FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES"

Transcription

1 C A N A L D E E X P E R I E N C I A S H I D R O D I N Á M I C A S, E L P A R D O Publicación núm. 195 FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES POR J. GONZÁLEZ-ADALID G. PÉREZ GÓMEZ M. PÉREZ SOBRINO E. MINGUITO A. GARCÍA J. MASIP R. QUEREDA P. BELTRÁN Ministerio de Defensa MADRID MARZO 2006

2 FULL SCALE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCES OF A SUPERFERRY FITTED CONSECUTIVELY WITH HIGH SKEW CONVENTIONAL BLADES AND CLT BLADES POR J. GONZÁLEZ-ADALID G. PÉREZ GÓMEZ M. PÉREZ SOBRINO E. MINGUITO A. GARCÍA J. MASIP R. QUEREDA P. BELTRÁN Trabajo presentado en la conferencia World Maritime Technology Conference, WTMC Londres, Reino Unido, Marzo 2006

3 Full scale comparison of a superferry performance fitted with both High skewed and CLT blades G. Pérez Gómez, PhD Naval Architect, and J. González Adalid, BSc Naval Architect SISTEMAR S.A., ES A. García Gómez, PhD Naval Architect, J. Masip Hidalgo, PhD Naval Architect R. Quereda Laviña, PhD Naval Architect, and L. Pangusion, Naval Architect Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas del Pardo, ES E. Minguito Cardeña, BSc Naval Architect NAVANTIA S.A., ES P. Beltrán, PhD Naval Architect, and C. Galindo, BSc Naval Architect TSI S.L., ES M. Pérez Sobrino, PhD Naval Architect Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales, UPM, ES SYNOPSIS The use of CLT propellers has been avoided in many opportunities because of the lack of correlation coefficient knowledge for this type of propellers with end plates. The shipbuilding group IZAR (nowadays NAVANTIA), EL PARDO Model Basin (CEHIPAR) and SISTEMAR, designer of the CLT propellers, have been jointly and intensively cooperating since 1997 with the aim to deduce the necessary empirical know-how to extrapolate, at full scale, model test results with CLT propellers. As a result of this co-operation a specific procedure to extrapolate at full scale model test results with CLT propellers has been developed as well as a new procedure to correctly establish the conditions of cavitation tests. As a further step in the research, CLT blades have been installed on a twin-screw ferry of KW. A very extensive program of model tests and sea trials (including pressure pulses, vibrations and noise measurements) have been carried out to enable the comparison of the ship performances fitted with high skew blades and with CLT blades. The research team in this case has been composed by IZAR, CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR together with the shipping company TRASMEDITERRANEA, owner of the ferry Fortuny used for the research, and the company TSI, responsible of all the full scale measurements of power, noise, vibration and pressure pulses. The CLT blades have reduced significantly the propulsion power, at constant ship speed. These results are indeed in accordance with the extrapolation of model tests. Besides of that, and as a major result, the CLT blades have eliminated the severe hull vibrations and noises appeared during manoeuvring at constant rpm. The aim of this paper is to show the advances obtained in the experimental methodology and the evaluation of the procedures developed in this field as well as to present the results at full scale from the comparative sea trials carried out

4 1. INTRODUCTION It is very well known that since new technological developments are suggested up to their acceptance by the maritime community between twenty and thirty years must be elapsed. In fact this has happened in the case of the tip loaded propellers. The first claims about the potential advantages of tip loaded propellers (TVF propellers) were published in October 1976 in Ingeniería Naval (Ref. 11). Since 1976 tip loaded concept has been evolved continuously. From several years ago the design of tip loaded propellers has been improved due to the reduction at the trailing edge of the diameter of the tip section. So the new generation of SISTEMAR tip loaded propellers has been named CLT propeller (Contracted and Loaded Tip Propeller). Traditional design theories have been generalised (Ref. 1) to enable the design of CLT propellers. But the scale effects which affect to the CLT propellers are not properly evaluated by the ITTC 78 extrapolation procedure and this has been a major obstacle to the implementation of CLT propellers in new ships. Before to decide the installation of a CLT propeller in a new ship for a shipyard it is absolutely necessary to rely in the predictions deduced from the results obtained from model tests, with a similar level of confidence as in the case of a high skewed propeller. For these reasons, AESA, later on IZAR and finally NAVANTIA, sponsored a strong co-operation together with the Spanish Model Basin CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR, with the aim to make feasible for CEHIPAR to extrapolate at full scale the results of model tests with CLT propellers and to carry out cavitation tests with the same level of reliability than in the case of model tests with high skewed propellers. From 1997 an R&D program with several projects has been successfully carried out (Ref. 3, 8, and 9). A new extrapolation procedure for resistance, open water and propulsion tests has been developed, mainly consisting of a different set of correlation factors for the open water test results. Also, and in accordance with the new predictions, a new procedure for testing propellers in cavitation conditions has been developed. The final step in this program has been to validate all these findings with a new case study. IZAR, CEHIPAR and SISTEMAR invited to TRASMEDITERRANEA and TSI to join them for the development of a new and definitive project (Ref. 9) consisting in the comparison, both at model and full scale, of the performance of the super-ferry Fortuny owned by TRASMEDITERRANEA, with their existing high skewed blades and with new ones of CLT type designed by SISTEMAR. The aim of this paper is to present the results and measurements proving that the predictions deduced with the new extrapolation procedure match very well with full scale results. Also the measured pressure pulses at model field are reasonably in accordance with full scale measurements. Not less important is the conclusion of this R&D project that the CLT blades, at constant ship speed, request about 11% less of fuel than the one corresponding to the high skew blades. A small part of this reduction could be associated to the roughness state of the hull surface. But the major effect predicted and checked was that the pressure pulses transmitted to the hull were more favourable, and the vibration problems associated to the high skewed blades in off-design conditions have been completely eliminated by the CLT blades. 2. THE DESIGN OF THE CLT BLADES 2.1 Technical fundaments of CLT propellers The fundamental success of the CLT propeller is to improve the propeller open water efficiency by reducing the hydrodynamic pitch angle, through the reduction of the magnitudes of induced velocities at the propeller disk. In accordance with the new momentum theory, to reduce the magnitude of the induced velocities at the propeller disk it is necessary to reduce the ε coefficient which defines how is obtained the propeller thrust combining the under-pressure (p o -εδp) existing at the suction side of the propeller blades with the overpressure (p o + (1-ε)Δp) existing at the pressure side of the propeller blades

5 As lower is the ε coefficient, lower are the magnitudes of the induced velocities at the propeller disk. To make feasible the existence of great differences between the pressure forces acting on the suction and pressure sides of the propeller blades, it is necessary to place barrier elements (tip plates) at the blade tips and also to resort to use in the design of CLT blades a thrust per unit of radial length distribution monotonously increasing towards the blade tips. The generalised lifting line theory also reaches the same conclusions. All these particulars are clearly explained in Chapter 3 of Ref. 1. A new cascades theory has been developed to define the three-dimensional geometry of any type of propeller. By means of this cascade effect, the ε coefficient of a CLT propeller could be improved being smaller than the one corresponding to an alternative conventional or high skewed propeller. Due to the fact that the working principles of a CLT propeller are quite different than those corresponding to the alternative (same power, same rpm, same blade area ratio, etc.) high skewed propeller, the rules of the classification societies concerning the strength checking are not valid for CLT propellers. So, it was necessary to develop an analytical procedure to calculate the mechanical stresses of the propeller blades annular sections that has been approved by most of the classification societies. Of course, a procedure to predict the cavitation extension in each blade annular section to complete the design exercise has been also developed. 2.2 Design of CLT blades for the case study The first step to elaborate the constructive drawings for the CLT blades of the Super-Ferry Fortuny was the realisation of a preliminary design to define the main characteristics of the new blades and to estimate the ship performance alternatively fitted with the original high skewed blades and the new CLT blades. The preliminary design is carried out by means of the New Momentum Theory and the equivalent profile theory. Both the ship advance resistance and the propulsive coefficients used for the calculations have been derived from the results of model tests carried out by CEHIPAR. Fig.1. Geometry of high skewed blades of M/V Fortuny The blade flange of the CLT blades must be the same than the one of the high skewed blades just to assure its correct installation on the propeller hub that remains so without any modification due to the change of blades. The design of the CLT blades for M/V Fortuny has been done using a new mean line developed by SISTEMAR to define the three-dimensional geometry of the propeller blades annular sections (Ref. 7). Such type of mean lines was deeply studied and tested in R&D project (ref. 8). It was proved that the new mean line improves the propeller open water efficiency and originates a lower cavitation extension on the suction side of the propeller blades. This is due to the fact that their associated ε coefficient is lower for the same radial distribution of the thrust per unit of length. The detailed design was performed using the New Momentum Theory taking into account the wake field deduced from model tests and duly extrapolated to full scale

