MOSAICKING OF THE 1: SHEETS OF THE THIRD MILITARY SURVEY OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE

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1 Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung., Vol. 44(1), pp (2009) DOI: /AGeod MOSAICKING OF THE 1: SHEETS OF THE THIRD MILITARY SURVEY OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE GMolnár 1,2 and GTimár 2 1 Christian Doppler Laboratory, Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, 2 Department of Geophysics and Space Science, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary, Open Access of this paper is sponsored by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund under the grant No. T47104 OTKA (for online version of this paper see The original map sheets of the Third Military Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy cannot be mosaicked in their original, printed form because of their uneven trapezoid format. To make a digitized raster mosaic of the individual sheets, they all should be georeferenced. Instead of the original projections, which vary from sheet to sheet, a series of sinusoid projections was defined, one unique projection for each sheet columns. The sinusoid projection provides an appropriate approximation of the original trapezoid forms and size of the sheets. Each sheet were rectified in the respective projection then reprojected to a general conic projection, defined for the final mosaic. After all of those transformations, the transformed digital content of the sheets fits to each other well enough to make a geo-referred mosaic. The location parameters of the geodetic datum used for transformation to modern projection systems are the followings: dx = +600 m; dy = +205 m; dz = +437 m. These figures gives exact fit at the fundamental point of Hermannskogel. Because of the not unified geodetic adjustment of the original base point system, using one unified datum causes a maximum error of 220 meters throughout the whole territory of the Monarchy and the adjacent area on the maps. Keywords: archive maps; Central Europe; georeference; Habsburg Empire; Third Military Survey /$ c 2009 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

2 116 GMOLNÁR and G TIMÁR Fig. 1. The full mosaic of the Habsburg Empire on the 1: sheets of the Third Military Survey with the first-order triangulation points (Biszak et al. 2007) Introduction The second military surveying of the Habsburg Empire, which took some fifty years, was almost completed by the 1860s. Geodesy was undergoing tremendous development in the period of the survey. It was in this period of time when Karl Friedrich Gauss established the potential theoretical description of the Earth s figure as well as the method of geodetic network adjustment by the method of the least squares. Both the developments and the fact that in many cases the maps of the Second Military Survey had showed states of several decades earlier made it pressing to carry out a new survey in the Empire, today called the Third Military Survey. Survey map series on a scale of 1: and general map series on a scale of 1: were made within the framework of the survey. The map sheets were first published and marketed in 1880, but they can be come across in second-hand bookshops even today. The map sheets dates of issue were indicated in the bottom right corner. The sheets represent the Monarchy s entire territory often reaching beyond it along the borders (e.g. in the direction of Switzerland, Germany, Italy). Almost the whole of Montenegro and the north of Albania can be seen in the south. Later, a few years before World War I, and partly during the war, a new series of the sheets on a scale of 1: were completed with the represented territory going well beyond the borders of the Monarchy. The rectified mosaic of the whole Monarchy is now available in 1: scale as the work of the Arcanum Database Ltd., Hungary (Biszak et al. 2007, Figs 1 and 2). In the present paper, we present the detailed method of the rectification and the mosaic making.

3 MOSAICKING OF THE THIRD MILITARY SURVEY 117 Fig. 2. Display view of the Arcanum software (Biszak et al. 2007), using the method described in this paper The projection and georeferencing of the map series The Third Military Survey s first sheets on a scale of 1:75 000, published in 1880, were designed in a fairly simplified way from the point of view of projection. Every individual map sheets were made in a local map projection. The intersection of the central meridian and parallel of the map sheet was chosen as the projection center. The parallels and meridians of the latitude-longitude grid represent the sheet boundaries. In practice, these are straight lines. Since the typical extent of a map sheet don t exceed kilometers, and the bordering meridians are close to the projection center thus these bordering arcs were substituted with straight lines and the sheets have the shapes of a trapezoid (Sa ro i Szabo 1901, Balla and Hrenko 1991, Veverka and C echurova 2003, Kretschmer et al. 2004). On the editions published later (in the 1910s), the parallels forming the sheets boundaries are curved. Naturally, each sheet differs in size, except for those that have the same latitude. Consequently, a mosaic cannot be made from the sheets mechanically, by placing one sheet next to the other (Sa ro i Szabo 1901) (Fig. 3). Placing one sheet next to the other results a spatial surface. As this symmetrical spatial object consisting of many planar quadrangles is called polyhedron, this projection is often referenced as polyhedral. To create the mosaic on the DVD, we distorted the scanned picture of the original sheets in a way that they are placed into a uniform map projection. An explicit way of doing this would have been if an approximate projection for each sheet had been defined in GIS environment and each single sheet in this particular

