Workshop Three: The Congo in Conflict: its Minerals, our Convenience? Length of Lesson: 45 minutes

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1 Workshop Three: The Congo in Conflict: its Minerals, our Convenience? Length of Lesson: 45 minutes Objectives: Students learn about select mineral resources in the Congo Students gain an understanding that, through these minerals, citizens of the United States are connected to the conflict and related human rights abuses in the Congo Students review the definitions of Perpetrator, By-stander, Up-stander and Victim, and analyze when they have taken on these roles in their lives Students read quotes from civilians, miners, traders and the international community, and discuss the roles each assumes related to the Congo mines Working in groups, students discuss whether or not their choices may affect citizens of the Congo Students read about companies implementing innovative practices to procure minerals from mines where abuses are not taking place Materials: Vocabulary sheet for key terms in the lesson Handouts for students, with quotes and questions Discussion (10 Minutes) Begin the class by checking in with students on how they are feeling about the topic and if they have any questions Share with students that this class is about finding out how closely linked we may be to the citizens of the Congo, even though we are geographically far away Explain that despite the great distance between us, there is something very tangible that connects citizens there to citizens here. Ask them if they know what it may be. The answer: The minerals of the Congo Explain that the mines which contain these minerals are controlled by the warring factions, mentioned in the first class. The armed groups perpetuating the violence in the Congo generate an estimated $185 million each year by trading in four main minerals, the 3 T s and gold. Ask the students if they have any idea what such minerals are used for and why. Tin Used inside cell phones and all electronic products as solder on circuit boards. Worldwide, 53% of tin is used as a solder, the vast majority in electronics. Armed groups earn approximately $115 million per year from trading in tin. Tantalum (often called coltan) Used to store electricity in capacitors in ipods,

2 digital cameras, and cell phones, 65-80% of the world's tantalum is used in electronic products. Armed groups earn an estimated $12 million per year from trading in tantalum. Tungsten Used to make cell phones vibrate. Tungsten is a growing source of income for armed groups in the Congo, which are currently earning approximately $7 million annually from trade of the mineral. Gold Used mainly in jewelry, gold is also a component in electronics. Extremely valuable and easy to smuggle, armed groups are earning between $50 million per year from gold. New Terms to learn (10 minutes) Tell the students that they will now explore the definitions of four terms to better understand the controversial mineral situation in the Congo and our connection to it. The terms and definitions should be written on the board prior to the class. Or, hand out the vocabulary list that is provided in the downloads. After introducing each new term, ask the students if they recall an incident in their lives when they assumed one of these roles: By-stander: An onlooker, passerby, eyewitness or spectator. The bystander does not directly engage in the event. Perpetrator: The doer, the executor, the person responsible for or behind the event. Activist/Upstander: An advocate for the victim, acts out against the actions of the perpetrator. Victim: A person who suffers from averse circumstance. Group work (15 minutes) Ask the students to break into groups of four, to read quotes from people in the Congo and to discuss with each other what roles they believe these people have chosen. Disseminate the handouts to students, each quote page contains questions for students to reflect on. When the groups have completed their discussion each group will share their conclusions with the class. Closing Discussion (ten minutes) Begin a discussion with students with the opening question: Now - as a class and as citizens in the United States - what role, if any, do you think we have taken that affects the citizens of the Congo? Homework: Students read the open letter: Dell, HP, Intel & Motorola Aim to Ensure Mineral Supply Chains Are Conflict-Free Students answer the question following questions: 1. What have these companies teamed up to do and why?

3 2. As a citizen do you think there is anything you can do to help the people of the Congo? And, if your answer is yes, what do you think you can do? Key Terms for Congo Lesson # 3 By-stander: An onlooker, passerby, eyewitness or spectator. The by-stander does not directly engage in the event. Perpetrator: The doer, the executor, the person responsible for or behind the event. Activist/Upstander: An advocate for the victim, acts out against the actions of the perpetrator. Victim: A person who suffers from averse circumstance. Minerals found in mines in the Congo: Tin: Used inside cell phones and all electronic products as solder on circuit boards. Worldwide, 53% of tin worldwide is used as a solder, the vast majority in electronics. Armed groups earn approximately $85 million per year from trading in tin. Tantalum (often called coltan): Used to store electricity in capacitors in ipods, digital cameras, and cell phones, 65-80% of the world's tantalum is used in electronic products. Armed groups earn an estimated $8 million per year from trading in tantalum. Tungsten: Used to make cell phones vibrate. Tungsten is a growing source of income for armed groups in the Congo, which are currently earning approximately $2 million annually from trade of the mineral. Gold: Used mainly in jewelry, gold is also a component in electronics. Extremely valuable and easy to smuggle, armed groups are earning between $44-88 million per year from gold. Militia group referred to in quote: Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda (FLDR): One of the militia groups responsible for acts of human rights abuses in Eastern Congo.

