PRESENT CONTINUOUS. I am flying, you are flying, he/she/it is flying, we/you/they are flying

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1 9) Shall I give you chocolate, dear? 10) Have you read good books recently? PRESENT CONTINUOUS Il Present Continuous si usa per esprimere un azione presente CHE SI VERIFICA NEL MOMENTO IN CUI SI PARLA (STO PARLANDO I AM SPEAKING) Circostanza 1. Now: Il verbo esprime un azione che si sta svolgendo nel momento in cui si parla Esempio Che cosa fai? I am writing a letter Scrivo una lettera. (Sto scrivendo in questo momento) Il Present continuous (presente progressivo) corrisponde all'italiano stare seguito dal gerundio del verbo principale. John is working John sta lavorando Si costruisce con il Present simple del verbo TO BE più la forma -ING del verbo: I am flying, you are flying, he/she/it is flying, we/you/they are flying ING FORM L'aggiunta della desinenza -ING alla forma base del verbo determina alcune variazioni ortografiche: se il verbo termina con una consonante preceduta da una sola vocale, la consonante viene raddoppiata: set stop setting stopping mettere fermare se il verbo termina con la E questa viene eliminata: loose dive loosing diving sciogliere tuffarsi se il verbo termina con IE queste due lettere vengono sostituite da Y: lie die lying dying mentire morire PRESENT CONTINOUS 2

2 Verbi che si usano al continous Affirmative Negative Interrogative Read leggere are reading not (aren t) reading read Come venire are coming not (aren t) coming com Go andare Play giocare suonare Finish finire Get ottenere Give dare Learn imparare 3

3 not (aren t) ing Listen ascoltare Look at guardare Sell vendere at at ing at? Speak parlare Stop fermare Study studiare Watch vedere Write scrivere 4

4 Ask domandare Change cambiare Close chiudere Cry piangere I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing Do fare I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing Drink bere I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing Laugh ridere I, you, he-she-it, we, you, they ing Open aprire I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing Park parcheggiar e I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing Pay pagare I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing 5

5 Send mandare spedire I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing Start iniziare I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing Take prendere I /you /he-she-it /we _/you /they ing Try cercare trovare I/ you/ he-she-it is/ we/ you/ they Visit visitare I/ you/ he-she-it is/ we/ you/ they Wait aspettare I/ you/ he-she-it is/ we/ you/ they Walk camminare I/ you/ he-she-it is/ we/ you/ they 1. SU PRESENT SIMPLE E CONTINUOUS 1.Completa le seguenti frasi scegliendo la forma verbale corretta fra le due date: 1. Look! That man. the old lady (is robbing/robs) 2. My brother always tennis on Saturdays (plays/is playing) 3. When we. to the disco, we.. back home very late (go/are going) (come/are coming) 6

6 4. I have got so many doubts. I to call and tell her the whole truth (think/am/thinking) 5. You often.. tv in the evening, because you love films (watch/are watching) 6. Mary is a very good pianist. Listen, now she Mozart (plays/is playing) 7. We can t come with you, sorry. We for our English test (study/are studying) 8. Don t call them now! It s 8 o clock and they. dinner (have/are having) 9. We are not lucky. If we.. to go out for a walk, it always (decide/are deciding) (rains/is raining) 10. You won t find him home today. He to England (travels/is travelling) 2. Put the verb into the correct form (present simple or continuous) 1) How (to be) your French? Not bad. It (improve). 2) Look! The train (to leave)! 3) The train (to leave) at 9 o'clock. 4) What time (you/get) up in the morn I usually (to get up) at 7. 5) If you (to study), you'll pass your exam. 6) The man we met yesterday (to be) on TV! 7) The young man (to paint) a beautiful picture! 8) I must go now. It (to get) late! 9) This room (to smell). Let's open the window. 10) Don't go out, it (rain). Preposizioni di luogo IN PLACE PREPOSITIONS Quando si usa In si usa normalmente per esprimere il concetto di all interno di, per indicare una posizione in uno spazio in qualche modo delimitato, anche se non ha un preciso confine fisico: I live in Italy. Vivo in Italia. I live in Rome. Vivo a Roma. Esempio AT At ha un significato più generale di in. Lo si usa con: Casa, ufficio, scuola etc. intesi non come edifici fisici, ma come luogo dove si vive, si lavora, si studia He is at home. Egli è a casa At the North Pole Al Polo Nord TO Ci si sposta verso un luogo preciso. I m going to Rome. Sto andando a Roma. INTO Si entra in un luogo chiuso, o in qualche modo delimitato (all interno di ). He went into the house. Entrò in casa. FROM La preposizione from esprime sia il complemento di moto da luogo (vengo The train from London arrived 5 minutes ago. 7