6 The main characteristics of the CLT blades are included in Table I. Main characteristics of the high skewed blades are also included in Table I for comparison purposes and its geometry is shown in Fig. 1. Table I. Main characteristics of high skewed and CLT blades of M/V Fortuny CLT HIGH SKEWED Diameter (m) 4,368 4,600 Blade area ratio 0,520 0,714 Geometrical pitch angle at 0.7R 26,60 25,58 As it can be deduced from the content of Table I both the diameter and the blade area ratio of the CLT blades are lower than those of the high skewed blades. As a consequence, the GD 2 value of both types of blades is quite similar and therefore it was not necessary to introduce any modification on the shaft line for the installation of the new blades. Both the camber and the geometrical pitch of the blade annular sections are obtained by means of the new cascades theory. The geometry of the CLT blades is shown in Fig. 2. Fig.2. Geometry of CLT blades of M/V Fortuny The strength checking is made through direct calculation of analytical nature because the rules of the classification societies are not valid for CLT propellers. The Von Misses combined stresses are calculated for all the annular sections. The skew radial distribution has been analysed with the aim to minimize the spindle torque that the blades exert on the pitch setting mechanism and so avoiding an increase of the hydraulic pressure in the system. The cavitation performance has been analysed numerically and it is deduced that with the CLT blades there is not risk of bubble cavitation and there is a moderate development of sheet cavitation in spite of the low blade area ratio used for the design. From Fig. 2 it can be deduced that the geometrical pitch distribution of the CLT blades annular sections increases monotonously from the blade root to the tip section where there is a maximum. This geometrical pitch distribution is very much different from the one of the high skewed blades (see Fig. 1) that increases from the blade root section up to section 0.65 approximately and then reduces up to the tip section unloading very much the upper sections of the blade with the aim to avoid the excitation of pressure pulses. In off-design conditions, for a reduction of pitch operating at constant revolution rate, the tip section of the high skewed blades becomes very much unloaded and hence the upper sections of the blades are given a negative thrust while the lower sections of the blades are given a positive thrust. As a result, the efficiency of the high skewed blades in off-design condition decreases very much

7 This is not the case for the CLT blades because for a similar reduction in pitch the loading of the tip sections is much higher than in the case of the alternative high skewed blades and therefore there is not a significant detrimental effect on the propeller open water efficiency, as it was checked both at model field and at full scale with the trials carried out with M/V Fortuny. 3. EXTRAPOLATION TO FULL SCALE OF MODEL TEST RESULTS OF SUPERFERRY FORTUNY 3.1 Model test results with high skewed blades and extrapolation to full scale A set of resistance, open water and self propulsion tests has been carried out by CEHIPAR, previous to the sea trials with high skewed and CLT blades. In the case of the high skewed propeller, the model results of the open water and self-propulsion tests was extrapolated to full scale applying the ITTC-78 method, with the following correlation factors: Form factor, k = 0.277; ΔCf = 0.369; Caa = Three different pitch settings were used to perform the tests: H/D 1 = 1.083; H/D 2 = 1.020; H/D 3 = Figure 3 shows the results of the open water characteristics Kt; 10Kq; ETA0 OPEN WATER TESTS J H/D1 H/D2 H/D3 "" Fig.3. Open water characteristics of high skewed propellers The values of ΔKt and ΔKq to extrapolate these experimental results to full scale were calculated according with the formulae proposed by ITTC-78. The results of the self-propulsion tests carried out with the high skewed blades are shown in Fig. 4. BHP CV HIGH SKEWED PROPELLERS V knots Fig.4. Self-propulsion tests results for high skewed propellers H/D1 H/D2 H/D3 3.2 Model test results with CLT blades and extrapolation to full scale Fig. 5 shows the experimental results of the open water propeller tests carried out with CLT blades for three different pitch ratios used to perform the self-propulsion tests

8 H/D 1 = 1.108; H/D 2 = 1.117; H/D 3 = Kt; 10Kq; ETA0 OPEN WATER TESTS CLT J H/D(CLT)1 H/D(CLT)2 H/D(CLT)3 Fig.5. Open water characteristics of CLT propellers In the case of the CLT blades, the extrapolation of open water propeller tests was carried out according with the procedure explained in reference 8. The results of the self-propulsion tests carried out with CLT blades are shown in Fig. 6. The correlation factors used in these tests were the same as in the case of the tests carried out with high skewed blades. BHP CV CLT PROPELLERS V knots H/D1CLT H/D2CLT H/D3CLT Fig.6. Self-propulsion tests results for CLT propellers For the nominal pitch design of both types of propellers, the full scale power prediction can be compared in Fig. 7: PROPELLERS CLT vs HIGH SKEWED BHP CV V knots H/D1CLT H/D1 HSKEWED Fig.7. Full scale power prediction for high skewed and CLT propellers As can be seen in Fig. 7, at constant delivered power the speed predicted for the CLT blades is higher than for the high skewed ones. It means that there exits a considerable energy saving at constant ship speed. As a consequence the CLT blades design was considered advantageous with respect to the high skewed blades from the point of view of the propulsion efficiency

9 4. PRESSURE PULSES PRODUCED BY HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES 4.1 Extrapolation to full scale of model test results with high skewed blades A set of cavitation observations and pressure fluctuation tests have been carried out with high skewed and CLT propellers. Pressure transducers have been situated in a flat plane according to Fig. 22. Port model propeller was used in all cavitation tests except in the case of test nº In this test starboard model propeller was tested. The tests for the high skewed propeller were conducted at two different pitch settings. H0.7/D = H0.7/D = Figures 8 and 9 show the test results for the high skewed propeller at design pitch. H0.7/D = Fig.8. Cavitation pattern of high skewed blades at design pitch Fig. 9. Pressure pulses of high skewed blades at design pitch Fig. 10 shows the test results for the high skewed propeller at low pitch setting. H0.7/D =

10 Fig.10. Cavitation results of high skewed blades at low pitch setting 4.2 Extrapolation to full scale of model test results with CLT blades The CLT propeller was tested in four different conditions at the design pitch position, H0.7/D = 1.108, and in one condition at the pitch H0.7/D = where no cavitation was observed on the CLT blades. The most significant results can be seen in Figure 11. H0.7/D = Fig.11. Cavitation results of CLT blades at design pitch. Test

11 Test KT = Sigma n = H0.7/D = Fig.12. Pressure pulses for CLT blades at low pitch setting 4.3 Comparison of test results of high skewed blades and CLT blades At design pitch the pressure pulses corresponding to the first harmonic of the CLT blades are higher than those measured with the high skewed propeller. The amplitudes of the first harmonic measured with the CLT model tests, are higher at the transducers 1 and 2, due mainly to the cavitation phenomena observed at the outer part of the end plate which is a difficult area of mechanization at model scale. The cavitation observations on the high skewed propeller model, corresponding to the low pitch, test nº Cav, reveals face cavitation in all propeller disk positions. There is not much extension of the phenomena, but cloud cavitation is present in more than half of the positions of the propeller disk. Tip vortex and sheet root cavitation appear in all the propeller disk positions. At the same condition no cavitation was present on the CLT propeller blades, test nº 4502-Cav, low pitch. The amplitudes of the first harmonic at the low pitch condition are rather small, although are higher for the CLT propeller. The amplitudes of the second, third and fourth harmonic are higher for the high skewed propeller than for the CLT blades. Further to the peaks of the amplitudes at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, there appears a broad band excitation, as it can be seen in figure 13, at the pressure spectrum of the high skewed propeller at the low pitch condition, mainly present at frequencies higher than the second harmonic. The origin of this broad band excitation may be the tip vortex and also other cavitation phenomena observed at model tests. These intermediate frequency amplitudes which appear between the blade passing frequency and their multiples could be dangerous due to the fact that this broad band frequency may increase considerably the vibration and structural noise. A pressure spectrum of the high skewed propeller model at the low pitch conditions is shown in figure 13 (blade passing frequency 68 Hz). A pressure spectrum of the CLT propeller for the same pitch is shown in figure 14 (blade passing frequency 70 Hz). Fig.13. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, high skewed Fig.14. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, CLT - 9 -

