Study of the relationship between job characteristics and human resources productivity at Guilan Tejarat Bank

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1 International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. Available online at IJACS/2013/5-19/ ISSN X 2013 IJACS Journal Study of the relationship between job characteristics and human resources productivity at Guilan Tejarat Bank Seyyed mohammad noe pasand asil 1, mohammad doostar 2, nosratallah mehrazad saber 3 1. Faculty member at the Department of Management, University of Guilan, Rasht, Guilan, Iran 2. Faculty member at the Department of Management, University of Guilan, Rasht, Guilan, Iran 3. M.B.A Student, Pardis branch, University of Guilan, Rasht, Guilan, Iran Corresponding Author: Seyyed mohammad noe pasand asil ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the research is to examine the effect of job characteristics on human resources productivity at Guilan Tejarat Bank. In this study Variables of jobs characteristics including job variety, job identity, job significance, and job autonomy and job feedback have been studied as the independent variable and human resource productivity as the dependent variable. The main hypothesis of this study is as follow that there is a meaningful relationship between job characteristics and productivity of human resources. The statistical population of this research consisted of all employees working in the "Branches of Tejarat Bank" and also administrator of Tejarat bank branches of Guilan" and they have at least Diploma grade. The number of considered population is 600 persons that 270 persons were selected as sample members. Related data about the research variables measurement by the questionnaire included 36 questions which were collected. Coefficient of Cronbach's alpha in order to determine questionnaire reliability was calculated 0.89 that indicates the suitability of used questionnaire. Primary and secondary hypotheses of research were examined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and then using stepwise regression of affecting variables on the human resources productivity and their effect has been determined. The results showed that there is a significant relation between all aspects of job characteristics and human resource productivity. Also among these factors variables of variety and reflecting skill showed significant effect on variables. (Respectively % 21 and %12). Therefore it can be concluded that by improving dimensions of job characteristics, we can increase the productivity of employees. Because improving dimensions of job characteristics makes motivation by making job meaningful, making responsibility feeling and knowledge of performance results for person make motivation in him, job satisfaction of employees increased, makes function improved and finally increase the productivity. Keyword: job variety, job identity, job significance, autonomy, feedback, HR productivity INTRODUCTION Today, the role and importance of human energy in production process and services in the world, has been identified as the most important factor.by looking at the process of human civilization it will be reveals that the role of human energy has developed from simple labor to complex labor, because technology advances without changing is lacking efficiency. Nowadays injecting financial resources is not considered as a major factor of developing anymore, but development and human energy productivity with its growth caused development of organizations and in subsequence improving economies of organization in the world in a way that Human investment determined financial investment. Industrialized and developing countries achieved this fact that increasing productivity neither by improving nor through improving financial quality but also by improving the quality of the workforce could be accomplished faster. The current world is facing a new situation in terms of productivity.as the organizations and managers are evaluated on the basis of tangible and intangible goals. So the secrets of efficiency increasing are at the public interest. Paying attention to others career in organizations and their different levels of productivity means emphasizing on the values that makes the organization changed and has brought job satisfaction and high

2 productivity either for employees and the organization And with this approach of achieving visions and make the defined goals of the organization more likely to happen. We should accept this fact that employees who have not a high job satisfaction and in result they face difficulties in doing their duties cannot be a useful element for organization. Especially in organizations such as banks that are serving intensively different groups of people, Efficiency become a very important issue and without paying attention to it, it will be visible in different ways and will be problematic. Therefore, regards to factors affecting the productivity of workers, including the various dimensions of job characteristics plays a determinant role in identifying ways to improve employee productivity. In other hands Banks are as economics and social institutions in every society. Accepting this principle, the human power must be treated as the beating heart of banks. In all organizations human power will have an important role in the efficiency of that organization and if the job will be satisfying for the individual, the organization will achieve its goals. In order to improve the efficiency of banks we must identify the component elements of a job and evaluate the effectiveness of each factor on the staff. The importance of occupational factors and their role in increasing the productivity is obvious to everybody.this research aims to identify occupational features by studying theoretical literature and to improve the productivity of human power use these agents as a solution to human resources managers to increase organizational efficiency. Human resource productivity The term productivity first time was introduced by Quizney in But revolution in productivity began by Frederick W. Taylor in 1881, it can be considered as formal and scientific studies year on productivity management. Productivity in 1883 was selected as output capacity by the liter. The best definition of productivity is presented at the beginning of current century, By Airlie that has been defined productivity as the relationship between output and used resources to produce it (Mohseni Azqhandi, 2003). Until 19th century or mid-20th century, that there was a relative balance of efficiency in the world, there have not been reported any debate about productivity, Population was very few, methods were traditional and despite unequal distribution or the traditional distribution, there was almost no reason to raise the productivity debate (Asgari, 2001).In 1950 the European Economic Cooperation Organization provided a more complete definition of productivity as follows: "Productivity is output Quotient to one of the factors of production." (Koneshloo, 2007). Based on two main approaches, the efficiency arises on one hand as a technical concept for measuring efficiency evaluation and on the other hand as an intellectual insight. In the first view, determining the contribution of factors and production resources, measurement and... takes place professionally, while in the second view productivity as a reflection on the value of efficiency, productivity management and improvement systems are desired. Productivity is among the factors that ensures sustain and survival of organizations in today's competitive world. Domination of Productivity culture causes optimum use of all material and spiritual Facilities of organization and without adding new technology and manpower can use available Facilities, conditions, ability and manpower abilities with productive properties and creation to achieve the maximum benefit of the entire organization. Desired Productivity is not gain by changing structure, adding technology, editing agenda and issued a directive but the human is the centerpiece of any individual, social and organizational productivity.therefore, the most attention should pay and plan in organizational productivity to human factors (Henri et al, 2003). Labor productivity can be defined in the following ways: A- Individual labor productivity is defined as the ratio of work done by each person, to the time consumed by the same person. B- Group human resource productivity is the ratio of work done by the group, to the total time spent by members. C- Organization productivity of human resources, equal to the ratio of work done by the organization (production of goods or provision of services), during a given time, to the resources spent (total organization personnel) in terms of man-hours, man- Week or man-months. D- National productivity is also considered as the ratio of national income to active human resources or working personnel. Growth of these productivity indicators, both in the micro and macro level represents the most effective use of human resources (Bahramzadeh and khedmatgozar baghban, 2004). Factors affecting labor productivity Althin (2005) argues, criterion of productivity in the service sector depends on human factor (labor) and other factors affecting it rather than to technology and other factors (Althin & Behrenz, 2005). Japan Productivity Center (JPC), defines increasing staff productivity in the following three aims: Development of employee including their empowerment and training, collaborative management and fair distribution (people s understanding of productivity growth distribution); also this Centre consider the speed factors, quality of operations, unit cost, 2263