7 ON da ) che quello di origine (sono originario di ). Sopra, riferito ad una superficie, quando c è contatto fisico. Il treno da Londra è arrivato 5 minuti fa. The book is on the desk. Il libro è sulla scrivania. UNDER Sotto The cat is under the table. Il gatto è sotto il tavolo. NEAR Vicino a I live near here. Abito qui vicino. NEXT TO Accanto a (confinante con ) Sarah is sitting next to Robert. Sarah è seduta vicino a Robert. BETWEEN Fra due cose o persone. Susan is sitting between Mary and John. Susan è seduta fra Mary e John. OPPOSITE Di fronte a, dal lato opposto rispetto ad una strada, un corridoio etc. The car is parked opposite the house. L auto è parcheggiata di fronte alla casa (dal lato opposto della strada). IN FRONT OF Davanti a The car is parked in front of the house. L auto è parcheggiata davanti alla casa (sullo stesso lato della strada). THROUGH Attraverso, da una parte all altra di qualcosa di chiuso o delimitato. He got in through the window. Entrò attraverso la finestra. BEHIND Dietro Who is sitting behind John? Chi è seduto dietro a John? 1. Complete the sentences using IN - AT - ON - INTO - TO - OVER - INSIDE place 1) I m going London. I'll study the Royal College of Art. 2) The dog was sitting floor! 3) We live Paris. 4) Where are you? I m waiting for you the station. 5) Put my wallet your bag, please. 6) The jam is the cupboard. 7) The airplane is flying the lake. 8) Would you like to come the cinema with me? 9) Go bed! 10) I put the bags the car and went away. 8

8 DIRECTIONS LEFT SINISTRA RIGHT DESTRA STRAIGHT ON DRITTO how far is it? Where is the? TURN LEFT GIRARE A SINISTRA GO STRAIGHT ON quanto dista? Dov è? TURN RIGHT GIRARE A DESTRA ANDARE DRITTO FRASE SIGNIFICATO NOTE Excuse me, where s the [station], please? Mi scusi, dove è la stazione per favore? Si noti l uso di Excuse me per attirare l attenzione Excuse me, is there a [pub] near here? Mi scusi, c è un pub nelle vicinanze? Excuse me, where s the nearest [pub]? Mi scusi, dov è il pub più vicino? Excuse me, can/could you tell me the way to the [station]? Mi scusi mi può/potrebbe dire la strada per la stazione? Excuse me, how do/can I get to the Mi scusi, come ci arrivo [station]? alla stazione? Turn right/left (into [Gin Street] Giri a destra/sinistra in Gin Street Take the first/second (turning) Prenda la prima/seconda on the right/left Go straight on/ahead (as far as [the traffic light]) Go/Walk down/along this/[gin] street ahead (as far as [the traffic light]) Cross Gin street Go past the [theatre] The [pub] is at the end/beginning of the street on your right/left The [pub] is halfway down the street (strada) a destra/sinistra Vada a diritto fino al semaforo Prosegua / Continui a camminare per questa strada/gin street fino al semaforo Attraversi Gin Street Oltrepassi il teatro Il pub è alla fine/all inizio della strada sulla sua destra/sinistra Il pub è a metà della strada Go straight on/ahead non può essere seguito direttamente dal nome della strada, come, ad es., Go straight on Gin Street 9

9 PLACES IN THE CITY 1.- Write the correct preposition.- (far from - near from - beside - behind - between - across from) Where is the police station the bank and the store. Where is the movie theater? The movie theater is the restaurant. 10

10 Where is the store? The store is the police station. Where is the train station? The train station is Where is the hospital? The hospital is the church. the bank. Where is the school? The school is the drugstore. 2.- Choose the correct option from the box.- The restaurant is between the bank and the hotel. The supermarket is across from the train station. The school is in front of the police station. YOU ARE AT THE X POINT.- Follow the directions and write the name of the place inside the box, use the names of the places above. Walk straight one block, turn left on Apple Street, it's on the corner of Apple Street and First Avenue. Walk straight ahead on Second Avenue, turn left on Main Street, walk one block, get to the train station and cross the street. Walk straight, turn left on Apple Street walk for one block, then turn right and walk one block on First Ave., then turn right on Main street. It's next to the the bank. 11

11 SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM In United Kingdom the school is compulsory as in Italy, but children start school when they are five and they continue until sixteen. There are public school (scuole private) where the parents must pay or private school (scuole statali). From 2 (two) to 5 (five) children can attend Nursery School where they play and sing. This school is not compulsory as Scuola Materna in Italy. From 5 to 11 children must attend Primary School: Primary school is divided in Infant School ( from 5 to 7 years) in which children learn reading, writing and in Junior School (from 7 to 11) where children study, English, maths, geography, history, technology, music and art. At Secondary school (from 11 to 16 or 18) children study English, maths, science, history, geography, music, art, physical education and a foreign language (generally French). They can also study extra subjectas like computer, cookery, woodworks. Sport is alsop very important in British schools. When the students are sixteen they must take a national examination (GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education) generally in 6 or 7 subjects they chose. The GCSE is the end of compulsory education, Then children can stop studying or they can attend two years. It s important having a GCSE A or B level results. Then students can attend University. FACULTATIVE NURSERY SCHOOL (2-5) SCUOLA MATERNA (3-6) COMPULSORY PRIMARY SCHOOL SCUOLA PRIMARIA o INFANT SCHOOOL (5-7) JUNIOR SCHOOL (7-11) ELEMENTARE (6-11) COMPULSORY SECONDARY SCHOOL OR SCUOLA MEDIA (11-14) COLLEGE (11-16) COLLEGE (16-18) SCUOLA SUPERIORE (14-19) UNIVERSITY (18-22) UNIVERSITA (19-24) Prof. Massimiliano Badiali