12 Figures 15 and 16 are a zoom of figures 13 and 14, in the corresponding frequencies between second and third harmonics. Fig.15. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, high skewed, expanded Fig.16. Pressure spectrum, low pitch, CLT, expanded 5 COMPARISON BETWEEN SPEED TRIAL RESULTS WITH HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES. 5.1 Main characteristics of super ferry Fortuny Fig.17. Lpp =157.0 m; B= 26.2 m; Tm = 5.8 m 5.2 Speed trial results with high skewed blades. On February 3 rd, 2005 preliminary sea trials with the high skewed blade propellers were performed near to Barcelona. The significant wave height was ranging from 1.5m to 0.5m and the wind velocity from 13 to 1 knot. Water depth under keel was always over 200m. The draught was practically the same than in the towing tank experimental program. The corrections of the trials data to obtain ideal conditions have been carried out with MARIS program, developed by CEHIPAR with occasion of the R&D project of ref. 3. Table II shows the results of measurements during trials, the corrections for differences between the existing conditions of sea state and wind during trials and the ideal ones

13 SHIP...: PROP...: FORTUNY HIGH SKEW Table II. Sea trials corrections for high skewed propellers TRIALS DATA CORRECTIONS IDEAL CONDITIONS Speed Power V wind V waves V rudder V courr. V deep Speed Pd RPM (nudos) (C.V.) nudos nudos Nudos nudos nudos (nudos) (C.V.) Speed trial results with CLT blades. On April 25 th, 2005, after dry docking a new set of sea trials with the CLT blade propellers was performed near to Valencia. The significant wave height was ranging from 0.8m to 0.3m and the wind velocity was in the range of 20 knots. Water depth under keel was always over 150m. The load condition of the ship corresponded to the same draught than in the sea trials with the high skewed propeller. Table III shows the results of measurements during trials, the corrections for differences between the existing conditions of sea state and wind during trials and the ideal ones. SHIP...: PROP...: FORTUNY CLT Table III. Sea trials corrections for CLT propellers TRIALS DATA CORRECTIONS IDEAL CONDITIONS Speed Power DV wind DV waves DV rudder DV courr. DV deep Speed Pd RPM (nudos) (C.V.) nudos nudos Nudos nudos nudos (nudos) (C.V.) Comparison between the speed-power curves corresponding to high skewed and CLT blades. Figure 18 shows the comparison between sea trials corrected for ideal conditions and self-propulsion tests predictions for the high skewed propeller. All the points correspond to a rate of rotation of rpm HIGH SKEWED PROPELLER TESTS vs TRIALS Ps CV TESTS TRIALS V knots Fig.18. Sea trials and tests predictions for high skewed propellers

14 Fig. 19 shows the results of the corrected values of the sea trials carried out with CLT propeller and the results of the predictions for full scale from the self-propulsion tests. CLT PROPELLER TRIALS vs TESTS Ps CV V knots TRIALS TESTS Fig.19. Sea trials and tests predictions for CLT propellers In the case of CLT blades the test results predictions agree very well with the measurements during sea trials. This agreement validates the extrapolation procedure developed for the open water test carried out with CLT propellers. For the high skewed propeller the predictions are slightly optimists with respect to the results obtained during sea trials. This deviation can be explained because the sea trials with high skewed propeller were carried out before dry docking and hence an increase of hull resistance due to roughness not taken into account may exist. Taking this consideration in mind, the results of sea trials with both propellers is shown in Fig. 20: Ps CV SEA TRIALS OF HIGH SKEWED & CLT BLADES CLT 5000 HIGH SKEWED V knots Fig.20. Sea trials comparison between high skewed and CLT propellers Table IV shows the power economy of the CLT blades obtained from the potential regression lines of the sea trial results. Table IV. Sea trials comparison between high skewed and CLT propellers HIGH SKEWED CLT CLT saving V Ps Ps knots CV CV %

15 The percentages of power saving given in the Table IV have not been corrected due to the possible hull roughness effects and therefore the advantage of CLT over the skewed propeller should be slightly lower. Nevertheless the better efficiency of the CLT blades obtained at sea trials agrees very well with the expected results obtained from the test predictions (see Fig. 7). Fig. 21 is a picture of the CLT blades installed in the propellers hubs of the M/V Fortuny. Fig.21. CLT propellers installed in M/V FORTUNY 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN FULL SCALE VIBRATION AND NOISE LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO HIGH SKEWED AND CLT BLADES. 6.1 Description of the equipment used during full scale measurements Prior to the onboard measurements, a protocol was established focussing in those areas with higher vibration and noise values that were previously measured during delivery trials of the vessel. In the steering gear room the vibration level was continuously monitored and recorded by means of data acquisition system. In the rest of hull structure the measurements was performed by means of data collector. The sound pressure levels in the steering gear room was continuously monitored and registered at different pitch settings and conditions, and in those cabins with high values reported by the owner, measurements were done by means of a soundmeter at different load and conditions. Both measures, noise and vibrations, were done and evaluated with High skewed and CLT Blades according to the ISO 6954:1984 and IMO A.468 XII. The pressure pulses measurements at full scale just for the CLT blades and their correlation with the results obtained in the model tests is one of the challenges of this project. For the measurement of the pressure pulses a general arrangement of 17 pressure transducers was prepared according to the previous arrangement established by CEHIPAR during model tests. The installation shown in Fig. 22 was approved by the Classification Society

16 Fig.22. Pressure transducer position and arrangement 6.2 Results of vibrations and noise levels spectra corresponding to high skewed blades and CLT blades The vibration and noise tests protocol included two different running conditions: Constant RPM and Combinator Mode. The vibration and noise levels were evaluated according to ISO6954:1984 and IMO A.468 XII. The limits established by the ISO 6954:1984 standard is: Good vibration level< 4 mm/s 0-p Acceptable vibration level >4 mm/s 0-p and < 9 mm/s 0-p Severe vibration level >9 mm/s 0-p For the constant RPM condition the vibration level obtained in the steering gear room with high skewed blades was severe, and acceptable in other decks according to the ISO standard. In combinator mode the vibration level in the vessel structure when running with high skewed blades is considered acceptable according to the same standard. The values obtained during the trials with CLT blades show that vibration levels for lower pitch settings P4, P5, and P6 have been drastically reduced, and are very similar for the rest of pitch settings P7, P8, P9 and P10 when running in constant RPM condition, in spite of ship speed and propeller thrust were higher than in the case of high skewed blades. Fig. 23 and 24 show the vibration level summary for Constant RPM Mode with both blades at different conditions (P10 -light grey, P9 grey and P4 white) VIBRATION LEVELS- RPM MODE HIGH SKEWED BLADES (significative points) mm/s 8.00 P10 P9 P V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V T L V STERING GEAR ROOM CUBIERTA 7 CUBIERTA 8 CUBIERTA 9 Fig.23. Constant RPM Mode vibration levels, HIGH SKEWED blades

