AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling"

Transcription

1 AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling

2 Effect of radiation on clouds: fog 2

3 Clear-sky cooling/heating rate: longwave CO2 O3 H2O 3

4 Clear-sky heating rate: shortwave Standard atmosphere Heating due to O 3 absorption Why drop off near sfc? Implication on daily temp. cycle? 4

5 Net flux - ( 1 ) + (1) Net flux: = ( + 2 ) ( 2 ) 2 Net energy gain in a layer: E = E in - E out or a unit volume in the layer: E measured in W m 3 m or very thin layer: H d d Heating rate (H) H H d d d d If H < : cooling If H > : heating How does temperature change? Therefore the time change is: H de dt H de dt c p dt dt This yields: or a constant pressure: dt dt H c p de c p dt (usually measured in K/day) 5

6 Heating rates in the Atmosphere -LW Assume that the Earth s surface is a blackbody, and that the downward d intensity i at the top of the atmosphere is ero. Then we can write ( ) * B T t (,) dt B( (, d' d' dt (, ( ) B( d' 2 d' If we examine equation 1, the integrand can be viewed as udv u.dv in the relation d(uv)=vdu+udv and Eq 1 can be replaced by d B(T (, d B ( d' d' d' - d' T 1 (, ') d '

7 Heating rates in the Atmosphere which equals B( ) B() T (,) - and equation 1becomes ( ) B( ) d B( T d' (, d' * d B( B B() T (,) d' If we apply the same procedure to Equation 2 we get T (, d' ( ) t B(T (, db ( t d d' d' B( ) B( t ) T (, t ) t d d' T B( T d' (, d' (, d'

8 Heating rates in the Atmosphere The net flux net T B( net d (, t ) T will consist of four terms t B ( db ( (, d' t ) d' - T (, * B B() T (,) d' d'

9 Heating rates in the Atmosphere The heating rate at is defined as follows: dnet ( ) H ( ) d and will consist of four terms H ( ) dt (, d B( d' A. Exchange from below d d' t dt (, d d dt (, t ) B( t ) d * dt B B() B( d' (,) d d' B. C. D. Exchange with above Exchange with space Exchange with surface

10 Meaning of the Terms A: Exchange from below B: Exchange from above C: Cooling to space D: Exchange from surface

11 Heating rates in the Atmosphere Let s now examine the contribution that each term makes to the heating and cooling of the atmosphere. But first we must examine the sign of This term can be defined as follows: the term dt T (, T (. limit it as d for any ' greater than, T (, T (, dt d dt and will be positive because the distance from d ( ) to ' is less than from to '. Hence T is greater.

12 Heating rates in the Atmosphere By similar arguments it can be shown that for less than, dt/d will be negative Now we will examine the four terms for three classes of atmosphere. Isothermal One with a nominal lapse rate One with a temperature inversion

13 Isothermal Atmosphere or an isothermal atmosphere db/d will be ero. Hence the terms A and B are ero In an isothermal atmosphere the temperature at the surface is equal to the temperature of the atmosphere directly above the surface, hence term D is ero Term C is the only term that survives. dt/d is positive ( >) and B is positive. The sign in front of the term is negative, hence the overall term is negative cooling. Term db/d dt/d overall A - B + C + - D -

14 Heating rates in Isothermal Atmosphere The heating rate at is defined as follows: dnet ( ) H ( ) d and will consist of four terms H ( ) dt (, d B( d' A. Exchange from below d d' Nil t dt (, d d dt (, t ) B( t ) d * dt B B() B( d' (,) d d' B. C. D. Exchange with above Nil Exchange with space Cooling Exchange with surface Nil

15 Nominal lapse rate The temperature of the atmosphere decreases with, hence db/d is negative. The term dt /d is negative for A, positive for B and positive for D. The signs can be summaried as follows: Term db/d dt/d overall sign A (heating) B (cooling) C + - (cooling) D - + (heating)

16 Heating rates in the nominal atmosphere The heating rate at is defined as follows: dnet ( ) H ( ) d and will consist of four terms H ( ) dt (, d B( d' A. Exchange with below d d' warming t dt (, d d dt (, t ) B( t ) d * dt B B() B( d' (,) d d' B. C. D. Exchange with above Cooling Exchange with space Cooling Exchange with surface Warming

17 Temperature inversion Assume that is at the inversion. db/d changes sign at : Term db/d dt/d Overall sign A (cooling) B (heating) C + - (cooling) D - + (warming) Note that term A shows cooling, whereas for a nominal lapse rate it gave heating. The tendency of the atmosphere is to remove the inversion.