12 GRADED EXAMINATIONS IN SPOKEN ENGLISH LEVEL: BEGINNERS QUADRO EUROPEO DELLE LINGUE: LIVELLO A1 GRADE 1 1. What s your name? My name is/ I am. 2. How do you spell your name?. 3. What s your surname? My surname is/it s How do you spell your surname?. 5. What s your nickname? My nickname is/ It s. 6. How are you? Fine, thank you. 7. How old are you? I m. years old. 8. Where do you come from? I m from Italy. 9. Where are you from? I am (come) from What shape is this? It s a. 11. Where do you live? I live in What s your telephone number? My telephone number is/ It s 13. What s your favourite colour? My favourite colour is/ It s 14. What colour is your T-Shirt (blouse etc) It s 15. What are you wear I m wearing What day is it on? It s What month is it on? It s 18. What season is it on? It s Can you touch your nose/mouth/ear/hair/eyes 20. Stop talking/shut up/be quiet/be silent 21. Can I go to the toilet, please? Yes, you can or No, you can t 22. Are you..? Yes, I am /No, I am not 23. What colour is that (this)? It s. 24. What s your favourite food? My favourite food is/ It s 25. What s your favourite drink? My favourite drink is/ It s 26. What s your favourite animal? My favourite animal is/ It s What s your favourite school subject? My favourite school subject is/ It s 28. When is the English lesson? It s on at, on at and on at 29. What school subjects do you like? I like What subjects do you study at school? I study Italian, English, Maths 31. What s the weather like? It s cold/hot/sunny/cloudy oppure It rains o It snows 32. What s your mother s name? My mother s name is/ It s What s your father s name? My father s name is/ It s Who s your best friend? My best friend is.. Prof. Massimiliano Badiali Copyright all right reserved TRINITY EXAMINATIONS IN SPOKEN ENGLISH

13 COUNTRIES-NATIONS AND NATIONALITIES Country Paese Adjective Nationality Nazionalità- Inhabitant Denmark Danimarca England Inghilterra Finland Finlandia Iceland Islanda Ireland Irlanda Northern Ireland Irlanda del Nord Norway Norvegia Scotland Scozia Sweden Svezia United Kingdom (spesso abbreviato in UK) Regno Unito Wales Galles Austria Austria Belgium Belgio France Francia Germany Germania Netherlands Paesi bassi (Olanda) Switzerland Svizzera Albania Albania Croatia Croazia Greece Grecia Italy Italia Portugal Portogallo Spain Spagna Danish English Finnish Danish danese British / English inglese Finnish finlandese Dane Englishman / Englishwoman Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian 1 Finn Icelandic Icelandic Icelander Irish Northern Irish Norwegian Scottish Swedish Irish irlandese British / Northern Irish irlandese del nord Norwegian norvegese British / Scottish scozzese Swedish svedese Irishman / Irishwoman Northern Irishman / Northern Irishwoman Norwegian Scot / Scotsman / Scotswoman Swede British British Briton (rarely used in conversation) Welsh Austrian Belgian French German Dutch Swiss British / Welsh gallese Austrian austriaco Belgian belga French francese German tedesco Dutch olandese Swiss svizzero Welshman / Welshwoman Austrian Belgian Frenchman / Frenchwoman German Dutchman / Dutchwoman Swiss Albanian Albanian Albanian Croatian Croatian Croatian Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Greek greco Italian italiano Portuguese portoghese Spanish spagnolo Greek Italian Portuguese Spaniard

14 Czech Republic Repubblica Ceca Hungary Ungheria Poland Polonia Romania Romania Russia Russia Canada Canada Mexico Messico United States (spesso abbreviati in US o USA) Stati Uniti Argentina Argentina Brazil Brasile Turkey Turchia India India China Cina Japan Giappone Philippines Filippine Australia Australia New Zealand Nuova Zelanda Algeria Algeria Egypt Egitto Libya Libia Morocco Marocco Tunisia Tunisia Ethiopia Etiopia South Africa Sudafrica Czech Hungarian Polish Czech ceco Hungarian ungherese Polish polacco Czech Hungarian Pole Romanian Romanian Romanian Russian Canadian Mexican American Argentine / Argentinian Brazilian Turkish Indian Chinese Japanese Russian russo Canadian candese Mexican messicano American americano Argentine / Argentinian argentino Brazilian brasiliano Turkish turco Indian indiano Chinese cinese Japanese giapposese Russian Canadian Mexican American Argentine / Argentinian Brazilian Turk Indian Chinese Japanese Filipino Filipino Filipino Australian New Zealand Australian australiano New Zealand neozelandese Australian New Zealander neozelandese Algerian Algerian Algerian Egyptian Egyptian egiziano Egyptian Libyan Libyan Libyan Moroccan Moroccan Moroccan Tunisian Tunisian Tunisian Ethiopian Ethiopian Ethiopian South African South African sudafricano South African 2

15 3 Opposites - Adjectives Adjectives Opposites alive dead beautiful ugly big small bitter sweet cheap expensive clean dirty curly straight difficult easy good bad early late fat thin full empty hot cold happy sad/unhappy hardworking lazy modern traditional new old nice nasty intelligent stupid interesting boring light heavy polite rude/impolite poor rich quiet noisy right wrong safe dangerous short long small big soft hard single married true false white black