17 VIBRATION LEVELS- RPM MODE CLT BLADES (significative points) mm/s 8.00 P10 P9 P V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V T L V STERING GEAR ROOM CUBIERTA 7 CUBIERTA 8 CUBIERTA 9 Fig.24. Constant RPM Mode vibration levels, CLT blades The noise levels measurements show a very similar behaviour as the vibration results described, being drastically reduced by CLT blades when running in constant RPM mode and at low pitch settings P4, P5 and P6. See Fig. 25. NOISE LEVEL - CONSTANT RMP MODE HIGH SKEWEED BLADE NOISE LEVEL CONSTANT RMP MODE CLT BLADE IMO A.468 SALA IMO A.468 SALA db( A) IMO A.468 IMO A.468 LS1 LS2 LS3 C7 1 C7 2 C7 3 C7 4 C7 5 C7 6 C7 7 C7 8 C8 1 db(a) IMO A.468 CUBIERTAS IMO A.468 CAMAROTES LS1 LS2 LS3 C7 1 C7 2 C7 3 C7 4 C7 5 C7 6 C7 7 C7 8 C P10 P9 P8* P7 P6 P5* P4 0 PALANCA P10 P9 P8* P7 P6 P5* P4 PALANCA Fig.25. Noise levels High Skewed and CLT blades. 6.3 Results of pressure pulses measurements for CLT blades Figure 26 shows the dynamic pressure signal and the corresponding spectra obtained from the pressure transducer number 1 together with the tachometer signal (time domain and frequency domain). There can be seen the number of pressure pulses in one rpm and the energy spectrum; the 1XBPF (Blade Pass Frequency) and 2XBFP are the most important harmonics F B 1:P1:+Z 16:TACOBR Pa Real Amplitude V Pa Amplitude Amplitude s Hz Fig.26. Pressure pulse signal and spectrum

18 Fig. 27 shows the 1XBPF harmonic versus the power in the port side propeller in the mode of constant RPM. Similar results were obtained for combinator mode and for the rest of harmonic components. EVOLUCION 1xBFP PRESSURE PULSES - CONSTANT RPMMODE CLT BLADE P1 PRESSURE (Pa-0-PEAK) P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P POWER (kw) Fig.27. 1XBPF as function of Shaft Power - Constant RPM mode 6.4. Trends of pressure pulses measurements at model field and full scale. 1. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse First Harmonic 1XBPF shows a constant increment with the power. 2. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse Second Harmonic 2XBPF shows a maximum value at medium power values around 8000 KW. 3. The rest of spectra harmonics are much lower and not so relevant for the pressure pulse amplitude. 4. First Harmonic 1XBPF blade passing frequency amplitudes measured by 11 transducers fitted on the stern above port propeller agree very well with the values measured at the cavitation tunnel. There is also agreement in the dynamic Force computed by integration, with its own phase, over the stern above port propeller. 5. The Amplitude of the pressure pulse Second Harmonic 2XBPF shows a larger scatter in the correlation between predicted and obtained values. The same happen with the dynamic force computed by integration derived from second harmonic. 6. The rest of spectra harmonics are much lower and not so relevant for the pressure pulse correlation between model and full scale. 7. CONCLUSIONS 1. The knowledge gained in several R&D projects has been validated with the retrofitting of the blades of the propellers of the ship FORTUNY. 2. CLT blades reduce the required power with high skewed blades close to 11% at constant ship speed. The performance of the high skewed propellers in the speed trials is about 2-3% more pessimistic than model tests predictions made by ITTC 78 method. Such difference could be explained by the existing hull roughness after 20 months drydocking period

19 3. Sea trials results confirm the validation of the new full scale extrapolation procedure developed for model tests with CLT propellers. This method has the same level of accuracy than the extrapolation of tests carried out with conventional or high skewed propellers. 4. Vibration levels measured onboard with both high skewed and CLT propeller blades working at constant rpm and absorbing over 70% MCR is about the same in spite of higher thrust delivered by CLT blades. 5. CLT vibration levels for a typical Ferry harbour approach, with propellers in off-design condition (low pitch setting), when absorbing about 40% MCR at nominal rpm is much lower. The broad band excitation problem produced by the high skewed blades working in that condition has been solved by fitting CLT blades, which are free of pressure side cavitation. 6. CLT propellers are useful for energy saving and to improve pressure pulse patterns, mainly in the case of off-design conditions, were conventional or high skew blades of loaded propellers usually produce a broad band pressure spectrum which make impossible the reduction of induced vibrations and noise. LIST OF REFERENCES 1. G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Detailed Design of Ship Propellers. Book edited by FEIN (Fondo Editorial de Ingeniería Naval), Madrid G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Scale effects in the performance of a CLT propeller. The Naval Architect, July/August M. PEREZ SOBRINO; J.A. ALAEZ ZAZURCA; A. GARCIA GOMEZ; G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Optimización de la propulsión de buques. Un proyecto español de I+D, XXXVI Technical Sesions of Ingeniería Naval. Cartagena, 25 th and 26 th of November G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Tip Loaded Propellers (CLT). Justification of their advantages over high skewed propellers using the New Momentum Theory. SNAME New York Metropolitan Section, Fiftieth Anniversary , 11 th February 1993 and also at International Shipbuilding Progress nº 429, R. QUEREDA. Cavitación en propulsores marinos. Rotación, August J. MASIP HIDALGO; R. QUEREDA LAVIÑA; L. PANGUSION CIGALES. An erosion prediction due to cavitation applied to the erosion damage measured on a ship propeller and results obtained at the cavitation tunnel. Proceedings Third International Symposium on Cavitation. Grenoble, April G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Nuevo procedimiento para definir la geometría de las líneas medias de las secciones anulares de las palas de una hélice. Ingeniería Naval, September and December M. PEREZ SOBRINO; E. MINGUITO CARDEÑA; A. GARCIA GOMEZ; J. MASIP HIDALGO; R. QUEREDA LAVIÑA; L. PANGUSION CIDALES; G. PEREZ GOMEZ; J. GONZALEZ-ADALID. Scale Effects in Model Tests with CLT Propellers. 27th Motor Ship Marine Propulsión Conference. Bilbao, Spain, 27th-28th January CLT: A Proven Propeller for Efficient Ships. Supplement of the Naval Architect, July/August 2005 issue. 10. G. PEREZ GOMEZ; A. SOUTO IGLESIAS; C. LOPEZ PAVON; LOUIS DELORME; D. GONZALEZ PASTOR. Corrección y recuperación de la teoría de Goldstein para el proyecto de hélices. Ingeniería Naval, November G. PEREZ GOMEZ. Una innovación en el proyecto de hélices. Ingeniería Naval, October

Technology guidelines for efficient design and operation of ship propulsors by Teus van Beek, Propulsor Technology, Wärtsilä Propulsion Netherlands BV

Technology guidelines for efficient design and operation of ship propulsors by Teus van Beek, Propulsor Technology, Wärtsilä Propulsion Netherlands BV The Ship Power Supplier Technology guidelines for efficient design and operation of ship propulsors by Teus van Beek, Propulsor Technology, Wärtsilä Propulsion Netherlands BV Introduction The number of

More information

Application of CFD in connection with ship design

Application of CFD in connection with ship design DANSIS meeting Lyngby, 13 May 2009 Application of CFD in connection with ship design www.force.dk Background Method Examples Summary Claus Daniel Simonsen FORCE Technology Background When a ship, which

More information

Hull form optimisation with Computational Fluid Dynamics

Hull form optimisation with Computational Fluid Dynamics Hull form optimisation with Computational Fluid Dynamics Aurélien Drouet, Erwan Jacquin, Pierre-Michel Guilcher Overview Context Software Bulbous bow optimisation Conclusions/perspectives Page 2 HydrOcean

More information

Azimuth thrusters. propulsors

Azimuth thrusters. propulsors Azimuth s Rolls-Royce is a global leader in the supply of azimuth s. In an azimuth the propeller rotates 360 around the vertical axis so the unit provides propulsion, steering and positioning thrust for

More information

PERFORMANCE OF A FAMILY OF SURFACE PIERCING PROPELLERS

PERFORMANCE OF A FAMILY OF SURFACE PIERCING PROPELLERS PERFORMANCE OF A FAMILY OF SURFACE PIERCING PROPELLERS Marco Ferrando, Università degli Studi di Genova - DINAV, Genova, aly Stefano Crotti, Università degli Studi di Genova - DINAV, Genova, aly Michele

More information

IMO. MSC/Circ.707 19 October 1995. Ref. T1/2.04 GUIDANCE TO THE MASTER FOR AVOIDING DANGEROUS SITUATIONS IN FOLLOWING AND QUARTERING SEAS

IMO. MSC/Circ.707 19 October 1995. Ref. T1/2.04 GUIDANCE TO THE MASTER FOR AVOIDING DANGEROUS SITUATIONS IN FOLLOWING AND QUARTERING SEAS INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION 4 ALBERT EMBANKMENT LONDON SE1 7SR Telephone: 020-7735 7611 Fax: 020-7587 3210 Telex: 23588 IMOLDN G IMO E MSC/Circ.707 19 October 1995 Ref. T1/2.04 GUIDANCE TO THE