18 Heating rates in atmosphere of temperature inversion Temperature goes down with hheight h dnet ( ) H ( ) d and will consist of four terms H ( ) dt (, d B( d' A. Exchange from below d d' cooling t dt (, d d dt (, t ) B( t ) d * dt B B() B( d' (,) d d' B. C. D. Exchange with above warming Exchange with space cooling Exchange with surface warming

19 Profiles of clear sky upward and downward fluxes 1. Note that both the upward and downward fluxes decrease with increasing, but at different rates. 2. The upward flux decrease because the principle source of heating is the radiation from the ground, and this is attenuated with height. 3. The downward radiation fluxes increase towards the surface because the increasingly opaque atmosphere is emitting at progressively warmer temperatures.

20 Spectral contributions to the cooling rate tropical atmopshere

21 Vertical profile of total longwave cooling

22 Radiative Heating by Clouds

23 Spectral dependence of cloud absorption actors increasing vapor absorption: Influence of cloud altitude: 23

24 Cloud absorption: dependence on particle sie 24

25 Longwave radiative cooling heating in clouds Longwave radiative effects of clouds strongest at which wavelengths? Heating/cooling inside cloud: Net energy gain in a layer: E = E in - E out Overall heating rate of entire cloud: - () + ()=B(T()) = H - ( *) = B(T( *)) + ( *) * BT * = * e * BT Draw graph of vertical profile: middle of cloud near top near bottom below cloud above cloud e Altitu ude Radiative heating 25

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect Solar and terrestrial radiation occupy different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, that we have been referring to as shortwave and longwave. The Greenhouse

More information

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convection redistributes the thermal energy yielding (globally-averaged), a mean lapse rate of ~ -6.5 o C/km. Radiative processes tend to produce a more negative temperature

More information

The Surface Energy Budget

The Surface Energy Budget The Surface Energy Budget The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface

More information

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant)

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant) Atmospheric "greenhouse effect" - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer Some relevant parameters and facts (see previous slide sets) (So/) W m -2 is the average incoming solar

More information

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses:

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: The Atmosphere Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: Absorption and emission of radiation by greenhouse gasses The atmospheric energy balance and the greenhouse effect The vertical structure of the atmosphere

More information

Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago?

Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced

More information

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Energy transmission ( a a refresher) There are three modes of energy transmission to consider. Conduction: the transfer of energy in a substance by means

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 5 The climate system 1. Introduction 2. Atmosphere 3. Ocean 4. Land, biosphere, cryosphere

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing How does radiative energy balance help determine Earth s climate? How does the greenhouse effect work? What is radiative forcing? References AR4 Ch. 2

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper IPCC Cloud feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty. Roadmap 1. Low cloud primer 2. Radiation and low

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect

Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect Weston Anderson September 19, 2016 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Basics of radiation 1 3 Emission temperature of earth 2 3.1 Radiative equilibrium........................

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic Radiation scillating electric and magnetic fields propagate through space Virtually all energy exchange between the Earth and the rest of the Universe is by electromagnetic radiation Most

More information

Total radiative heating/cooling rates.

Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Lecture. Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Objectives:. Solar heating rates.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in a cloudy atmosphere.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in different aerosol-laden

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Labs in Bologna & Potenza Menzel. Lab 3 Interrogating AIRS Data and Exploring Spectral Properties of Clouds and Moisture

Labs in Bologna & Potenza Menzel. Lab 3 Interrogating AIRS Data and Exploring Spectral Properties of Clouds and Moisture Labs in Bologna & Potenza Menzel Lab 3 Interrogating AIRS Data and Exploring Spectral Properties of Clouds and Moisture Figure 1: High resolution atmospheric absorption spectrum and comparative blackbody

More information

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Energy Essentials Energy Pathways and Principles Energy Pathways

More information

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability 1 Cloud Development - stable environment Stable air (parcel) - vertical motion is inhibited if clouds form, they will be shallow, layered

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

More information

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork 13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

More information

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases Outline What drives the Climate? What are Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect? How the changes in GHG concentrations produce global warming/climate

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature Chapter 2 The global energy balance We consider now the general problem of the radiative equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The Earth is bathed in solar radiation and absorbs much of that incident upon

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6 The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance FOUR POSSIBLE FATES OF RADIATION: 1.Transmitted 2. Reflected 3. Scattered 4. Absorbed The atmosphere does ALL of

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

Look at Mr. Moon: 1. Temps light side- 400 degrees F dark degrees F 2. No sound wave travel no molecules of air

Look at Mr. Moon: 1. Temps light side- 400 degrees F dark degrees F 2. No sound wave travel no molecules of air Atmosphere 1. Insulator maintains our T balance (500 degrees F, T changes without it) 2. Shield from meteors 3. Ocean of air dynamic, distributes heat Look at Mr. Moon: 1. Temps light side- 400 degrees

More information

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure,

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, density, and composition of the atmosphere constitutes atmospheric structure. These quantities also vary with season and location

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Further Modification of JB s criticism of the FM Paper in E & E

Further Modification of JB s criticism of the FM Paper in E & E Further Modification of JB s criticism of the FM Paper in E & E This is a shortened and updated version of my criticism of FM s paper [THE STABLE STATIONARY VALUE OF THE EARTH S GLOBAL AVERAGE ATMOSPHERIC

More information

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.

More information

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE by Peter J. Lamb Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies and School of Meteorology The University of Oklahoma

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 G109: 7. Moisture 1 7. MOISTURE Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 1. Introduction Moisture in the atmosphere:

More information

I ν = λ 2 I λ. λ<0.35 µm F λ =0 0.70 µm <λ<1.00 µm F λ =0.2 Wm 2 µm 1. λ>1.00 µm F λ =0. F λi 4λ i. i 1

I ν = λ 2 I λ. λ<0.35 µm F λ =0 0.70 µm <λ<1.00 µm F λ =0.2 Wm 2 µm 1. λ>1.00 µm F λ =0. F λi 4λ i. i 1 Chapter 4 4.12 Remote sensing in the microwave part of the spectrum relies on radiation emitted by oxygen molecules at frequencies near 55 ghz. Calculate the wavelength and wavenumber of this radiation.

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Teaching the Greenhouse Effect. Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt

Teaching the Greenhouse Effect. Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt Teaching the Greenhouse Effect Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt It is true that there are other factors (such as volcanic activity, variations in the earth s orbit and axis, the solar cycle), yet a number

More information

TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2

TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2 TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2 Quick review ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Our focus in this class is on: UV VIS lr = micrometers (aka microns) = nanometers (also commonly used) Q1. The first thing

More information

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE Do you feel air around you? Do you know that we live at the bottom of a huge pile of air? We inhale and exhale but we feel the air when it is in motion. It

More information

UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere

UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere 1) Earth is closest to the Sun during: a. Northern hemisphere autumn. b. Southern hemisphere autumn. c. Southern

More information

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance The are three basic snowmelt phases 1) Warming phase: Absorbed energy raises the average snowpack temperature to a point at which the snowpack is isothermal (no vertical

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

Chapter 3 Weather Maps

Chapter 3 Weather Maps Chapter 3 Weather Maps Surface Station Model Used to plot surface weather observations on weather maps It shows: Temperature (deg F) Dewpoint Temperature (deg F) Coded Sea Level Pressure Wind speed and

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab.

