary design to define the main characteristics of the new blades and to estimate the ship performance alternatively fitted with the original high skewed blades and the new CLT blades. The preliminary design is carried out by means of the New Momentum Theory and the equivalent profile theory. Both the ship advance resistance and the propulsive coefficients used for the calculations have been derived from the results of model tests carried out by CEHIPAR. Fig.1. Geometry of high skewed blades of M/V Fortuny The blade flange of the CLT blades must be the same than the one of the high skewed blades just to assure its correct installation on the propeller hub that remains so without any modification due to the change of blades. The design of the CLT blades for M/V Fortuny has been done using a new mean line developed by SISTEMAR to define the three-dimensional geometry of the propeller blades annular sections (Ref. 7). Such type of mean lines was deeply studied and tested in R&D project (ref. 8). It was proved that the new mean line improves the propeller open water efficiency and originates a lower cavitation extension on the suction side of the propeller blades. This is due to the fact that their associated ε coefficient is lower for the same radial distribution of the thrust per unit of length. The detailed design was performed using the New Momentum Theory taking into account the wake field deduced from model tests and duly extrapolated to full scale

6 The main characteristics of the CLT blades are included in Table I. Main characteristics of the high skewed blades are also included in Table I for comparison purposes and its geometry is shown in Fig. 1. Table I. Main characteristics of high skewed and CLT blades of M/V Fortuny CLT HIGH SKEWED Diameter (m) 4,368 4,600 Blade area ratio 0,520 0,714 Geometrical pitch angle at 0.7R 26,60 25,58 As it can be deduced from the content of Table I both the diameter and the blade area ratio of the CLT blades are lower than those of the high skewed blades. As a consequence, the GD 2 value of both types of blades is quite similar and therefore it was not necessary to introduce any modification on the shaft line for the installation of the new blades. Both the camber and the geometrical pitch of the blade annular sections are obtained by means of the new cascades theory. The geometry of the CLT blades is shown in Fig. 2. Fig.2. Geometry of CLT blades of M/V Fortuny The strength checking is made through direct calculation of analytical nature because the rules of the classification societies are not valid for CLT propellers. The Von Misses combined stresses are calculated for all the annular sections. The skew radial distribution has been analysed with the aim to minimize the spindle torque that the blades exert on the pitch setting mechanism and so avoiding an increase of the hydraulic pressure in the system. The cavitation performance has been analysed numerically and it is deduced that with the CLT blades there is not risk of bubble cavitation and there is a moderate development of sheet cavitation in spite of the low blade area ratio used for the design. From Fig. 2 it can be deduced that the geometrical pitch distribution of the CLT blades annular sections increases monotonously from the blade root to the tip section where there is a maximum. This geometrical pitch distribution is very much different from the one of the high skewed blades (see Fig. 1) that increases from the blade root section up to section 0.65 approximately and then reduces up to the tip section unloading very much the upper sections of the blade with the aim to avoid the excitation of pressure pulses. In off-design conditions, for a reduction of pitch operating at constant revolution rate, the tip section of the high skewed blades becomes very much unloaded and hence the upper sections of the blades are given a negative thrust while the lower sections of the blades are given a positive thrust. As a result, the efficiency of the high skewed blades in off-design condition decreases very much

7 This is not the case for the CLT blades because for a similar reduction in pitch the loading of the tip sections is much higher than in the case of the alternative high skewed blades and therefore there is not a significant detrimental effect on the propeller open water efficiency, as it was checked both at model field and at full scale with the trials carried out with M/V Fortuny. 3. EXTRAPOLATION TO FULL SCALE OF MODEL TEST RESULTS OF SUPERFERRY FORTUNY 3.1 Model test results with high skewed blades and extrapolation to full scale A set of resistance, open water and self propulsion tests has been carried out by CEHIPAR, previous to the sea trials with high skewed and CLT blades. In the case of the high skewed propeller, the model results of the open water and self-propulsion tests was extrapolated to full scale applying the ITTC-78 method, with the following correlation factors: Form factor, k = 0.277; ΔCf = 0.369; Caa = Three different pitch settings were used to perform the tests: H/D 1 = 1.083; H/D 2 = 1.020; H/D 3 = Figure 3 shows the results of the open water characteristics Kt; 10Kq; ETA0 OPEN WATER TESTS J H/D1 H/D2 H/D3 "" Fig.3. Open water characteristics of high skewed propellers The values of ΔKt and ΔKq to extrapolate these experimental results to full scale were calculated according with the formulae proposed by ITTC-78. The results of the self-propulsion tests carried out with the high skewed blades are shown in Fig. 4. BHP CV HIGH SKEWED PROPELLERS V knots Fig.4. Self-propulsion tests results for high skewed propellers H/D1 H/D2 H/D3 3.2 Model test results with CLT blades and extrapolation to full scale Fig. 5 shows the experimental results of the open water propeller tests carried out with CLT blades for three different pitch ratios used to perform the self-propulsion tests