More information

IPS Inboard performance system. Volvo Penta IPS, the future for fast vessels

IPS Inboard performance system. Volvo Penta IPS, the future for fast vessels IPS, the future for fast vessels 1 dec 2010 Save fuel and reduce environmental impact 2 dec 2010 Best efficiency with Contra Rotating propellers Double blade area means smaller prop diameter for same output

More information

Resistance & Propulsion (1) MAR 2010. Presentation of ships wake

Resistance & Propulsion (1) MAR 2010. Presentation of ships wake Resistance & Propulsion (1) MAR 2010 Presentation of ships wake Wake - Overview Flow around a propeller is affected by the presence of a hull Potential and viscous nature of the boundary layer contribute

More information

Performance prediction of a centrifugal pump working in direct and reverse mode using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Performance prediction of a centrifugal pump working in direct and reverse mode using Computational Fluid Dynamics European Association for the Development of Renewable Energies, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ) International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 10) Granada (Spain), 23rd

More information

The INSEAN E779a Propeller Test Case: a Database For CFD Validation

The INSEAN E779a Propeller Test Case: a Database For CFD Validation The INSEAN E779a Propeller Test Case: a Database For CFD Validation G.Calcagno,F. Di Felice, M. Felli,S. Franchi, F.Pereira, F.Salvatore INSEAN (Italian Ship Model Basin), via di Vallerano 139, 00128 Rome,

More information

Renilson Marine Consulting Pty Ltd

Renilson Marine Consulting Pty Ltd REDUCING UNDERWATER NOISE POLLUTION FROM LARGE COMMERCIAL VESSELS March 2009 Commissioned by The International Fund for Animal Welfare Summary There is increasing concern about the effects of underwater

More information

Waterjets. propulsors. courtesy of Austal

Waterjets. propulsors. courtesy of Austal Waterjets The Rolls-Royce Kamewa waterjet range is the broadest in the business. Manufactured in aluminium and stainless steel, they are available in powers from kw to above 36MW. Using the latest design

More information

ANNEX 10. RESOLUTION MEPC.214(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES ON SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY DESIGN INDEX (EEDI)

ANNEX 10. RESOLUTION MEPC.214(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES ON SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY DESIGN INDEX (EEDI) Annex 10, page 1 ANNEX 10 RESOLUTION MEPC.214(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES ON SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY DESIGN INDEX (EEDI) THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE,

More information

DISPLACEMENT TO SEMI-DISPLACEMENT

DISPLACEMENT TO SEMI-DISPLACEMENT Don t Get the Hump The name van Oossanen is a highly respected one in naval architectural circles. The firm s founder, Piet, devised the appendage that changed the face and location of the America s Cup

More information

MAN Diesel & Turbo. Frederik Carstens Head of Offshore Sales Marine Medium Speed. Frederik Carstens & Karsten Borneman

MAN Diesel & Turbo. Frederik Carstens Head of Offshore Sales Marine Medium Speed. Frederik Carstens & Karsten Borneman Frederik Carstens Head of Offshore Sales Marine Medium Speed < 1 > Disclaimer All data provided on the following slides is for information purposes only, explicitly non-binding and subject to changes without

More information

Shaft Alignment. Powertrain Vibration

Shaft Alignment. Powertrain Vibration Shaft Alignment and Powertrain Vibration Chris Leontopoulos C1 Shaft Alignment Definition Most shipboard configurations of shafts and bearings are likely to be aligned when some or all of the centrelines

More information

INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHIP RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE TOWING TANK OF GALAÞI UNIVERSITY

INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHIP RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE TOWING TANK OF GALAÞI UNIVERSITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR DATA ACQUISITION AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHIP RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE TOWING TANK OF GALAÞI UNIVERSITY DAN OBREJA, LEONARD DOMNIªORU, FLORIN PÃCURARU University Dunãrea

More information

CFD ANALYSIS OF CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER USED IN MARINE VEHICLE

CFD ANALYSIS OF CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER USED IN MARINE VEHICLE CFD ANALYSIS OF CONROLLABLE PICH PROPELLER USED IN MARINE VEHICLE Aditya Kolakoti 1,.V.K.Bhanuprakash 2 & H.N.Das 3 1 M.E in Marine Engineering And Mechanical Handling, Dept of Marine Engineering, Andhra

More information

Propellers. Inboard propellers and speed calculation Marine Engines 2.1L 16L

Propellers. Inboard propellers and speed calculation Marine Engines 2.1L 16L Propellers Inboard propellers and speed calculation Marine Engines 2.1L 16L Foreword The purpose of this information is to provide installers, designers or users with a simple and effective help in choosing

More information

Propeller Design and Propulsion Concepts for Ship Operation in Off- Design Conditions

Propeller Design and Propulsion Concepts for Ship Operation in Off- Design Conditions Second International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp 11, Hamburg, Germany, June 2011 Propeller Design and Propulsion Concepts for Ship Operation in Off- Design Conditions Thomas Stoye Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft

More information

Design and Operation of Fuel Efficient Ships. Jan de Kat Director, Energy Efficiency Operational and Environmental Performance Copenhagen

Design and Operation of Fuel Efficient Ships. Jan de Kat Director, Energy Efficiency Operational and Environmental Performance Copenhagen Design and Operation of Fuel Efficient Ships Jan de Kat Director, Energy Efficiency Operational and Environmental Performance Copenhagen Genova 21 November 2013 Energy efficiency: key issues High fuel

More information

A new era in yacht power. For Vessels up to 100+ feet

A new era in yacht power. For Vessels up to 100+ feet Volvo Penta IPS A new era in yacht power For Vessels up to 100+ feet From a revolution to a The unique Benefits of Volvo Penta IPS: 40% longer cruising range 20% higher top speed 30% reduced fuel consumption

More information

Laws and price drive interest in LNG as marine fuel

Laws and price drive interest in LNG as marine fuel Laws and price drive interest in LNG as marine fuel The use of LNG as a marine fuel is one of the hottest topics in shipping. This growing interest is driven by legislation and price. By Henrique Pestana

More information

ZF 301 A. Marine Propulsion Systems

ZF 301 A. Marine Propulsion Systems Marine Propulsion Systems 10 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission. Description Robust design also withstands continuous duty in workboat applications. Fully works tested, reliable and simple to

More information

New Ferries for Gedser - Rostock. Development of a transport concept GR12. Ferry Conference in Copenhagen 22 nd November 2010

New Ferries for Gedser - Rostock. Development of a transport concept GR12. Ferry Conference in Copenhagen 22 nd November 2010 Development of a transport concept Ferry Conference in Copenhagen 22 nd November 2010 Lars Jordt Johannes Johannesson LJ / JOJ 22/11-2010 1 The routes of Scandlines LJ / JOJ 22/11-2010 2 The route Northern

More information

Rotary vane steering gear for smaller vessels

Rotary vane steering gear for smaller vessels Steering gear Rotary vane steering gear for smaller vessels The SR series is designed with integrated frequency controlled pumps. General description Rolls-Royce supplies a complete range of steering gear,

More information

Propeller Selection For Boats and Small Ships

Propeller Selection For Boats and Small Ships E Marine Training - Prop Matching - February, 2005 1 Propeller Selection For Boats and Small Ships Chris Barry This course is intended to cover the basic elements of marine propulsion, especially propellers

More information

PeakVue Analysis for Antifriction Bearing Fault Detection

PeakVue Analysis for Antifriction Bearing Fault Detection August 2011 PeakVue Analysis for Antifriction Bearing Fault Detection Peak values (PeakVue) are observed over sequential discrete time intervals, captured, and analyzed. The analyses are the (a) peak values

More information

ZF 220 A 10 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission.