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. Radiation Balance 1 Radiation Balance Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p. 60-73) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. 5 Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer

More information

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? Treasure Hunt Find and scan all 11 QR codes Choose one to watch / read in detail Post the key points as a reaction to http://www.scoop.it/t/env202-502-w2

More information

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt 5.1-5.2) In this lecture Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Radiative and material properties of different surfaces Conductive

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development

Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Stable situations a small change is resisted and the system returns to its previous state Neutral situations a small change is neither resisted nor enlarged Unstable

More information

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Bent H Sass Danish Meteorological Institute 10 June 2009 As the horizontal grid size in atmospheric models is reduced the assumptions made

More information

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic Snow and fee Covers: Interactions with the Atmosphere and Ecosystems (Proceedings of Yokohama Symposia J2 and J5, July 1993). IAHS Publ. no. 223, 1994. 29 Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea

More information

Infrared Thermometer Guidance

Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared thermometers can be used to answer a range of questions, including: - What is the temperature of the clouds? - What is the greenhouse effect? - If it is sunny, how

More information

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud coupling Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, akbetts@aol.com Congress on Climate Change 8)Earth System Feedbacks and Carbon Sequestration Copenhagen, March 10, 2009

More information

Temperature. PJ Brucat

Temperature. PJ Brucat PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,

More information

GREENHOUSE GASES. Teacher Activity: How do greenhouse gases affect heat absorption? GREENHOUSE GASES

GREENHOUSE GASES. Teacher Activity: How do greenhouse gases affect heat absorption? GREENHOUSE GASES OHSU EP-095 2012 BACKGROUND The Earth s climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide,

More information

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information

Thickness of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Permanent and Variable Gases

Thickness of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Permanent and Variable Gases Chapter 1: Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere Composition Evolution Vertical Structure Thickness of the Atmosphere (from Meteorology Today) 90% 70% Most of the atmospheric mass is confined in

More information

39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008. Theoretical Problem No. 3

39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008. Theoretical Problem No. 3 CHANGE OF AIR TEMPERATURE WITH ALTITUDE, ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND AIR POLLUTION Vertical motion of air governs many atmospheric processes, such as the formation of clouds and precipitation and the dispersal

More information

Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation

Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation firecatching.blogspot.com Kids.brittanica.com Clouds and fog are physically the same just location is different Fog is considered a stratus cloud at or near the surface What does one see when looking at

More information

Classes of typical cloud types.

Classes of typical cloud types. Classes of typical cloud types. Cloud Radiative Properties for Planetary Science: Longwave (or IR) Optically opaque (completely absorbing) for clouds with thicknesses of 10s of meters. This occurs because

More information

Lecture 3. Turbulent fluxes and TKE budgets (Garratt, Ch 2)

Lecture 3. Turbulent fluxes and TKE budgets (Garratt, Ch 2) Lecture 3. Turbulent fluxes and TKE budgets (Garratt, Ch 2) In this lecture How does turbulence affect the ensemble-mean equations of fluid motion/transport? Force balance in a quasi-steady turbulent boundary

More information

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor What are some properties of the atmosphere? Solar Radiation - initial source of energy to

More information

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Venus Exploration Advisory Group Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Dave Crisp November 5, 2007-1- Venus and Earth: An Unlikely Pair Most theories of solar system evolution assume

More information

Comparing Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Tropics and Mid-latitudes

Comparing Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Tropics and Mid-latitudes Comparing Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Tropics and Mid-latitudes Segayle C. Walford Academic Affiliation, fall 2001: Senior, The Pennsylvania State University SOARS summer 2001 Science Research Mentor:

More information

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,

More information

Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Overview of the IR channels and their applications Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

More information

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation II The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation The Sun s energy has traveled across space as electromagnetic radiation, and that is the form in which it arrives on Earth. It is this radiation that determines

More information

Name: Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc.

Name: Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Name: _ Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Introduction: Cumulus clouds are our puffy fair weather

More information

EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens

EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 18 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation 18.1 Water in the Atmosphere Water s Changes of State Precipitation is any form of water that falls from a cloud.