8 H/D 1 = 1.108; H/D 2 = 1.117; H/D 3 = Kt; 10Kq; ETA0 OPEN WATER TESTS CLT J H/D(CLT)1 H/D(CLT)2 H/D(CLT)3 Fig.5. Open water characteristics of CLT propellers In the case of the CLT blades, the extrapolation of open water propeller tests was carried out according with the procedure explained in reference 8. The results of the self-propulsion tests carried out with CLT blades are shown in Fig. 6. The correlation factors used in these tests were the same as in the case of the tests carried out with high skewed blades. BHP CV CLT PROPELLERS V knots H/D1CLT H/D2CLT H/D3CLT Fig.6. Self-propulsion tests results for CLT propellers For the nominal pitch design of both types of propellers, the full scale power prediction can be compared in Fig. 7: PROPELLERS CLT vs HIGH SKEWED BHP CV V knots H/D1CLT H/D1 HSKEWED Fig.7. Full scale power prediction for high skewed and CLT propellers As can be seen in Fig. 7, at constant delivered power the speed predicted for the CLT blades is higher than for the high skewed ones. It means that there exits a considerable energy saving at constant ship speed. As a consequence the CLT blades design was considered advantageous with respect to the high skewed blades from the point of view of the propulsion efficiency

9 4. PRESSURE PULSES PRODUCED BY HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES 4.1 Extrapolation to full scale of model test results with high skewed blades A set of cavitation observations and pressure fluctuation tests have been carried out with high skewed and CLT propellers. Pressure transducers have been situated in a flat plane according to Fig. 22. Port model propeller was used in all cavitation tests except in the case of test nº In this test starboard model propeller was tested. The tests for the high skewed propeller were conducted at two different pitch settings. H0.7/D = H0.7/D = Figures 8 and 9 show the test results for the high skewed propeller at design pitch. H0.7/D = Fig.8. Cavitation pattern of high skewed blades at design pitch Fig. 9. Pressure pulses of high skewed blades at design pitch Fig. 10 shows the test results for the high skewed propeller at low pitch setting. H0.7/D =

10 Fig.10. Cavitation results of high skewed blades at low pitch setting 4.2 Extrapolation to full scale of model test results with CLT blades The CLT propeller was tested in four different conditions at the design pitch position, H0.7/D = 1.108, and in one condition at the pitch H0.7/D = where no cavitation was observed on the CLT blades. The most significant results can be seen in Figure 11. H0.7/D = Fig.11. Cavitation results of CLT blades at design pitch. Test

11 Test KT = Sigma n = H0.7/D = Fig.12. Pressure pulses for CLT blades at low pitch setting 4.3 Comparison of test results of high skewed blades and CLT blades At design pitch the pressure pulses corresponding to the first harmonic of the CLT blades are higher than those measured with the high skewed propeller. The amplitudes of the first harmonic measured with the CLT model tests, are higher at the transducers 1 and 2, due mainly to the cavitation phenomena observed at the outer part of the end plate which is a difficult area of mechanization at model scale. The cavitation observations on the high skewed propeller model, corresponding to the low pitch, test nº Cav, reveals face cavitation in all propeller disk positions. There is not much extension of the phenomena, but cloud cavitation is present in more than half of the positions of the propeller disk. Tip vortex and sheet root cavitation appear in all the propeller disk positions. At the same condition no cavitation was present on the CLT propeller blades, test nº 4502-Cav, low pitch. The amplitudes of the first harmonic at the low pitch condition are rather small, although are higher for the CLT propeller. The amplitudes of the second, third and fourth harmonic are higher for the high skewed propeller than for the CLT blades. Further to the peaks of the amplitudes at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, there appears a broad band excitation, as it can be seen in figure 13, at the pressure spectrum of the high skewed propeller at the low pitch condition, mainly present at frequencies higher than the second harmonic. The origin of this broad band excitation may be the tip vortex and also other cavitation phenomena observed at model tests. These intermediate frequency amplitudes which appear between the blade passing frequency and their multiples could be dangerous due to the fact that this broad band frequency may increase considerably the vibration and structural noise. A pressure spectrum of the high skewed propeller model at the low pitch conditions is shown in figure 13 (blade passing frequency 68 Hz). A pressure spectrum of the CLT propeller for the same pitch is shown in figure 14 (blade passing frequency 70 Hz). Fig.13. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, high skewed Fig.14. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, CLT - 9 -