ZF 220 A 10 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission. Marine Propulsion Systems 10 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission. Maximum Input** Duty kw hp RPM Pleasure 419 562 4500 Light 394 528 4500 Medium 335 449 4500 Continuous 192 258 3200 ** Must not

More information

How Noise is Generated by Wind Turbines The mechanisms of noise generation. Malcolm Hayes Hayes McKenzie Partnership Ltd Machynlleth & Salisbury

How Noise is Generated by Wind Turbines The mechanisms of noise generation. Malcolm Hayes Hayes McKenzie Partnership Ltd Machynlleth & Salisbury How Noise is Generated by Wind Turbines The mechanisms of noise generation Malcolm Hayes Hayes McKenzie Partnership Ltd Machynlleth & Salisbury Overview Main sources of noise from wind turbines Causes

More information

Welcome to the seminar: Basics of vibration technology Measurement & Analysis

Welcome to the seminar: Basics of vibration technology Measurement & Analysis Welcome to the seminar: Basics of vibration technology Measurement & Analysis 1 Lecturer : Roland Kewitsch 2 Vibration analysis increases knowledge Provides necessary information for: Evaluation of machine

More information

WÄRTSILÄ CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER SYSTEMS

WÄRTSILÄ CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER SYSTEMS WÄRTSILÄ CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER SYSTEMS WCP propeller system PROPULSION SOLUTIONS WITH WÄRTSILÄ CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER SYSTEMS The Wärtsilä Controllable Pitch propeller systems have been developed

More information

ZF 286 A 7 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission.

ZF 286 A 7 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission. Marine Propulsion Systems 7 Down angle, direct mount marine transmission. Maximum Input** Duty kw hp RPM Pleasure 566 758 3300 Light 509 682 3300 Medium 380 509 3300 Continuous 345 463 3300 ** Must not

More information

Aspects of Propeller Developments for a Submarine

Aspects of Propeller Developments for a Submarine First International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp 09, Trondheim, Norway, June 2009 Aspects of Developments for a Submarine Poul Andersen 1, Jens J. Kappel 2, Eugen Spangenberg 3 1 Dept. of Mechanical

More information

OPTIMISING THE PROP an appraisal by Mike Lucas (22 Jan 08) 1. Introduction.

OPTIMISING THE PROP an appraisal by Mike Lucas (22 Jan 08) 1. Introduction. OPTIMISING THE PROP an appraisal by Mike Lucas (22 Jan 08) 1. Introduction. I have for many years wondered why so many yacht owners complain of not getting an adequate performance out of their engine installation.

More information

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22 BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

More information

Application of Advanced CFD Technology to Energy-Saving Hull form Development

Application of Advanced CFD Technology to Energy-Saving Hull form Development 50 Application of Advanced CFD Technology to Energy-Saving Hull form Development MAKOTO NISHIGAKI *1 MAKOTO KAWABUCHI *2 SATORU ISHIKAWA *3 Due to the advancement of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

More information

ZF 85 IV. Marine Propulsion Systems

ZF 85 IV. Marine Propulsion Systems Marine Propulsion Systems 12 V-drive, direct mount marine transmission. Maximum Input** Duty kw hp RPM Pleasure 389 522 3500 Light 365 489 3500 Medium 311 416 3500 Continuous 232 311 3200 ** Must not be

More information

A Measurement of 3-D Water Velocity Components During ROV Tether Simulations in a Test Tank Using Hydroacoustic Doppler Velocimeter

A Measurement of 3-D Water Velocity Components During ROV Tether Simulations in a Test Tank Using Hydroacoustic Doppler Velocimeter A Measurement of 3-D Water Velocity Components During ROV Tether Simulations in a Test Tank Using Hydroacoustic Doppler Velocimeter Leszek Kwapisz (*) Marek Narewski Lech A.Rowinski Cezary Zrodowski Faculty

More information

The Kobold marine turbine: from the testing model to the full scale prototype

The Kobold marine turbine: from the testing model to the full scale prototype The Kobold marine turbine: from the testing model to the full scale prototype Guido Calcagno INSEAN Italian National Institute for Naval Architecture Studies and Testing (Rome Italy) Alberto Moroso Ponte

More information

ZF 25. Marine Propulsion Systems

ZF 25. Marine Propulsion Systems Marine Propulsion Systems Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission. Description Reverse reduction marine transmission with hydraulically actuated multi-disc clutches. Suitable for high performance

More information

Mobile field balancing reduces vibrations in energy and power plants. Published in VGB PowerTech 07/2012

Mobile field balancing reduces vibrations in energy and power plants. Published in VGB PowerTech 07/2012 Mobile field balancing reduces vibrations in energy and power plants Published in VGB PowerTech 07/2012 Dr. Edwin Becker PRÜFTECHNIK Condition Monitoring PRÜFTECHNIK Condition Monitoring GmbH 85737 Ismaning

More information

A Practical Approach for Ship Construction Cost Estimating

A Practical Approach for Ship Construction Cost Estimating Abstract A Practical Approach for Ship Construction Cost Estimating Jonathan M. Ross, Proteus Engineering, Anteon Corporation, U.S.A., jross@anteon.com To succeed commercially, shipyards must be able to

More information

CONTROL CODE GENERATOR USED FOR CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN SHIP SCALE MODEL

CONTROL CODE GENERATOR USED FOR CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN SHIP SCALE MODEL CONTROL CODE GENERATOR USED FOR CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN SHIP SCALE MODEL Polo, O. R. (1), Esteban, S. (2), Maron, A. (3), Grau, L. (4), De la Cruz, J.M. (2) (1) Dept Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica.

More information

Case Studies on Paper Machine Vibration Problems

Case Studies on Paper Machine Vibration Problems Case Studies on Paper Machine Vibration Problems Andrew K. Costain, B.Sc.Eng. Bretech Engineering Ltd., 70 Crown Street, Saint John, NB Canada E2L 3V6 email: andrew.costain@bretech.com website: www.bretech.com

More information

Bollard Pull. Bollard Pull is, the tractive force of a tug, expressed in metric tonnes (t) or kn.

Bollard Pull. Bollard Pull is, the tractive force of a tug, expressed in metric tonnes (t) or kn. Bollard Pull (Capt. P. Zahalka, Association of Hanseatic Marine Underwriters) Bollard Pull is, the tractive force of a tug, expressed in metric tonnes (t) or kn. This figure is not accurately determinable

More information

Description. Dimensions. Features. www.pwb-encoders.com. precision works better

Description. Dimensions. Features. www.pwb-encoders.com. precision works better Description The MEC22 is a high resolution optical hollow shaft encoder that can be fixed quickly and easily on different sizes of motor shafts. The encoder provides two square wave outputs in quadrature

More information

FAN PROTECTION AGAINST STALLING PHENOMENON

FAN PROTECTION AGAINST STALLING PHENOMENON FAN PROTECTION AGAINST STALLING PHENOMENON Roberto Arias Álvarez 1 Javier Fernández López 2 2 1 ZITRON Technical Director roberto@zitron.com ZITRON Technical Pre Sales Management jfernandez@zitron.com

More information

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Part 1 covered the response of a single degree of freedom system to harmonic excitation without considering the effects of damping. However, almost

More information

Dynamic Stability of Flared and Tumblehome Hull Forms in Waves

Dynamic Stability of Flared and Tumblehome Hull Forms in Waves Dynamic Stability of Flared and Tumblehome Hull Forms in Waves Christopher Bassler, Seakeeping Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division Andrew Peters, QinetiQ Bradley Campbell, Seakeeping

More information

Numerical Study on the Influence of Boss Cap Fins on Efficiency of Controllable-pitch Propeller

Numerical Study on the Influence of Boss Cap Fins on Efficiency of Controllable-pitch Propeller J. Marine Sci. Appl. (2013) 12: 13-20 DOI: 10.1007/s11804-013-1166-9 Numerical Study on the Influence of Boss Cap Fins on Efficiency of Controllable-pitch Propeller Ying Xiong 1, Zhanzhi Wang 1* and Wanjiang

More information

CFD Analysis of a Propeller Flow and Cavitation

CFD Analysis of a Propeller Flow and Cavitation CFD Analysis of a Propeller Flow and Cavitation S. Subhas PG student NITW V F Saji Scientist C N S T L Visakhapatnam S. Ramakrishna GVP College of Engineering (A) Visakhapatnam H. N Das Scientist F N S

More information

The influence of ship operational parameters on fuel consumption

The influence of ship operational parameters on fuel consumption Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie 2013, 36(108) z. 1 pp. 2013, 36(108) z. 1 s. ISSN 1733-8670 The influence of ship operational parameters

More information

Effiziente Propulsion mit Voith Schneider Propellern Dirk Jürgens Innovationen bei Schiffsantrieben, Hamburg, 13.9.2007

Effiziente Propulsion mit Voith Schneider Propellern Dirk Jürgens Innovationen bei Schiffsantrieben, Hamburg, 13.9.2007 Effiziente Propulsion mit Voith Schneider Propellern Dirk Jürgens Innovationen bei Schiffsantrieben, Hamburg, 13.9.2007 Future Voith Water Tractor Development Using Sophisticated Simulation Models 2 Voith

More information

CROR Noise Generation Mechanism #3: Installation Effects (& Quadrupole Noise)

CROR Noise Generation Mechanism #3: Installation Effects (& Quadrupole Noise) CROR Noise Generation Mechanism #3: Installation Effects (& Quadrupole Noise) Arne Stuermer & Jianping Yin Institute of Aerodynamics & Flow Technology DLR Braunschweig Germany 14th CEAS-ASC Workshop October

More information

New marine propulsion concept with booster motor

New marine propulsion concept with booster motor New marine propulsion concept with booster motor Three US container ships were upgraded at the Hamburg shipyard of Blohm + Voss GmbH by shortening the vessels and installing a new marine propulsion system.