16 How much? "How much" d altro canto, puoi tradurlo in Italiano con "Quanto". Questa domanda é sempre usata, quando la quantità non può essere misurata esattamente o rappresentata tramite un numero. Puoi rispondere per esempio con: "not so much" o "three tea spoons". How much time is there? Quanto tempo é? How much water are you drink Quanta acqua stai bevendo? PRICE-PREZZO How much does it cost? How much is it? How much? quanto costa? Si risponde con It costs /It is Ex 10,60 It s ten euro sixty Euro si dice iuro, i centesimi cent (sent) Euro is the official coin in Northern Ireland IN EURO 3,50 10, Sterlina si dice pound (paund) i centesimi si dicono pence 1 cent. penny Pound is the official coin in United Kingdom IN POUND 2,30 20,35 12,01 Dollaro si dice dollar i centesimi cent Dollar is the official coin in United States of America IN DOLLAR 23,70 50,15 45,60 (prezzo) cost, price; (per un servizio) fee, charge; (spesa) cost, expense; a prezzo di ~ [vendere] at cost (price); a basso ~ [vendere, comprare] on the cheap; [film, produzione] low-budget, low-cost; sotto ~ [vendere, comprare] below cost, under price 8

17 COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 54 independent member states, BRITAIN EX COLONIES. The member states cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace. [1] The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation in which countries with diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, which is held by Queen Elizabeth II. COMMONWEALTH REALMS Elizabeth II is also monarch, separately and independently, of 16 Commonwealth members, which are known as the "Commonwealth realms". A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The biggest realms are: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea and Jamaica. 13

18 ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES English, a West Germanic language that is named for its origins as the native tongue of the people of England, is the most widely used language in the world. It is the third most commonly spoken language in the world in terms of native speakers, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. ] But it is more commonly used as a second language than any other exceeds those of any other language. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations, European Union and the International Olympic Committee. ENGLISH AS FIRST LANGUAGE It is spoken as a first language by a majority of the inhabitants of several nations, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belau, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Federation of Micronesia, Grenada, Guam, Guyana, Jamaica, Johnston, Montserrat, Northern Marianas, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. ENGLISH OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OR SECOND LANGUAGE A number of countries use English as an official language Botswana, Fiji, Ghana, Kenya, India, Hong Kong, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Samoa, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Zambia. 14

19 SIMPLE PAST Il Simple Past è il tempo verbale inglese che esprime il concetto generale di un azione che si è svolta nel passato e non ha più nessun rapporto con il presente. Per poter mettere un verbo al Simple Past devono verificarsi contemporaneamente tre condizioni. 1. L azione deve essersi svolta nel passato ed essere finita nel momento in cui si parla. 2. Il tempo in cui l azione si è svolta deve essere espresso nella frase o nel contesto. Ho visto quel film. L azione di vedere il film è passata e finita, perché in questo momento non lo sto più guardando, ma il tempo in cui si è svolta non è espresso: non dico quando ho visto il film. Perciò il verbo "vedere" non può essere messo al Simple Past in inglese. I have seen that movie. 3. Il tempo espresso deve essere passato e finito mentre si parla. Ho visto quel film questa settimana Ho visto quel film la settimana scorsa Il tempo è espresso, questa settimana, ma la settimana non è ancora finita, perciò non posso usare il Simple Past. I have seen that movie this week. L azione è passata (1 condizione). Il tempo è espresso (2 condizione). Il tempo espresso è finito (3 condizione). >>> Devo mettere il verbo al Simple Past. I saw that movie last week. Le espressioni di tempo che collocano l azione in un momento definito del passato possono essere di diverso tipo. Posso esprimere il tempo mediante Avverbi di tempo. Yesterday (ieri) Esempio Complementi di tempo Last week (la settimana scorsa) During my summer holidays (durante le mie vacanze estive) Three days ago (tre giorni fa) 1

20 Proposizioni temporali When I was a child (quando ero bambino) When I was three years old (quando avevo tre anni) Un evento storico During World War II (durante la seconda guerra mondiale) Nota Si usa il Simple Past anche in assenza di espressione di tempo passato, nei seguenti casi: Circostanza Nelle domande al passato con WHEN, perché si presuppone nella risposta la collocazione dell azione in un momento preciso del passato. Quando hai visto quel film? Esempio When did you see that movie? Nelle proposizioni temporali introdotte da WHEN Quando si parla di una persona che non vive più. Quando lo conobbi.. When I first met him.. Shakespeare scrisse molte opere teatrali. Shakespeare wrote many plays. Come si costruisce Il Simple Past, nella forma affermativa, è un tempo semplice, che è dato dalla seconda voce del paradigma ed è uguale per tutte le persone. Infinito italiano Lavorare Andare Paradigma inglese work - worked - worked go - went - gone Per i verbi regolari il Simple Past si ottiene aggiungendo -ED alla forma base del verbo, tenendo presente quanto segue. Regola Forma Base Simple Past I verbi regolari aggiungono ed alla forma base work (lavorare) walk (camminare) worked walked 2

