APPENDIX C INLETS. The application and types of storm drainage inlets are presented in detail in this Appendix.

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1 Storm Drainage 13-C-1 APPENDIX C INLETS 1.0 Introduction The application and types of storm drainage inlets are presented in detail in this Appendix. 2.0 Inlet Locations Inlets are required at locations needed to collect runoff within the design controls specified in the design frequency and spread section in Appendix D. In addition, there are a number of locations where inlets may be necessary with little regard to contributing drainage area. These locations should be marked on the plans prior to any computations regarding discharge, water spread, inlet capacity, or bypass. Examples of such locations are as follows: Sag points in the gutter grade. Upstream of median breaks, entrance/exit ramp gores, cross walks and street intersections. Immediately upstream and downstream of bridges. Immediately upstream of cross slope reversals. Upstream side of crosswalk or side streets at intersections. Placed on side streets upstream of intersections. At the end of channels in cut sections. Behind curbs, shoulders, or sidewalks to drain low areas. Where necessary to collect snow melt. Inlets should not be located in the path where pedestrians are likely to walk. 3.0 Types Storm drain inlets are used to collect surface runoff and discharge it to an underground storm drainage system. Inlets are typically located in gutter sections, paved medians, roadside ditches and median channels. Inlets used for the drainage of highway surfaces can be divided into five classes and are discussed in the following sections. April 2014 ODOT Hydraulics Manual

2 13-C-2 Storm Drainage 3.1 Grate Inlets These inlets consist of an opening in the gutter covered by one or more grates. They are best suited for use on continuous grades. Since they are susceptible to clogging with debris, the use of standard grate inlets at sag points should be limited to minor sag point locations without debris potential. Special design (oversize) grate inlets can be utilized at major sag points if sufficient capacity is provided for clogging. In this case, flanking inlets are definitely recommended. Grates should be bicycle safe when bike traffic is possible and structurally designed to handle the appropriate loads when subject to traffic. 3.2 Curb-Opening Inlets These inlets are vertical openings in the curb covered by a top slab. They are best suited for use at sag points since they can convey large quantities of water and debris. They are a viable alternative to grates in many locations where grates would be hazardous for pedestrians or bicyclists. They are generally not recommended for use on steep continuous grades. 3.3 Slotted Drain Inlets These inlets consist of a slotted opening with bars perpendicular to the opening. Slotted inlets function as weirs with flow entering from the side. They can be used to intercept sheet flow, collect gutter flow with or without curbs, modify existing systems to accommodate roadway widening or increased runoff, and reduce ponding depth and spread at grate inlets. The two types of slotted inlets in general use are the vertical riser type and the vane type. Note: Standard drawing RD328 is an example of a vertical riser slotted inlet. Reference manufacturer literature for information on vane type slotted inlets. Slotted drains have been used with varying degrees of success. In fact, the situations which warrant the use of slotted drain inlets can actually hinder their performance. Slotted drain inlets are usually placed in areas of minimal horizontal slope and superelevation. Since the invert of the drain is parallel to the pavement, siltation can occur due to flow velocities. Slotted drain inlets are most efficient when constructed on pavement slopes that are sufficient to produce velocities for clean-out or are provided with a tapered slot that allows an adequate slope on the pipe. 3.4 Combination Inlets Various types of combination inlets are in use. Curb opening and grate combinations are common, some with the curb opening upstream of the grate, and some with the curb opening adjacent to the grate. Slotted inlets are also used in combination with grates, located either longitudinally upstream of the grate, or transversely adjacent to the grate. Engineering judgment is necessary to determine if the total capacity of the inlet is the sum of the individual components ODOT Hydraulics Manual April 2014