More information

HYDRAULICS. H91.8D/C - Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel - 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long

HYDRAULICS. H91.8D/C - Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel - 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long HYDRAULICS H91.8D/C - Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel - 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long 1. General The series of channels H91.8D has been designed by Didacta Italia to study the hydrodynamic

More information

Waterjet System Performance and Cavitation Test Procedures

Waterjet System Performance and Cavitation Test Procedures Third International Symposium on Marine Propulsors smp 13, Tasmania, Australia, May 2013 Waterjet System Performance and Cavitation Test Procedures Jie Dang 1, Runwen Liu 2 and Christiaan Pouw 1 1 The

More information

Aeroelastic models for wind turbines

Aeroelastic models for wind turbines Aeroelastic models for wind turbines how accurate does the flow model have to be? Helge Aagaard Madsen Georg Pirrung Torben J. Larsen Section Aeroelastic Design Department of Wind Energy hama@dtu.dk How

More information

ZF W320 Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission.

ZF W320 Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission. Marine Propulsion Systems Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission. Maximum Input** Duty kw hp RPM Medium 425 570 2400 Continuous 357 479 2400 ** Must not be exceeded Description Robust design

More information

Proceedings of OMAE'01 20 th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June 3-8, 2001, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Proceedings of OMAE'01 20 th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June 3-8, 2001, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Proceedings of OMAE' 2 th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June 3-8, 2, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil OMAE2/SR-259 PROBABILISTIC MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF RISER COLLISION

More information

Trends in the Development of Container Vessels

Trends in the Development of Container Vessels Trends in the Development of Container Vessels Presentation at NTU Athens 2005-05-25 Contents Technological Development of Container Vessels The current size limits and future prospects The 9200TEU Post-Panamax

More information

PAGE 2. Figure 1: Difference between PWL ins and SPL 1m

PAGE 2. Figure 1: Difference between PWL ins and SPL 1m PAGE 1 Pipe noise J.H. Granneman and R.P.M. Jansen, Peutz Consulting Engineers, The Netherlands, emphasise the need for an adequate pipe noise control procedure, with reference to the design phase, insulation

More information

SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4)

SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4) SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4) 2013 This latest edition incorporates all rule changes. The latest revisions are shown with a vertical line.

More information

Ship propulsion by renewable energies available at sea: Innovations for utilisation of wind and waves

Ship propulsion by renewable energies available at sea: Innovations for utilisation of wind and waves Ship propulsion by renewable energies available at sea: Innovations for utilisation of wind and waves Dr. rer. nat. Jörg Sommer Januar 2013 Preliminary remark 1 The next-but-one generation of vehicles

More information

ZF W325 Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission.

ZF W325 Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission. Marine Propulsion Systems Vertical offset, direct mount marine transmission. Maximum Input** Duty kw hp RPM Medium 507 680 2600 Continuous 430 577 2600 ** Must not be exceeded Description Robust design

More information

Design methodology and numerical analysis of a cable ferry

Design methodology and numerical analysis of a cable ferry Design methodology and numerical analysis of a cable ferry SNAME Annual Meeting; Nov 6-8, 2013, Bellevue, WA Paper #T35 Author name(s): Dean M. Steinke (M)1, Ryan S. Nicoll1 (V), Tony Thompson2 (M), Bruce

More information

THE NEXT REVOLT 18 BATTERY COASTAL TRAFFIC REVOLT IN BRIEF

THE NEXT REVOLT 18 BATTERY COASTAL TRAFFIC REVOLT IN BRIEF 18 BATTERY COASTAL TRAFFIC THE NEXT REVOLT Could present-day technology improve the cost and effectiveness of shortsea shipping while enhancing safety and environmental performance? Yes, it could! Taking

More information

A.L. Sivkov, E.V. Belov REDUCTION OF NOISE OF A HELICOPTER ENGINE BASED ON RESEARCHES OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS OF LIGHT AND MEDIUM HELICOPTERS

A.L. Sivkov, E.V. Belov REDUCTION OF NOISE OF A HELICOPTER ENGINE BASED ON RESEARCHES OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS OF LIGHT AND MEDIUM HELICOPTERS A.L. Sivkov, E.V. Belov REDUCTION OF NOISE OF A HELICOPTER ENGINE BASED ON RESEARCHES OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS OF LIGHT AND MEDIUM HELICOPTERS The Kazan State Power Engineering Institute The Kazan Branch of

More information

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. Barge carrier Smit Pioneer is equipped with three LIPS CT250 transverse thrusters.

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. Barge carrier Smit Pioneer is equipped with three LIPS CT250 transverse thrusters. Wärtsilä specializes in complete ship propulsion systems. Besides our marine engines, we are also well known worldwide as a designer and manufacturer of WÄRTSILÄ fixed pitch and controllable pitch propellers,

More information

MEASURING THE 3D PROPAGATION OF SOUND WAVES USING SCANNING LASER VIBROMETRY

MEASURING THE 3D PROPAGATION OF SOUND WAVES USING SCANNING LASER VIBROMETRY MEASURING THE 3D PROPAGATION OF SOUND WAVES USING SCANNING LASER VIBROMETRY Andreas Dittmar, IAV GmbH Kauffahrtei 45, 09120 Chemnitz, Germany Reinhard Behrendt Polytec GmbH, Büro Berlin, Schwarzschildstraße

More information

Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment

Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment Fluid Structure Interaction VI 3 Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment J. Hengstler & J. Dual Department of Mechanical and Process

More information

CP Propeller Equipment

CP Propeller Equipment Data Sheet for Propeller and Propulsion Plant....................... 27 Instruction Manual................................................. 29 CP Propeller Equipment Contents Page Introduction.......................................................

More information

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 1 HYDRAULIC PUMPS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive so there

More information

HYDROGRAPHIC ECHOSOUNDER FOR SOUNDING INLAND WATERS ANDRZEJ JEDEL, LECH KILIAN, JACEK MARSZAL, ZAWISZA OSTROWSKI, ZBIGNIEW WOJAN, KRZYSZTOF ZACHARIASZ

HYDROGRAPHIC ECHOSOUNDER FOR SOUNDING INLAND WATERS ANDRZEJ JEDEL, LECH KILIAN, JACEK MARSZAL, ZAWISZA OSTROWSKI, ZBIGNIEW WOJAN, KRZYSZTOF ZACHARIASZ HYDROGRAPHIC ECHOSOUNDER FOR SOUNDING INLAND WATERS ANDRZEJ JEDEL, LECH KILIAN, JACEK MARSZAL, ZAWISZA OSTROWSKI, ZBIGNIEW WOJAN, KRZYSZTOF ZACHARIASZ Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics,

More information

Data-driven Vessel Performance Monitoring

Data-driven Vessel Performance Monitoring Data-driven Vessel Performance Monitoring ErhvervsPhD projekt af Benjamin Pjedsted Pedersen FORCE Technology / DTU Poul Andersen Maritime Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU Jan Larsen

More information

CENTRUM TECHNIKI OKRĘTOWEJ S.A. SHIP DESIGN AND RESEARCH CENTRE S.A.