12 Figures 15 and 16 are a zoom of figures 13 and 14, in the corresponding frequencies between second and third harmonics. Fig.15. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, high skewed, expanded Fig.16. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, CLT, expanded 5 COMPARISON BETWEEN SPEED TRIAL RESULTS WITH HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES. 5.1 Main characteristics of super ferry Fortuny Fig.17. Lpp =157.0 m; B= 26.2 m; Tm = 5.8 m 5.2 Speed trial results with high skewed blades. On February 3 rd, 2005 preliminary sea trials with the high skewed blade propellers were performed near to Barcelona. The significant wave height was ranging from 1.5m to 0.5m and the wind velocity from 13 to 1 knot. Water depth under keel was always over 200m. The draught was practically the same than in the towing tank experimental program. The corrections of the trials data to obtain ideal conditions have been carried out with MARIS program, developed by CEHIPAR with occasion of the R&D project of ref. 3. Table II shows the results of measurements during trials, the corrections for differences between the existing conditions of sea state and wind during trials and the ideal ones

13 SHIP...: PROP...: FORTUNY HIGH SKEW Table II. Sea trials corrections for high skewed propellers TRIALS DATA CORRECTIONS IDEAL CONDITIONS Speed Power V wind V waves V rudder V courr. V deep Speed Pd RPM (nudos) (C.V.) nudos nudos Nudos nudos nudos (nudos) (C.V.) Speed trial results with CLT blades. On April 25 th, 2005, after dry docking a new set of sea trials with the CLT blade propellers was performed near to Valencia. The significant wave height was ranging from 0.8m to 0.3m and the wind velocity was in the range of 20 knots. Water depth under keel was always over 150m. The load condition of the ship corresponded to the same draught than in the sea trials with the high skewed propeller. Table III shows the results of measurements during trials, the corrections for differences between the existing conditions of sea state and wind during trials and the ideal ones. SHIP...: PROP...: FORTUNY CLT Table III. Sea trials corrections for CLT propellers TRIALS DATA CORRECTIONS IDEAL CONDITIONS Speed Power DV wind DV waves DV rudder DV courr. DV deep Speed Pd RPM (nudos) (C.V.) nudos nudos Nudos nudos nudos (nudos) (C.V.) Comparison between the speed-power curves corresponding to high skewed and CLT blades. Figure 18 shows the comparison between sea trials corrected for ideal conditions and self-propulsion tests predictions for the high skewed propeller. All the points correspond to a rate of rotation of rpm HIGH SKEWED PROPELLER TESTS vs TRIALS Ps CV TESTS TRIALS V knots Fig.18. Sea trials and tests predictions for high skewed propellers

14 Fig. 19 shows the results of the corrected values of the sea trials carried out with CLT propeller and the results of the predictions for full scale from the self-propulsion tests. CLT PROPELLER TRIALS vs TESTS Ps CV V knots TRIALS TESTS Fig.19. Sea trials and tests predictions for CLT propellers In the case of CLT blades the test results predictions agree very well with the measurements during sea trials. This agreement validates the extrapolation procedure developed for the open water test carried out with CLT propellers. For the high skewed propeller the predictions are slightly optimists with respect to the results obtained during sea trials. This deviation can be explained because the sea trials with high skewed propeller were carried out before dry docking and hence an increase of hull resistance due to roughness not taken into account may exist. Taking this consideration in mind, the results of sea trials with both propellers is shown in Fig. 20: Ps CV SEA TRIALS OF HIGH SKEWED & CLT BLADES CLT 5000 HIGH SKEWED V knots Fig.20. Sea trials comparison between high skewed and CLT propellers Table IV shows the power economy of the CLT blades obtained from the potential regression lines of the sea trial results. Table IV. Sea trials comparison between high skewed and CLT propellers HIGH SKEWED CLT CLT saving V Ps Ps knots CV CV %