4 Congo Lesson #3 Roles: By-stander: An onlooker, passerby, eyewitness or spectator. The bystander does not directly engage in the event. Perpetrator: The doer, the executor, the person responsible for or behind the event. Activist/Upstander: An advocate for the victim, acts out against the actions of the perpetrator. Victim: A person who suffers from averse circumstance. Congolese Civilian and Miner Quotes 1 : When you're faced with a gun, what can you do, as a simple civilian? [...] They ask for money [...] They ask for gold or cassiterite. Whatever happens, you have to give it." - A miner from Shabunda (South Kivu) describing extortion at military roadblocks. Bukavu, July 28, When faced with a gun what do you see as the options, if any, for civilians? 2. What role is this civilian in, during such a scenario? "Please tell the government to tell the military to stop this. The population is suffering." - Miner in Tubimbi (South Kivu), July 29, What role do you think the miner would like the government to assume? 2. Based on this quote, what role do you think the Congolese government is playing in the conflict? "You can't export fraudulently if you don't have the support of the army [...] The state itself has destroyed all the structures of the state [...] Fraud is the rule." - Senior civil servant, Bukavu, July 28, What role do you think the civil servant believes the government has taken? 2. What do you think the state can do to prevent human rights abuses? "If a mine is discovered by the population, the FDLR come and take it over [...] No one can stop them. People just observe." - Member of Congolese non-governmental organisation, Goma, July 22, What role is the population in when this scenario takes place? 1 All quotes are from interviews carried out by Global Witness in North and South Kivu (eastern Congo) unless otherwise stated.

5 2. What role is the FDLR in during this scenario? "People simply can't refuse to work for them" - Member of Congolese NGO describing the relationship between the FDLR and Congolese civilians, Bukavu, July 24, What role are Congolese citizens in when told they must work for the FDLR? 2. Do the citizens have any options? "We are their meat, their animals. We have nothing to say." - A miner from Shabunda, subjected to extortion at FDLR roadblocks during his 340-km trek from Shabunda to Bukavu on foot, Bukavu, July 28, What role do you think this miner perceives himself in? 2. What does he mean when he says, We have nothing to say? There needs to be more people who break the silence and the cycle of violence. The whole community is affected by the rape epidemic. The fact that the conflict is ignored is a shame to humanity. Dr. Denis Mukwege, Panzi Hospital, Bukavu during an interview, July What role do you think Dr. Denis Mukwege perceives himself in? 2. What hardships do you think the Congolese doctors may endure during this crisis? I hear these minerals are used in mobile phones, but I don t know how, Why don t the big companies make sure they are not buying form the FDLR? They have that power and money surely. Robert, youth civil society activist, Bukavu, June Why do you think Robert does not understand how the minerals are used in phones? 2. Do you have any similar questions like Robert? If so, what are those questions? Quote from a Mineral Trader "We all end up buying minerals which, in some way, have been produced illegally. You can't just ask us to stop. We have no alternatives other than closing." - Representative of a comptoir (mineral trading company), Goma, August 9, What role is this trader assuming by buying minerals from the Congo? 2. Do you think there is a way for a trader to only buy minerals from mines where human rights abuses do not take place? Quote from an International Organization "Natural resources are not on the table of topics in peace talks. Almost every other issue is. Yet it's one of the keys to resolution of the conflict." - UN official, Goma, July 22, What role does the international community assume related to the Congo, if natural resources are not one of the topics during peace talks? 2. Do you think natural resources should be discussed in peace talks?

6 Dell, HP, Intel & Motorola Aim to Ensure Mineral Supply Chains Are Conflict-Free By Tod Arbogast, Director of Sustainable Business, Dell Judy Glazer, Director of Global Social and Environmental Responsibility Operations, HP Gary Niekerk, Director of Global Citizenship, Intel Mike Loch, Director of Supplier Corporate Responsibility, Motorola You may have recently read about the atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The DRC holds vast sources of minerals; unfortunately, some of the profits derived from extracting these minerals are linked to groups reported to be committing serious human rights violations. non-hp site Minerals such as tantalum, tin, tungsten and gold, used in numerous industries including aerospace, automotive, electronics and jewelry, are extracted in the DRC, among other locations. In the electronics industry, the mining of these minerals takes place many layers before a final product is assembled, making it difficult if not impossible to trace the minerals origins. As the electronic products our companies manufacture do contain these materials, and some of them could potentially originate from conflict regions of the DRC, Dell, HP, Intel and Motorola are jointly hosting a multi-industry forum to help develop transparency, accountability and assurance mechanisms in the supply chain of extracted metals. This forum, set for Tuesday, Oct. 20 at the BSR conference non-hp site in San Francisco, aims to help us learn from those who ve made this journey before and established certification processes for their suppliers. We will hear from those mapping their supply chain down to the mines, and from mining and smelting operations that are conducting business in a socially and environmentally responsible manner. We hope this forum will help determine what actions we need to take to move forward on this important issue. We already expect our suppliers, wherever they operate, to meet our standards for socially and environmentally responsible operations. That said, ensuring that our supply chain does not contribute to human rights violations in the DRC, or any other country, requires cooperation and commitment within every layer of the supply base. If you re a decision maker in a company whose products contain these minerals, or if you have influence in the area of corporate responsibility in your corporation, we encourage you to join us in this important discussion at BSR. Finding a solution will require a force larger than any one company or industry, and we invite you to participate.

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