CENTRUM TECHNIKI OKRĘTOWEJ S.A. SHIP DESIGN AND RESEARCH CENTRE S.A. CENTRUM TECHNIKI OKRĘTOWEJ S.A. SHIP DESIGN AND RESEARCH CENTRE S.A. Gdansk POLAND ABOUT US Ship Design and Research Centre S.A. (CTO) is a modern, multidisciplinary research and design centre, well recognized

More information

Manual Software for efector octavis. VES001 Version 1.9 704317 / 02 02 / 2010

Manual Software for efector octavis. VES001 Version 1.9 704317 / 02 02 / 2010 Manual Software for efector octavis VES001 Version 1.9 704317 / 02 02 / 2010 Content 1 Introduction...5 1.1 Short description...5 efector octavis vibration diagnostic unit VE1001, VE1101, VE111A,... VE113A....5

More information

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR WITH GROOVES ON CASING

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR WITH GROOVES ON CASING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976

More information

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY Module 2.2-2 WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY Electrical System Gerhard J. Gerdes Workshop on Renewable Energies November 14-25, 2005 Nadi, Republic of the Fiji Islands Contents Module 2.2 Types of generator systems

More information

lng conversion (General)

lng conversion (General) lng conversion (General) 1 Wärtsilä 10.4.2013 Jens Häggblom Content DF conversion portfolio and references Reasons for conversion DF conversion in practice LNG storage, process and bunkering system (Wärtsilä

More information

SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4) SEPTEMBER 2015

SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4) SEPTEMBER 2015 SURVEY and CERTIFICATION RULES on ENERGY EFFICIENCY of SHIPS (MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI, CHAPTER 4) SEPTEMBER 2015 This latest edition incorporates all rule changes. The latest revisions are shown with a vertical

More information

inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering 27-30 August 2000, Nice, FRANCE

inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering 27-30 August 2000, Nice, FRANCE Copyright SFA - InterNoise 2000 1 inter.noise 2000 The 29th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering 27-30 August 2000, Nice, FRANCE I-INCE Classification: 2.1 WHISTLING PHENOMENA

More information

A.1 Obligations and reporting of the gaining Society. Plans to be Submitted by the Owner to the Gaining Society

A.1 Obligations and reporting of the gaining Society. Plans to be Submitted by the Owner to the Gaining Society (Rev.0 July 2009) (Rev.1 June 2012) (Rev.2 Oct 2013) (Rev.3 Jan 2015) (Rev.4 July 2015) (Rev.5 Jan 2016) Procedure for Transfer of Class TABLE OF CONTENTS Procedure for Transfer of Class Application Definitions

More information

V52-850 kw The turbine that goes anywhere

V52-850 kw The turbine that goes anywhere V2-8 kw The turbine that goes anywhere Versatile, efficient, dependable and popular The highly efficient operation and flexible configuration of the V2 make this turbine an excellent choice for all kinds

More information

Experimental and CFD Study of Wave Resistance of High-Speed Round Bilge Catamaran Hull Forms

Experimental and CFD Study of Wave Resistance of High-Speed Round Bilge Catamaran Hull Forms Experimental and FD Study of Wave Resistance of High-Speed Round Bilge atamaran Hull Forms Prasanta K Sahoo, Australian Maritime ollege, Launceston/Australia, P.Sahoo@mte.amc.edu.au Nicholas A Browne,

More information

Bird-Johnson fixed pitch propellers

Bird-Johnson fixed pitch propellers Bird-Johnson fixed pitch propellers...leading the field of marine propeller technology for more than forty years Rolls-Royce Naval Marine, Inc. 3719 Industrial Road Pascagoula, Mississippi 39568 USA Telephone:

More information

International Journal of Engineering Research-Online A Peer Reviewed International Journal Articles available online http://www.ijoer.

International Journal of Engineering Research-Online A Peer Reviewed International Journal Articles available online http://www.ijoer. RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN: 2321-7758 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A DYNAMOMETER FOR MEASURING THRUST AND TORQUE IN DRILLING APPLICATION SREEJITH C 1,MANU RAJ K R 2 1 PG Scholar, M.Tech Machine Design, Nehru College

More information

Gear Trains. Introduction:

Gear Trains. Introduction: Gear Trains Introduction: Sometimes, two or more gears are made to mesh with each other to transmit power from one shaft to another. Such a combination is called gear train or train of toothed wheels.

More information

ANNEX 9 RESOLUTION MEPC.213(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN (SEEMP)

ANNEX 9 RESOLUTION MEPC.213(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN (SEEMP) Annex 9, page 1 ANNEX 9 RESOLUTION MEPC.213(63) Adopted on 2 March 2012 2012 GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN (SEEMP) THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE,

More information

Finite Element Analysis for Acoustic Behavior of a Refrigeration Compressor

Finite Element Analysis for Acoustic Behavior of a Refrigeration Compressor Finite Element Analysis for Acoustic Behavior of a Refrigeration Compressor Swapan Kumar Nandi Tata Consultancy Services GEDC, 185 LR, Chennai 600086, India Abstract When structures in contact with a fluid

More information

Python-Drive. The ideal flexible drive unit from 10 up to 1000 HP. CV drive shaft systems from Python-Drive

Python-Drive. The ideal flexible drive unit from 10 up to 1000 HP. CV drive shaft systems from Python-Drive The ideal flexible drive unit from 10 up to 1000 HP CV drive shaft systems from Python-Drive 2015 Python-Drive the ideal vibration-free drive unit from 10 HP up to 1000 HP Python-Drive features: Double

More information

Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction In this lab the characteristics of airfoil lift, drag,

More information

24 th ITTC Benchmark Study on Numerical Prediction of Damage Ship Stability in Waves Preliminary Analysis of Results

24 th ITTC Benchmark Study on Numerical Prediction of Damage Ship Stability in Waves Preliminary Analysis of Results th ITTC Benchmark Study on Numerical Prediction of Damage Ship Stability in Waves Preliminary Analysis of Results Apostolos Papanikolaou & Dimitris Spanos National Technical University of Athens- Ship

More information

IMO ANY OTHER BUSINESS. Shipping noise and marine mammals. Submitted by the United States

IMO ANY OTHER BUSINESS. Shipping noise and marine mammals. Submitted by the United States INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION E IMO MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE 57th session Agenda item 20 MEPC 57/INF.4 17 December 2007 ENGLISH ONLY ANY OTHER BUSINESS Shipping noise and marine mammals

More information

MANOEUVRING CRITERIA: MORE THAN IMO A751 REQUIREMENTS ALONE! F.H.H.A. Quadvlieg (MARIN, The Netherlands) P. van Coevorden (Royal Netherlands Navy)

MANOEUVRING CRITERIA: MORE THAN IMO A751 REQUIREMENTS ALONE! F.H.H.A. Quadvlieg (MARIN, The Netherlands) P. van Coevorden (Royal Netherlands Navy) MANOEUVRING CRITERIA: MORE THAN IMO A71 REQUIREMENTS ALONE! F.H.H.A. Quadvlieg (MARIN, The Netherlands) P. van Coevorden (Royal Netherlands Navy) In 1993, IMO resolution A71(18) was accepted. Since 1993,

More information

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION Engineering Review Vol. 32, Issue 3, 141-146, 2012. 141 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION Z. 1* L. 1 V. 2 M. 1 1 Department of Fluid Mechanics and Computational Engineering,

More information

pocket product guide

pocket product guide pocket product guide About us Becker rudder profiles Established in 1946 and located in Hamburg, Germany Becker Marine Systems is a leading supplier of high performance rudders and manoeuvring systems

More information

Marine Technology Society

Marine Technology Society Marine Technology Society Dynamic Positioning onference 21-22, October, 1997 Session 6 Propulsion and Thrusters Principal Aspects of Thruster Selection By: Dietmer Deter: Nautex (Houston) Session Planner

More information

This presentation reports on the progress made during the first year of the Mapping the Underworld project. As multiple Universities and Departments

This presentation reports on the progress made during the first year of the Mapping the Underworld project. As multiple Universities and Departments This presentation reports on the progress made during the first year of the Mapping the Underworld project. As multiple Universities and Departments are involved with the project, a single speaker will

More information