21 I verbi che terminano per -e aggiungono solo la d smile (sorridere) smiled I verbi che terminano per -y preceduta da consonante, cambiano la y in i e aggiungono ed. cry (piangere) cried I verbi che terminano per una sola consonante preceduta da una vocale accentata raddoppiano la consonante finale. admit (ammettere) stop (fermarsi) admitted stopped I verbi che terminano per -l preceduta da una sola vocale raddoppiano sempre la l. travel (viaggiare) travelled Per i verbi irregolari il paradigma è dato dal dizionario, e bisogna impararlo a memoria (vedi paradigma dei verbi irregolari).esempio: Infinito italiano essere andare correre avere Paradigma inglese be - was - been go - went - gone run - ran - run have - had - had TO BE I, he, she, it was. you, we, they were. Examples: I was in London in The interrogative form: Was I, he, she, it? Were you, we, they? Examples: Were you in London last year? The negative form: was not. I, you, he, she wasn't. You, we, they were not. 3

22 weren't. Essendo un tempo semplice, il Simple Past dei verbi non-ausiliari ha bisogno dell aiuto di un ausiliare per fare le forme interrogative e negative. Si usa l ausiliare DID, in presenza del quale il verbo dalla frase resta invariato nella sua forma base. Forma Costruzione Esempio Forma affermativa SOGGETTO + 2 VOCE DEL PARADIGMA I worked you worked he / she / it worked we worked you worked Forma interrogativa DID + SOGGETTO + FORMA BASE Forma negativa SOGG. + DID + NOT + FORMA BASE DID NOT>>>DIDN T they worked Did you work last night? (Hai lavorato ieri sera?) I didn t work last night (Non ho lavorato ieri sera) Nota: Ieri mattina Ieri pomeriggio Ieri sera Ieri notte / sera tardi Yesterday morning Yesterday afternoon Yesterday evening Last night GROUP 1 (A,B ;B) IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle bring brought brought build built Built 4

23 burn burnt/ burned burnt/burned bought Bought buy catch caught Caught dreamt/ dreamed Dreamt/ dreamed Dream Fight fought Fought find found Found Forbid forbade Forbidden Have had Had hear heard Heard Keep kept Kept learn learnt Learnt leave left Left lose lost Lost make made made mean meant meant meet met met pay paid Paid say said said sell sold sold send sent sent show showed shown / showed sit sat sat spend spent spent 5

24 teach taught taught tell told told think thought Thought Wake Woke-waked Woken-waked Win won won GROUP 2 (A;B;C) Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Be was / were been bear Bore born / borne beat Beat beaten / beat become Became become begin began begun bite bit bitten Break broke Broken Choose chose Chosen do did done drink drank drunk drive drove driven eat ate eaten fall fell fallen feed fed fed feel felt felt forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven freeze froze frozen 6

25 get got gotten/ got give gave given go went gone grow grew grown know knew known read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red") see saw seen sing sang sung speak spoke spoken steal stole stolen swim swam swum take took taken wear wore worn write wrote written GROUP 3 /A,A;A) Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle cost cost cost cut cut cut let let let put put put set set set GROUP 4 (A, B, A) Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle become became become come came come 7

26 run ran run EXERCISES Put the verb "to be" into the simple past: 1. I in Canada last summer holiday. 2. My sister with me. 3. We in Montreal. 4. She very happy. 5. I happy, too. Put the verb "to be" into the simple present or the simple past: 1. I an engineer. 2. Last year I a student in Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 3. I in love with a beautiful girl at that time.we friends 4. Now, I live in New York and I married to her. Put the verbs into the simple past: 1. Last year I (go) to England on holiday. 2. It (be) fantastic. 3. I (vist) lots of interesting places. I (be) with two friends of mine. 4. In the mornings we (walk) in the streets of London. 5. In the eveninigs we (go) to pubs. 6. The weather (be) strangely fine. 7. It (not / rain) a lot. 8. But we (see) some beautiful rainbows. 9. Where (spend / you) your last holiday? Write the past forms of the irregular verbs. Infinitive 1. meet 2. drive 3. speak 4. put Simple Past.... 8

27 5. write 6. sing 7. do 8. sit 9. stand 10. run Complete the table in simple past. Affirmative Negative Interrogative He wrote a book. He did not sing Was she pretty? Put the sentences into simple past. 1. We move to a new house. 2. They bring a sandwitch. 3. He doesn't do the homework. 4. They sell cars. 5. Does he visit his friends? Write sentences in simple past. 1. Janet / miss / the bus 2. she / tidy / her room 3. Nancy / watch / not / television 4. she / read / a book Choose "Was or "Were : 1. The teacher nice. 2. The students very clever. 3. But one student in trouble. 4. We sorry for him. 5. He nice though. 9

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29 THE FUTURE I will be 18 tomorrow. I am leaving at 8.45 tomorrow morning. It is going to rain soon. Il futuro si può esprimere in Inglese nei seguenti modi: Futuro con WILL/SHALL Present Continuous To be going + infinito FUTURO CON "WILL/SHALL" Quando si usa 1. Si usa il futuro con will per esprimere qualcosa che si è deciso di fare nel momento in cui si parla, senza cioè averlo precedentemente programmato. Esempi: Situazione Squilla il telefono: - "Rispondo io!" (Decido di rispondere quando sento squillare il telefono.) - "E il compleanno di Tom!" - "Gli comprerò un regalo." (Decido di comprare il regalo nel momento in cui mi dicono che è il suo compleanno.) - "Non c è più latte." - "Andrò a comprarne un po." (Non avevo programmato di uscire a comprare il latte, l ho deciso in questo In inglese "I ll get it!" "I ll buy a present for him." "I ll go and buy some."

