General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2015

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1 General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2015 Critical Thinking CRIT2 Unit 2 Information, Inference and Explanation Insert Source Material This Source Material is to be read in conjunction with the questions in Unit CRIT2. A INSERT TO M/AH/ /Jun15/E5

2 2 There are no sources printed on this page

3 3 Document A Gambling addiction 1. Most people gamble at some point in their lives, but, for some, gambling can become a serious addiction. For the vast majority of people, gambling entails putting a bet on a sports match now and again or entering the weekly lottery draw. However, for a small proportion of gamblers, betting and playing games to win money can become a serious addiction. 2. In the UK, it is estimated that around people are problem gamblers, meaning they are suffering from a gambling addiction. In recent years, the number of people experiencing problems with gambling has increased due to economic troubles associated with the global recession and an increase in the number of gambling outlets. It is now easier than ever before to gamble, with a huge number of online betting shops and games sites enabling people to gamble 24 hours a day. Every year, over 7 billion is spent on gambling. 3. NHS statistics show that only around 5% of those classed as problem gamblers seek help with their addiction and only 1% get treatment. If a gambling problem is left to develop, debts can spiral out of control and people can become withdrawn and depressed, which can affect their professional lives and relationships with other people. 4. Gambling is very addictive; the adrenaline rush associated with the possibility of pulling off a big win is often described by gamblers as an unbeatable feeling. It is easy to see how people get hooked on gambling, especially if they have the means to access gambling outlets 24 hours a day. Most people can control the desire to gamble and if they start losing, they will stop. However, for some, the possibility of a win is extremely enticing and they will carry on going until they win, regardless of how much money they lose along the way. Source: Gambling Addiction from Turn over for the next source Turn over

4 4 Document B The problem with gambling: new figures show more people than ever are ruining their lives 1. Problem gambling is on the increase in the UK. Statistics just published by the Gambling Commission show a rise in activity in lotteries, the number of gambling machines and in online gaming, particularly betting, casinos, and bingo. 2. Nearly three-quarters of Britons (73%) indulge in some kind of gambling, although for most that means a fl utter on the National Lottery. The National Lottery sold more tickets than ever in , up 12% in the year. Other gambling activities are also growing fast. These include football betting, scratch cards and online poker and bingo, according to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS). 3. Gambling is growing, helped by the UK s comparatively liberal regulatory framework. But 0.9% of British adults have a gambling problem, according to the BGPS. And there is great concern among the experts that gambling is the addiction which has been left behind by policymakers. If nearly 1% of people can be classifi ed as problem gamblers then it could be argued that more resources should be going into this fi eld. Class-A drug-takers (about 3% of the population) and alcoholics (somewhat more than three per cent, depending on the defi nition) are researched and monitored far more closely and offered more accessible help. 4. Heather Wardle, the project director on the BGPS, is researching the fi nances of heavy gamblers for another report due to be released later this summer. They often get into fi nancial diffi culties, she said. When the problem is extreme, they use various strategies to get more money in order to gamble and, in the most extreme situations, they will commit crime. The Gordon Moody Association, which treats the most serious addicts, estimates that they will have severely affected the lives of at least 15 others in order to support their gambling. 5. Problem gambling often starts in ways that seem harmless, for example the lottery. The National Lottery, launched 18 years ago, tends to be presented as supporting a good cause or as just having a fl utter. Ms Wardle says problem gambling is less linked to the National Lottery than to other activities. But many people who might not be classifi ed as problem gamblers could be spending more than they can afford on lotteries. This is despite the fact that the odds against coming out ahead would deter anyone who understands probability theory. Players can get addicted to using the same numbers for every draw. Even 5 a week can be the difference between paying your debts or not. Source: article adapted from The problem with gambling by N MacErlean The Independent, 14 July 2012, Image: Steven Allen/Stockbyte/Getty Images