4 118 GMOLNÁR and G TIMÁR Fig. 3. The original structure of the sheets of the Third Military Survey (Sárói Szabó 1901) projection had been georeferenced then the resulting file had been transformed into the common projection. Considering the large number of sheets, we scrapped this solution. Instead, for each sheet column we defined a substitute projection, which provides a distortion form quite similar to the shape of a trapezoid. We selected sinusoidal projection; with each column the projection center was the intersection of the column s central meridian and the Equator. We georeferenced each sheet in a projection selected for a particular column. We defined 6 GCPs per sheet: a sheet s edge points and the mid points of the northern and southern sheet boundaries. As a result, the sheets original trapezoid shape could be followed with some 20 meters accuracy. The map series were designed with the prime meridian of Ferro and throughout the georeferencing process we took the Ferro-Greenwich shift consistently as During the unification process we switched over to the Greenwich prime meridian and we transformed the sheets into the Lambert Conformal Conic projection. The projection center is Φ 0 = 47 ; Λ 0 = 19, while the two standard parallels are Φ 1 =45 and Φ 2 =49. Geodetic datum of the map series The Bessel ellipsoid of 1841 was selected as base ellipsoid. However, in the GIS practice, it is not enough to present an ellipsoid, the parameters of its position must be defined as well. To do this, identical points must be identified on the triangulation network used as the base of the map and on the modern, Earth centered, Earth fixed WGS84 system (DMA 1986). This is quite a challenge in the case of the series on the scale of 1: It is clear that the geodetic datum of the second survey could not have been applied. In the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the standard geodetic datum was defined in 1892, after the series had been published, with the Hermannskogel point near Vienna as its geodetic center point. This datum exists in several versions as the some 650 points included in the Third Military Survey were adjusted in 62 different blocks.

5 MOSAICKING OF THE THIRD MILITARY SURVEY 119 World War I interrupted the new adjustment work, based on more accurate calculations. After the war, Austria, Yugoslavia (applying a different Ferro-Greenwich longitude shift, and including the data of the Balkan triangulation carried out by the Monarchy s military cartography before and during the war) and, under a different title (JednotnéTrigonometrickéSití Katastrání; S-JTSK) Czechoslovakia used this datum out of the successor states of the disintegrated Monarchy on the basis of adjusting the points found in these countries own territories. In the 1880s however, only the coordinates that were later used in the system were available, but not the system itself. International network surveys had been carried out since the beginning of the 1860s within the framework of the Central- European Arc Measurement (Mittel-Europäische Gradmessung), from 1864 as European Arc Measurement (Bod 1982, Balla and Hrenkó 1991, Kretschmer et al. 2004, Ádám 2005). Some 600 points positions were identified on the territory of the Monarchy, except for its most western parts (MGI 1902) and several base lines and astronomical points were measured as well. Supposedly, the series on a scale of 1: were completed on the basis of such rough, non-adjusted data, which significantly affects the map series accuracy and the degree of their connectivity with modern maps. Comparing the map coordinates of 650 points based on the adjustments of 1892 it seems that the network divides into several small triangle webs developed around particular astronomically measured points. Faults are relatively minor within these sub webs, however horizontal faults of up to 200 m might occur among the webs. This is what determines the map series overall accuracy. The Molodensky-type displacement parameters of the point Hermannskogel, according to the coordinates read out from the 1: scale sheet and resulted from earlier geodetic adjustments (MGI 1902, Homoródi 1952), are the following: dx = +600 m; dy = +205 m; dz = +437 m. As it was deduced from the above-mentioned process of the adjustment, there is no such unified displacement of the network. The usage of these parameters as general ones results errors in some places of the whole map. The map series content in modern projection systems The third survey concerns the territory of 17 present day countries and the representing software is able to export the map content into the projections used in these countries. In order to achieve this we had to provide the GIS parameters of these projections and their geodetic data earlier (Timár et al. 2006), and also define the approximate position parameters of the Bessel-1841 ellipsoid used during the Central-European Arc Measurement in the previous chapter. In most parts of Austria and the Czech Republic, on the Adriatic coastline and in Croatia, the faults are minor. In Hungary there are several blocks characterized by faults of similar degree and direction: fault is minor in the vicinity of Budapest, but differences of around 100 m or more occur in central and southern Transdanubia and in other directions in the Northern Range and the connecting North-Hungarian territories. In western Slovakia the length and direction of the error is different again. A relatively uniform error is typical in Transylvania (supposedly based on the coordinate