30 momento.) Al ristorante il cameriere mi chiede che cosa voglio. Io guardo il menù, poi dico: "Prenderò una bistecca." "I ll have a steak." 2. Si usa il futuro con will per esprimere un evento che sicuramente accadrà in futuro e che non dipende dalla volontà di chi parla. Esempi: Avrò 18 anni domani. I will be 18 tomorrow. Il treno partirà alle The train will leave at half past eight. Nota Per gli orari predefiniti (treni, aerei, apertura e chiusura negozi) si usa frequentemente il Simple Present: The train leaves at (Il treno parte alle 8.30.) 3. Si usa il futuro con will per annunci o previsioni ufficiali, di solito fatti alla radio o alla televisione. Esempi: La nebbia persisterà. The fog will persist. Il presidente aprirà la seduta del nuovo parlamento. The president will open the new parliament session. 4. Si usa il futuro con will per esprimere l opinione di chi parla sul futuro, o ciò che si pensa accadrà. Di solito dopo i verbi: To assume To be afraid To be sure To believe presumere aver paura, temere essere sicuro credere

31 To doubt To hope To know To suppose To think To wonder dubitare sperare Nota: con il verbo to hope si usa frequentemente il Simple Present in luogo del futuro. I hope she phones me tonight. (Spero che lei mi telefoni questa sera) sapere supporre pensare domandarsi Oppure in presenza degli avverbi: Perhaps Probably Surely forse probabilmente sicuramente Esempi: Penso che partirò domani. I think I will leave tomorrow. Sono sicura che Marco verrà. I am sure Mark will come. Forse partirò domani. Perhaps I will leave tomorrow. Come si costruisce Il futuro con will è un tempo composto che utilizza gli ausiliari WILL e SHALL e la Forma Base del verbo (infinito senza to). Essendo un tempo composto, per fare la forma interrogativa e negativa occorre mettere nella forma interrogativa e negativa l ausiliare, seguendo il modello del verbo to be, mentre il verbo nella Forma Base rimane invariato al suo posto. forma affermativa soggetto + will / shall + Forma Base The train will leave at 8.30.

32 forma negativa forma interrogativa soggetto + will / shall + not + Forma Base will / shall + soggetto + Forma Base (Il treno partirà alle 8.30.) The train will not leave at (Il treno non partirà alle 7.30.) What time will the train leave? (A che ora partirà il treno?) Come tutti gli ausiliari inglesi, anche will e shall hanno delle forme contratte: WILL / SHALL >>> 'LL WILL NOT >>> WON T SHALL NOT >>> SHAN T Quando si usa WILL L ausiliare WILL si dovrebbe usare alla seconda e terza persona singolare e plurale:you - He - She - It - They. In pratica però lo si usa comunemente come ausiliare del futuro in tutte le persone: I shall go / I will go You will go He will go She will go It will go We shall go / we will go You will go They will go Nella forma interrogativa, limitatamente alla seconda persona singolare e plurale, WILL può assumere il significato di "Vuoi...?" oppure "Volete...?", quando si chiede gentilmente a qualcuno di fare qualcosa.

33 Esempio: Vuoi chiudere la porta per favore? Will you close the door, please? Quando si usa SHALL L ausiliare SHALL si dovrebbe usare alla prima persona singolare e plurale, in pratica però lo si usa raramente come ausiliare del futuro, essendo stato sostituito da will nell uso corrente. Nella forma interrogativa lo si può usare, limitatamente alla prima persona singolare e plurale, con il significato di: "Devo...?" oppure "Dobbiamo...?" quando ci si offre gentilmente di fare qualcosa. Esempio: Devo aiutarti? Shall I help you? Dobbiamo andare? Shall we go? PRESENT CONTINUOUS Quando si usa Il Present Continuous può essere usato con significato di futuro per esprimere un programma preciso per il futuro, per realizzare il quale si è già fatto qualcosa. Esempi: Situazione Darò un esame in ottobre. In inglese I m taking an exam in October. Se uso il Present Continuous, implico che non ho solo l'intenzione di dare l'esame, l'ho programmato (probabilmente sto già studiando e mi sono già iscritto all'esame). Partirò in treno domani. I m leaving by train tomorrow.

34 Se uso il Present Continuous, implico che non ho solo l'intenzione di partire, è un programma preciso che ho fatto (forse ho già il biglietto). Bob incontrerà Susan questa sera. Bob non ha solo intenzione di incontrare Susan, ma probabilmente si è già messo d accordo con lei. Bob is meeting Susan this evening. Come si costruisce Forma Costruzione Esempio forma affermativa forma negativa forma interrogativa soggetto + to be al Simple Present + verboing + indicazione di tempo soggetto + to be al Simple Present + not + verbo-ing + indicazione di tempo to be al Simple Present + soggetto + verbo-ing + indicazione di tempo I am leaving by train tomorrow (Partirò in treno domani) I am not leaving by train tomorr (Non partirò in treno domani) Are you leaving by train tomorr (Partirai in treno domani?) TO BE GOING+INFINITO Quando si usa 1. Si usa questa forma di futuro per esprimere l intenzione di fare qualcosa. Non è una cosa che certamente si farà, ma si mette in evidenza il fatto che questa è l intenzione o la volontà di chi parla. Esempi : I m going to take an exam in October. Ho intenzione di dare un esame in ottobre. (Non so se darò effettivamente l esame, ma questa è la mia intenzione.)