15 The percentages of power saving given in the Table IV have not been corrected due to the possible hull roughness effects and therefore the advantage of CLT over the skewed propeller should be slightly lower. Nevertheless the better efficiency of the CLT blades obtained at sea trials agrees very well with the expected results obtained from the test predictions (see Fig. 7). Fig. 21 is a picture of the CLT blades installed in the propellers hubs of the M/V Fortuny. Fig.21. CLT propellers installed in M/V FORTUNY 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN FULL SCALE VIBRATION AND NOISE LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES. 6.1 Description of the equipment used during full scale measurements Prior to the onboard measurements, a protocol was established focussing in those areas with higher vibration and noise values that were previously measured during delivery trials of the vessel. In the steering gear room the vibration level was continuously monitored and recorded by means of data acquisition system. In the rest of hull structure the measurements was performed by means of data collector. The sound pressure levels in the steering gear room was continuously monitored and registered at different pitch settings and conditions, and in those cabins with high values reported by the owner, measurements were done by means of a soundmeter at different load and conditions. Both measures, noise and vibrations, were done and evaluated with High skewed and CLT Blades according to the ISO 6954:1984 and IMO A.468 XII. The pressure pulses measurements at full scale just for the CLT blades and their correlation with the results obtained in the model tests is one of the challenges of this project. For the measurement of the pressure pulses a general arrangement of 17 pressure transducers was prepared according to the previous arrangement established by CEHIPAR during model tests. The installation shown in Fig. 22 was approved by the Classification Society

16 Fig.22. Pressure transducer position and arrangement 6.2 Results of vibrations and noise levels spectra corresponding to high skewed blades and CLT blades The vibration and noise tests protocol included two different running conditions: Constant RPM and Combinator Mode. The vibration and noise levels were evaluated according to ISO6954:1984 and IMO A.468 XII. The limits established by the ISO 6954:1984 standard is: Good vibration level< 4 mm/s 0-p Acceptable vibration level >4 mm/s 0-p and < 9 mm/s 0-p Severe vibration level >9 mm/s 0-p For the constant RPM condition the vibration level obtained in the steering gear room with high skewed blades was severe, and acceptable in other decks according to the ISO standard. In combinator mode the vibration level in the vessel structure when running with high skewed blades is considered acceptable according to the same standard. The values obtained during the trials with CLT blades show that vibration levels for lower pitch settings P4, P5, and P6 have been drastically reduced, and are very similar for the rest of pitch settings P7, P8, P9 and P10 when running in constant RPM condition, in spite of ship speed and propeller thrust were higher than in the case of high skewed blades. Fig. 23 and 24 show the vibration level summary for Constant RPM Mode with both blades at different conditions (P10 -light grey, P9 grey and P4 white) VIBRATION LEVELS- RPM MODE HIGH SKEWED BLADES (significative points) mm/s 8.00 P10 P9 P V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V T L V STERING GEAR ROOM CUBIERTA 7 CUBIERTA 8 CUBIERTA 9 Fig.23. Constant RPM Mode vibration levels, HIGH SKEWED blades

17 VIBRATION LEVELS- RPM MODE CLT BLADES (significative points) mm/s 8.00 P10 P9 P V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V T L V STERING GEAR ROOM CUBIERTA 7 CUBIERTA 8 CUBIERTA 9 Fig.24. Constant RPM Mode vibration levels, CLT blades The noise levels measurements show a very similar behaviour as the vibration results described, being drastically reduced by CLT blades when running in constant RPM mode and at low pitch settings P4, P5 and P6. See Fig. 25. NOISE LEVEL - CONSTANT RMP MODE HIGH SKEWEED BLADE NOISE LEVEL CONSTANT RMP MODE CLT BLADE IMO A.468 SALA IMO A.468 SALA db( A) IMO A.468 IMO A.468 LS1 LS2 LS3 C7 1 C7 2 C7 3 C7 4 C7 5 C7 6 C7 7 C7 8 C8 1 db(a) IMO A.468 CUBIERTAS IMO A.468 CAMAROTES LS1 LS2 LS3 C7 1 C7 2 C7 3 C7 4 C7 5 C7 6 C7 7 C7 8 C P10 P9 P8* P7 P6 P5* P4 0 PALANCA P10 P9 P8* P7 P6 P5* P4 PALANCA Fig.25. Noise levels High Skewed and CLT blades. 6.3 Results of pressure pulses measurements for CLT blades Figure 26 shows the dynamic pressure signal and the corresponding spectra obtained from the pressure transducer number 1 together with the tachometer signal (time domain and frequency domain). There can be seen the number of pressure pulses in one rpm and the energy spectrum; the 1XBPF (Blade Pass Frequency) and 2XBFP are the most important harmonics F B 1:P1:+Z 16:TACOBR Pa Real Amplitude V Pa Amplitude Amplitude s Hz Fig.26. Pressure pulse signal and spectrum