5 5 Document C The UK online gambling market Gambling online has soared in popularity in recent years, but the four sectors Sports betting, Bingo, Casino games, and Poker have grown unevenly. Sports, and especially in-play betting* is leading the growth in online gambling, with the sector worth more than 2 billion in For example, football betting grew by 69 percent between 2008 and 2012, making it the second most lucrative, after horse racing. * In-play betting means betting on the result of a game or on something happening in the game whilst watching it live. Figure 1: THE MARKET The online gambling market continues to grow, breaking the 2 billion barrier (for revenue) in 2012 Figure 2: Share of the market in 2012 The smallest slice of the market in 2012 was Poker. It grew by only 8% between 2008 and Bingo grew impressively by 155% and Casino games grew by 79%. The Sports online betting market doubled between 2008 and 2012, breaking the 1 billion barrier, with horse racing continuing to be the largest sector, as it was in Document C continues on the next page Turn over

6 6 Document C continued Figure 3: Television viewers increasingly watch their favourite programmes with mobile devices in hand, using them to find info related to things they ve seen, connect with other viewers, or generally browse or during the adverts. The second screen trend is changing TV viewing in surprising ways. THE SECOND SCREEN EMERGES Roughly 4 in 5 tablet or smartphone owners now use their devices while watching TV, according to Nielsen. Consumers in the US and UK lead the way. TABLET OWNERS WHO SIMULTANEOUSLY USE TABLETS WHILE WATCHING TV: 86% 78% SMARTPHONE OWNERS WHO SIMULTANEOUSLY USE SMARTPHONES WHILE WATCHING TV: 88% 80% Source: adapted from UK s online gambling sector worth 2bn in 2012: stats by Graham Charlton, Editor in Chief at Econsultancy, Figure 1 & 2: reproduced with permission from digital marketing agency Stickyeyes Figure 3: infographic by Confused.com

7 7 Document D How is internet gambling regulated in the UK? 1. The Gambling Act 2005 for the fi rst time subjected non-terrestrial forms of gambling, such as gambling over the internet, TV or through mobile phones, to regulation. We call these forms of gambling remote gambling. The Act tries to regulate remote gambling by allowing companies to advertise in the UK if they adhere to industry regulated standards. But legalised advertising means gambling as an activity has become increasingly normalised, moving from the side streets onto the main street and more and more in your face. 2. All companies based in the UK have to apply and pay for a licence from the Gambling Commission if they wish to offer gambling services of any kind. If they get a licence they can then advertise their services. The Commission operates independently of the government and is funded largely through licensing fees. What is more, the Government have set out plans to merge the Gambling Commission with the National Lottery Commission. This new Commission will not only run the National Lottery and have the power to award gambling licences for a fee; it will also have responsibility for making sure that the licensed companies keep to a code of conduct that is needed to protect vulnerable people and children from the effects of problem gambling, and addiction. 3. That confl ict of interest is worrying enough. But many companies that provide remote gambling services to UK citizens are based outside of the UK, and cannot be prosecuted under UK law. The Government granted remote gambling companies the right to advertise if they are based in a jurisdiction that is understood to have standards of regulation equal to those found in the UK under the Gambling Commission s licensing code of conduct. These jurisdictions are said to be on the white list. 4. So, for example, a company based in Malta, which is on the white list, can advertise its services and web address on billboards in the UK, because the equivalent of the Gambling Commission in Malta ensures a standard of licensing which is equal to that in the UK. However, trade agreements in the European Union (EU) allow any EU country to be treated equally under the free market. Consequently, all countries in the EU are automatically on the white list even though they do not necessarily have a similar level of regulation to the UK to protect vulnerable people and children. For obvious reasons, the situation is not ideal. Source: adapted from How is internet gambling regulated in the UK? CARE (Christian Action Research and Education) 2010 END OF SOURCES

8 8 There are no sources printed on this page Acknowledgement of copyright-holders and publishers Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements in future papers if notified. Copyright 2015 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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