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through

More information

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays The Atmosphere Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays Thin Gaseous envelope What is Weather? State of

More information

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Temperature - dynamical feedback Climate sensitivity export Feedback characteristics Negative feedbacks dampen; positive amplify

More information

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei

More information

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere Atmosphere Overview of Earth s Atmosphere The atmosphere is comprised of of gases, consisting mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. It also contains lesser amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, and many other trace

More information

Air Pressure and Winds-I. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology

Air Pressure and Winds-I. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology Air Pressure and Winds-I GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology 1 2 Pressure gradient force is in balance with gravity Hydrostatic relations Means no vertical motion initially 3 How does atmospheric pressure

More information

Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide

Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earth s atmosphere contains more

More information

CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES, and MODIS Merged Data Product

CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES, and MODIS Merged Data Product CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES, and MODIS Merged Data Product Seiji Kato 1, Sunny Sun-Mack 2, Walter F. Miller 2, Fred G. Rose 2, and Victor E. Sothcott 2 1 NASA Langley Research Center 2 Science and Systems

More information

11.3 CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION. Main Idea- Clouds very in shape, size height of formation and type of precipitation.

11.3 CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION. Main Idea- Clouds very in shape, size height of formation and type of precipitation. 11.3 CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION Main Idea- Clouds very in shape, size height of formation and type of precipitation. LOOKING UP AT THE SKY Draw a picture of a cloud. Do all clouds look the same? Why are

More information

2) What atmospheric layer is the home of weather, has the greatest density of gas molecules, and has a decrease in temperature with height?

2) What atmospheric layer is the home of weather, has the greatest density of gas molecules, and has a decrease in temperature with height? 1) The most common gas in the atmosphere is: a) oxygen (O2) b) carbon dioxide (CO2) c) nitrogen (N2) d) methane (CH4) 2) What atmospheric layer is the home of weather, has the greatest density of gas molecules,

More information

Clouds. A simple scientific explanation for the weather-curious. By Kira R. Erickson

Clouds. A simple scientific explanation for the weather-curious. By Kira R. Erickson Clouds A simple scientific explanation for the weather-curious By Kira R. Erickson Table of Contents 1 3 4 INTRO 2 Page 3 How Clouds Are Formed Types of Clouds Clouds and Weather More Information Page

More information

Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes

Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, akbetts@aol.com CMMAP August 19, 2009 Outline of Talk Land-surface climate: - surface, BL & cloud coupling

More information

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

III. Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect

III. Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect III. Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect A. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of radiation we can see (visible light, the colors of the rainbow), radiation we can feel (the infrared), radiation we

More information

Air Temperature. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology

Air Temperature. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology Air Temperature GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology 1 Overview Daily Temperature Variation Controls of Temperature Air Temperature Data Measuring Air Temperature 2 Daytime Warming Sunlight warms the

More information

February 17 th Video Conference Agenda

February 17 th Video Conference Agenda February 17 th Video Conference Agenda 8:30 am Video, audio and connection checks 9:00 am Brief intro by mediator, Ellen Holmes, followed by 3 to 5 minute Day in the Life of Presentations from each school.

More information

Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms. Interesting Cloud

Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms. Interesting Cloud Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms Understanding Weather and Climate Aguado and Burt Interesting Cloud 1 Mechanisms that Lift Air Orographic lifting Frontal Lifting Convergence Localized convective

More information

V. Water Vapour in Air

V. Water Vapour in Air V. Water Vapour in Air V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated the presence of water vapour in the air through the vapour pressure e that it exerts. V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated

More information

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Friends of Science Society June 2011 By Ken Gregory revised September 2011 Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Abstract The upward surface radiation is greater than the out-going longwave

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

Operational Weather Analysis Appendix B. Precipitation Type

Operational Weather Analysis  Appendix B. Precipitation Type Appendix B Precipitation Type The type of precipitation that falls in your forecast area is often a critical component of current weather. Will the precipitation be solid, liquid, or freezing? Where will

More information

Activity 1.2: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect

Activity 1.2: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Activity 1.2: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Grades 5 6 Description: In Part 1: Modeling the Greenhouse Effect, students will complete a lab that demonstrates the greenhouse effect and will discuss

More information

Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment

Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment In this assignment you will investigate daily weather observations from Alice Springs, Woomera and Charleville, from 1950 to 2006. These are

More information

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

More information