18 Fig. 27 shows the 1XBPF harmonic versus the power in the port side propeller in the mode of constant RPM. Similar results were obtained for combinator mode and for the rest of harmonic components. EVOLUCION 1xBFP PRESSURE PULSES - CONSTANT RPMMODE CLT BLADE P1 PRESSURE (Pa-0-PEAK) P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P POWER (kw) Fig.27. 1XBPF as function of Shaft Power - Constant RPM mode 6.4. Trends of pressure pulses measurements at model field and full scale. 1. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse First Harmonic 1XBPF shows a constant increment with the power. 2. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse Second Harmonic 2XBPF shows a maximum value at medium power values around 8000 KW. 3. The rest of spectra harmonics are much lower and not so relevant for the pressure pulse amplitude. 4. First Harmonic 1XBPF blade passing frequency amplitudes measured by 11 transducers fitted on the stern above port propeller agree very well with the values measured at the cavitation tunnel. There is also agreement in the dynamic Force computed by integration, with its own phase, over the stern above port propeller. 5. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse Second Harmonic 2XBPF shows a larger scatter in the correlation between predicted and obtained values. The same happen with the dynamic force computed by integration derived from second harmonic. 6. The rest of spectra harmonics are much lower and not so relevant for the pressure pulse correlation between model and full scale. 7. CONCLUSIONS 1. The knowledge gained in several R&D projects has been validated with the retrofitting of the blades of the propellers of the ship FORTUNY. 2. CLT blades reduce the required power with high skewed blades close to 11% at constant ship speed. The performance of the high skewed propellers in the speed trials is about 2-3% more pessimistic than model tests predictions made by ITTC 78 method. Such difference could be explained by the existing hull roughness after 20 months drydocking period

19 3. Sea trials results confirm the validation of the new full scale extrapolation procedure developed for model tests with CLT propellers. This method has the same level of accuracy than the extrapolation of tests carried out with conventional or high skewed propellers. 4. Vibration levels measured onboard with both high skewed and CLT propeller blades working at constant rpm and absorbing over 70% MCR is about the same in spite of higher thrust delivered by CLT blades. 5. CLT vibration levels for a typical Ferry harbour approach, with propellers in off-design condition (low pitch setting), when absorbing about 40% MCR at nominal rpm is much lower. The broad band excitation problem produced by the high skewed blades working in that condition has been solved by fitting CLT blades, which are free of pressure side cavitation. 6. CLT propellers are useful for energy saving and to improve pressure pulse patterns, mainly in the case of off-design conditions, were conventional or high skew blades of loaded propellers usually produce a broad band pressure spectrum which make impossible the reduction of induced vibrations and noise. LIST OF REFERENCES 1. G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Detailed Design of Ship Propellers. Book edited by FEIN (Fondo Editorial de Ingeniería Naval), Madrid G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Scale effects in the performance of a CLT propeller. The Naval Architect, July/August M. PEREZ SOBRINO; J.A. ALAEZ ZAZURCA; A. GARCIA GOMEZ; G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Optimización de la propulsión de buques. Un proyecto español de I+D, XXXVI Technical Sesions of Ingeniería Naval. Cartagena, 25 th and 26 th of November G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Tip Loaded Propellers (CLT). Justification of their advantages over high skewed propellers using the New Momentum Theory. SNAME New York Metropolitan Section, Fiftieth Anniversary , 11 th February 1993 and also at International Shipbuilding Progress nº 429, R. QUEREDA. Cavitación en propulsores marinos. Rotación, August J. MASIP HIDALGO; R. QUEREDA LAVIÑA; L. PANGUSION CIGALES. An erosion prediction due to cavitation applied to the erosion damage measured on a ship propeller and results obtained at the cavitation tunnel. Proceedings Third International Symposium on Cavitation. Grenoble, April G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Nuevo procedimiento para definir la geometría de las líneas medias de las secciones anulares de las palas de una hélice. Ingeniería Naval, September and December M. PEREZ SOBRINO; E. MINGUITO CARDEÑA; A. GARCIA GOMEZ; J. MASIP HIDALGO; R. QUEREDA LAVIÑA; L. PANGUSION CIDALES; G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Scale Effects in Model Tests with CLT Propellers. 27th Motor Ship Marine Propulsión Conference. Bilbao, Spain, 27th-28th January CLT: A Proven Propeller for Efficient Ships. Supplement of the Naval Architect, July/August 2005 issue. 10. G. PEREZ GOMEZ; A. SOUTO IGLESIAS; C. LOPEZ PAVON; LOUIS DELORME; D. GONZALEZ PASTOR. Corrección y recuperación de la teoría de Goldstein para el proyecto de hélices. Ingeniería Naval, November G. PEREZ GOMEZ. Una innovación en el proyecto de hélices. Ingeniería Naval, October

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