3 Storm Drainage 13-C-3 Figure 1 - Typical Storm Drain Inlets April 2014 ODOT Hydraulics Manual

4 13-C-4 Storm Drainage or a portion of each. The gutter grade, cross slope and proximity of the inlets to each other will be deciding factors. Combination inlets may be desirable in sags because they can provide additional capacity in the event of plugging. 3.5 Trench Drain Systems Trench Drain systems are a modular slotted drain system with a sloping invert and removable grates. The interior of the system has a radius smooth finish to improve flow and minimize siltation. These systems with their continuous grates are best suited for intercepting flow on very flat surfaces with little or no longitudinal grade. A limiting factor of trench drains is they are incapable of handling flow over 0.5 cubic feet per second over a 300 foot length because drain depths graduate from about 5-inches to 12-inches. The majority of other considerations such as constructability and maintenance are similar between the trench drain system and the traditional catch basin system. Where trench drains may be a little more expensive than concrete pipe, large equipment is not needed to install them so the costs balance out. 3.6 ODOT Inlets Several Standard inlets are used in ODOT drainage systems and are listed in Table A. The hydraulic capacity of a storm drain inlet depends upon its geometry as well as the characteristics of the gutter flow. To maximize hydraulic capacity, it is recommended to use the following ODOT inlets with the optimal gutter grade ranges listed in the table below. Gutter Grade Inlet Recommendations less than 8 percent CG-2, G-2 are both acceptable less than 1 percent CG-3 more efficient than CG-1 and G-1 greater than 1 percent CG-3 not recommended 4.0 Maximum/Minimum Depth Minimum inlet depth is controlled by the minimum cover requirements for the type of pipe used. Refer to Chapter 5 and Standard Drawings RD380, 382, 384, 386 for guidance. Maximum inlet depth shall be 6 feet. Deeper depths are permissible if maintenance practices will allow. The designer should check with the appropriate District Maintenance Supervisor before specifying inlets deeper than 6 feet. ODOT Hydraulics Manual April 2014

5 Storm Drainage 13-C-5 Figure 2 - ODOT Inlets April 2014 ODOT Hydraulics Manual

6 13-C-6 Storm Drainage Table A ODOT Inlets I.D. Configuration Where Used Standard Drawing No. G-1 Single Grate* Small areas with no debris; recommended for RD364 two-lane highways. G-2 Double Grate* Where considerable water or debris is RD364 anticipated; recommended for multiple-lane highways G-2M Single Grate Areas without traffic, bicycles or pedestrians such as medians and ditches. RD364 G-2MA CG-1 CG-2 Single Grate with concrete apron Single Grate* plus curb opening Double Grate* plus curb opening Areas without traffic, bicycles or pedestrians such as medians and ditches having variable 1V: 10H-1V: 20H side slope. Where debris or trash is anticipated and in sags; recommended for two-lane highways. Where considerable water or debris is anticipated and in sags; recommended for multiple-lane highways CG-3 Curb Opening only Where longitudinal grade is relatively flat and bicycle traffic is anticipated; good debris passage capabilities. Curb Inlet Channel D Curb Opening Extension for attachment to CG-1 or CG-2 inlets. Single Grate on inclined slope Where longitudinal grade is relatively flat and bicycle traffic is anticipated; good debris passage capabilities. Side drainages and at end of ditches where debris is anticipated; functions as a trash rack. Type 3 C.B. Single Grate* Where minimal debris or trash is anticipated and where pedestrians may be present. Area Drainage Basin or Field Inlet Single Round Grate* with concrete apron. Slotted Drain C.M.P. Slotted Drain Deck Drain Single Grate* deck Type A drain. * Bicycle safe grate(s) Where No Traffic is anticipated. Medians, ditches, flat vegetated areas. Areas with minimal debris ; not recommended for sags. Bridge deck drain RD364 RD366 RD366 RD372 RD366 RD370 RD378 RD374 RD328 BR120 ODOT Hydraulics Manual April 2014

7 Storm Drainage 13-C-7 I.D. Grate, curb opening, or slot Width Table B ODOT Inlet Standard Design Parameters Grate, curb opening or slot Length Grate Perimeter Depression Clear Opening Equiv. Area Ratio Grate Type (feet) (feet) (feet) (inches) (square (percent) feet) G P-1-7/8-4 G P-1-7/8-4 G-2M P-1-7/8 G-2MA P-1-7/8 CG P-1-7/8-4 CG P-1-7/8-4 CG-3 h = N/A N/A N/A Curb Inlet h = N/A N/A N/A Channel D 2.25 h = 1.38 N/A P-1-7/8 Type 3 Catch Basin On-Grade Reticuline Sump 30 o Tiltbar Area P-1-7/8-4 Drainage Basin or Field Inlet Round Round Slotted Drain 0.15 specified on N/A 0 N/A N/A N/A plans Deck Drain Type A P-1-1/8 5.0 Maximum Diameter Pipe Connections Figure 3 illustrates the maximum diameter that may be connected to standard inlet types. The designer should check skewed connections to ensure they will fit into the inlet box. April 2014 ODOT Hydraulics Manual

8 13-C-8 Storm Drainage Figure 3 - Maximum Diameter pipe connections to inlets ODOT Hydraulics Manual April 2014

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