35 Forma costruzione Esempio forma affermativa forma negativa forma interrogativa soggetto +to be al Simple Present + going + infinito soggetto + to be al Simple Present + not + going + infinito to be al Simple Present +sogg. + going + infinito I am going to leave (Ho intenzione di partire) You are going to leave (Hai intenzione di partire) etc... I m not going to leave (Non ho intenzione di partire You aren t going to leave (Non hai intenzione di partire etc... Are you going to leave tomorrow? (Hai intenzione di partire domani?) Is Bob going to meet Susan tonight? (Bob ha intenzione di incont Susan questa sera?) I m going to leave by train tomorrow. Ho intenzione di partire con il treno domani. (Non è proprio certo che partirò, ma ne ho l intenzione.) Tom is going to meet Susan tonight. Tom ha intenzione di incontrare Susan questa sera. (Non è detto che si sia già messo d accordo con lei, ma intende incontrarla.) 2. Questa forma di futuro si usa anche per esprimere qualcosa che sta per accadere, o una previsione che si fa sulla base di una constatazione. Esempio: Vedo che il cielo è molto nuvoloso: "Sta per piovere!" "It is going to rain!"

36 Come si costruisce Si utilizza il Present Continuous del verbo to go, seguito dall infinito del verbo della frase. IN SINTESI La stessa frase può essere espressa con i vari tipi di futuro, assumendo una diversa sfumatura di significato. Esempio: Partirò domani a) I will leave tomorrow. (L ho deciso in questo momento.) b) I m leaving tomorrow. (Ho in programma di partire domani, probabilmente ho già comprato il biglietto o fatto la valigia.) c) I m going to leave tomorrow. (Ho intenzione di partire domani.) EXERCISE 1: Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the future (GOING TO, WILL/SHALL) 1) I (not eat) here again. 2) Look at those clouds! It (rain)! 3) Linda (buy) a new car. 4) Tom (have) his lunch now. 5) Have you tidied your desk? - No, I (tidy) it tomorrow. 6) I (read) this book. 7) My cousin (live) in Spain for a few months. 8) Susan (visit) her aunt on Sunday. 9) They (pay)? 10) She (to stay) at home this evening. EXERCISE 2: Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the future (GOING TO, WILL/SHALL) Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the future (GOING TO or WILL) 1) I'm very tired! - Wait! I (carry) those bags for you. 2) I think I (have) a hamburger for lunch. 3) Hurry up, or we (miss) the bus! 4) Jack (marry) Elizabeth in June.

37 5) My sister (stay) with me for a few days. 6) (you see) him again? 7) Wait! I (open) the door for you. 8) I think it (rain) tomorrow. 9) Have you bought that book? - Not yet. I (buy) it tomorrow. 10) She needs a dictionary. I (lend) her mine. EXERCISE 3: Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the future (GOING TO, WILL/SHALL or the PRESENT CONTINUOUS used in its future meaning). One, two or three answers are possible. 1) It's Bob's birthday today! I (get) him something. 2) Look! The picture (fall down)! 3) When (we go) on holiday this year? 4) (you go) clubbing tonight? - No, I (negative) 5) They (drive) to London tomorrow morning. 6) We (meet) Christopher tomorrow. 7) The journey (take) several hours. 8) I (go) to Sicily this summer. 9) If you study hard you (pass) your exam. 10) She (to watch) the match on TV tonight.

38 How to Get Your First Tattoo It seems like everyone has a tattoo these days. What used to be the property of sailors, outlaws, and biker gangs is now a popular body decoration for many people. And it's not just anchors, skulls, and battleships anymore from school emblems to Celtic designs to personalized symbols, people have found many ways to express themselves with their tattoos. Maybe you've thought about getting one. But before you head down to the nearest tattoo shop and roll up your sleeve, keep reading to know what to expect. 1 If you're thinking about getting a tattoo, there is one very important thing you have to keep in mind getting it done safely. Although it might look a whole lot cooler than a big scab, a new tattoo is also a wound. Like any other slice, scrape, puncture, cut, or penetration to your skin, a tattoo is at risk for infections and disease. Make sure you're up to date with your immunizations (especially hepatitis and tetanus shots) and plan where you'll get medical care if your tattoo becomes infected (signs of infection include excessive redness or tenderness around the tattoo, prolonged bleeding, pus, or changes in your skin color around the tattoo). If you have a medical problem such as heart disease, allergies, diabetes, skin disorders, a condition that affects your immune system, or infections or if you are pregnant ask your doctor if there are any special concerns you should have or precautions you should take beforehand. Also, if you're prone to getting keloids (an overgrowth of scar tissue in the area of the wound), it's probably best to avoid getting a tattoo altogether. 2 Think of a design you want to get.make sure it is something you feel comfortable showing off, and that you want on your body until you die. 3 Make a rough sketch of your design. It doesn't have to be perfect. Tattoo artists are just that: artists. If you can give a good idea of what you want, your artist can really fly with it. 4 Find the location on your body that you want to put it. Make sure it fits. Not too big, and not too small. 5 Touch up your design. Smooth out the lines, add a basic color scheme, and make it fit to your desired location.