6 120 GMOLNÁR and G TIMÁR data by the Observatory of Sibiu, Hungarian: Nagyszeben, German: Hermannstadt; Timár et al. 2008), Bukovina, Bosnia, and the western and eastern parts of Galicia. The systematic errors in Galicia are derived from the position of the observatories of Krakow, and the L viv (Lemberg). The greatest errors of slightly more than 200 m occur on the southern and eastern edges (in the vicinity of Shkodra Lake and Tarnopol) of the mapped area. Serious errors of mosaicking appear along the borders of the sheets representing Albania; thus errors of up to exceeding a kilometer occur on three sheets. The possible cause of this blunder could be miscalculated coordinates of one or two geodetic base points. Systematic errors can be treated through integrating the exported digital map sheet into a GIS system and shifting it into the real position with the aid of one single GCP without further rotation. Through this method local remaining faults can be reduced below 0.5 mm on the map (i.e m in the field). Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, project number T References Ádám J 2005: Creation of unified European geodetic and geodynamic bases (in Hungarian). Academic entry lecture, MTA, Budapest Balla J, Hrenkó P 1991: History of the Hungarian military cartography, Volume 1 (in Hungarian) Hungarian Ministry of Defense, Cartographic Service, Budapest Biszak S, Timár G, Molnár G, Jankó A 2007: Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire The Third Military Survey, Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, , 1: DVD issue, Arcanum, Budapest Bod E 1982: Geodézia és Kartográfia, 34, No. 5, Čechurova M, Veverka B 2009: Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung., 44 (present issue) DMA, Defense Mapping Agency 1986: Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984 Its Definition and Relationships With Local Geodetic Systems. Technical Report St. Louis, Missouri, USA Homoródi L 1952: Földméréstani Közlemények, 4, Kretschmer I, Dörflinger J, Wawrik F 2004: Austrian Cartography (in German). Wiener Schiften zur Geographie und Kartographie Band 15. Institut für Geographie und Regionalforschung der Universität Wien, Wien MGI, Militär-Geographische Institut 1902: Results of the triangulations by the Austro- Hungarian Institute of Military Geography, Parts I II (in German). Druck der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien, Abschnitt I: Geodätische Coordinaten Sárói Szabó L 1901: Military maps of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (in Hungarian). Bookshop of Károly Grill, Budapest Timár G, Molnár G, Székely B, Biszak S, Varga J, Jankó A 2006: Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire The map sheets of the Second Military Survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest Timár G, Kovács B, Bartos-Elekes Zs, Păunescu C 2008: Geographica Technica, 3, No. 1, Veverka B, Čechurova M 2003: Kartografické listy, 11,

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