39 6 Find an artist. The recommendation of a friend who has a tattoo you like a lot can help. Look around to find somewhere that really excels in the style you want. Don't be afraid to travel- a few hours in a car or train is worth it to ensure that your art is the best standard it can be. 7 Pick a few and check them out. It's very important to make sure the tattoo studio is clean and safe, and that all equipment used is disposable (in the case of needles, gloves, masks, etc.) and sterilized (everything else). Some states, cities, and communities set up standards for tattoo studios, but others don't. You can call your state, county, or local health department to find out about the laws in your community, ask for recommendations on licensed tattoo shops, or check for any complaints about a particular studio. Professional studios usually take pride in their cleanliness. Here are some things to check for: Make sure the tattoo studio has an autoclave (a device that uses steam, pressure, and heat for sterilization). You may be allowed to watch as equipment is sterilized in the autoclave. Check that the tattoo artist is a licensed practitioner. If so, the tattoo artist should be able to provide you with references. Be sure that the tattoo studio follows the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Universal Precautions. These are regulations that outline procedures to be followed when dealing with bodily fluids (in this case, blood). 8 If the studio looks unclean, if anything looks out of the ordinary, or if you feel in any way uncomfortable, find a better place to get your tattoo. 9 Have a bit of knowledge of the overview. Here's an example of what to expect: The tattoo artist will first wash his or her hands with a germicidal soap. The to-be-tattooed area on your body will be cleaned and disinfected. The tattoo artist will put on clean, fresh gloves (and possibly a surgical mask). The tattoo artist will explain the sterilization procedure to you and open up the single-use, sterilized equipment (such as needles, etc.). Using the tattoo machine (with a sterile, single-use needle attached), the tattoo artist will begin drawing an outline of the tattoo under your skin. The outline will be cleaned with antiseptic soap and water.sterile, thicker needles will be installed on the tattoo machine, and the tattoo artist will start shading the design. After cleaning the area again, color will be injected. A new bottle of ink should be opened for each individual. Any blood will be removed by a sterile, disposable cloth or towel. When finished, the area, now sporting a finished tattoo, will be cleaned once again and a bandage will be applied.

40 10 Choose the artist whose work you like best and tell him or her you want a tattoo. Tell your artist everything you know. What it is, where it's going, how big, etc. 11 Negotiate your price. Ask how much it will cost; that way you can get the money the day of the tattoo, or transfer it from account to account, however you want to do it. Once you discuss the tattoo you will usually be asked to leave a deposit ($50 or so) and make an appointment. The deposit goes to the total price of your tattoo, so don't worry. Leave the rough drawing with them so they can improve upon it, and make it unique, just for you. 12 Pay attention to the location where you will be tattooed. The tattoo artist will shave the location where you are getting the tattoo. You do not want to shave the area yourself, because you may end up damaging the skin. Let the professional handle it.. 13 When you get there, go over the new and improved picture, and make sure it's OK. Remember, this is forever inked into your skin. If there's anything - any little thing - about it that isn't what you want, stop right there, and let your artist know. You don't have to have a fit about it, or get panicked. Just say, "Hey, this part right here? I'm not crazy about it. I would like a little more/less..." whatever it is. The artist will probably not get upset or take it personally - after all, he/she is trying to read your mind a little bit, and if it's not exactly the thing, he or she is a pro who knows it can be easily tweaked. If the artist does get defensive, angry, or belligerent about the changes you want, thank him or her and go elsewhere. You are the one who will wear this image for life, and if the artist isn't willing to make it wonderful for you, he/she's not the one for you. 14 Relax. You are going to be nervous, but calm down as much as you can. The tattoo artist will make sure it doesn't hurt a lot. When you get in the chair, sing something to yourself in your head, or talk to the artist. Make sure you do everything he/she says, move this, sit back, etc. 15 Take a final look when it's finished. Make sure they didn't miss anything. They'll be happy to touch it up, if they need to. 16 Take care of your tattoo as instructed. Follow all of the instructions the studio gives you for caring for your tattoo to make sure it heals properly. Also, keep in mind that it's very important to call your doctor right away if you see or feel any signs of infection such as pain, spreading redness, swelling, or drainage of pus. To make sure your tattoo heals properly: Keep a bandage on the area for up to one or two hours. Avoid touching the

41 tattooed area and don't pick at any scabs that may form. Wash the tattoo with an antibacterial soap (don't use alcohol or peroxide they'll dry out the tattoo). Use a soft towel to dry the tattoo just pat it dry and be sure not to rub it. If you don't have an allergy to antibiotic ointment, rub some into the tattoo. Don't use petroleum jelly it may cause the tattoo to fade. Put an ice pack on the tattooed area if you see any redness or swelling. Try not to get the tattoo wet until it fully heals. Stay away from pools, hot tubs, or long, hot baths. Keep your tattoo away from the sun until it's fully healed. 17 Even after it's fully healed, a tattoo is more susceptible to the sun's rays, so it's a good idea to always keep it protected from direct sunlight. If you're outside often or hang out at the beach, it's recommended that you always wear a sunscreen with a minimum sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 on the tattoo. This not only protects your skin, but keeps the tattoo from fading. &utm_campaign=scribol

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