3 working flexibility, individuals commitment, right connections, understanding of productivity necessity, satisfaction and quality of working life and the people s participation as productivity indicators (Stainer, 1997). Savari in his study in year 1998 considered affecting factors on the people productivity as follows: individual s satisfaction of Job and working life, flexibility of working hours, cooperation of workers and management, people s motivation and effort and management, continuous planning and up to date technology, education and empowerment of people, effective management, individual s intelligence, wages and incentive systems, manager s view of productivity (positive or negative / continuous or short period), and finally the morale and commitment of employees towards work, professionalism and organization and their responsibility (Savery, 1998). Ozbilijin (2005) considered creativity, wage s levels, individual s abilities and skills, career paths and their location, type of management to them and organizational flexibility as affecting Factors on individual productivity, (Ozbilijin, 2005). Wysocki and Kepner (2006) express the influence of human power productivity in today's world as a reality and claim that factors which are able to affect this fact are as follows: Nature of job and individual character (career fitness and employment), motive (material and spiritual), job knowledge and recognition, job satisfaction, quality of work life and individual participation in organization activities, the individual's participation in practice or activity, the importance of employees for major Managers, not just paying attention to the importance of the work and finally the fair treatment with people (Wysocki & Kepner, 2006). Creating cooperation and participation setting, using employee s opinions in making targets and paying attention to human behavior, removing conflicts and communication barriers are as increasing productivity factors, also regarding to their performance standards and trying to improve them, paying attention to satisfaction in type of job and work, considering job very important and showing usefulness of jobs are as productivity labor factors (khaki, 2007). Bank and productivity Today's world is science and technology world. Today, advances in science and technology developments has been established by amazing speed of deep, impressive and complicated changes at the international level and has made today s world a very different world as yesterday. All people and all organizations around the world will be affected by these changes intentionally or unintentionally. Today s banking (current century), will be very different from banking of past years and centuries. E-commerce, networking, international clients and... Demand a certain type of banking that banking should match its activities in accordance with the global economic environment by benefiting from the latest achievements of science and technology. Today s customer is different from Yesterday s customer. Yesterday s customer was following of a bank and a banker in order to be able to benefit from their services and eliminates his needs. But today the opposite is true. Today s customer and international customer have no time to search for a bank rather it is the bank who is also looking for customers in today's extreme competitive world and make customer satisfy and by connecting to internet networks and receiving up to date information and identifying customer s needs appears in the field of electronic commerce at national and international activities. In World economy banks and client are not face to face or next to each other, they may be separated from each other by continent and the only thing that makes the customer use the services of a bank is the best, fastest, cheapest and the most desirable banking services. Certainly without having a good level of productivity continuous activities in today's competitive world will be difficult. Paying attention to this important fact will be a light in a complex path that we are facing in Today s banking activities. (Guilani, 2001) Experience has shown that if all our policies and goals is correct, But the staff who will attempt to achieve the goals aren t in a desirable situation naturally we cannot expect the organization to achieve its predefined goals. If our employees in the branches lack a high spirit and have not the appropriate behavior with customers, Customers will only will come to a branch if forced situation. Thus, in the present stage of our country that financial and NGOs institutions are forming more attention should be paying to Human power. Because now banking system clients for several reasons such as being close to work or home, being familiar with a person in a specific branch and... work with Branches and their choices are limited. But it is not clear that in the near future in the current situation they are willing to work with the current banking system. So while we should give special attention to the needs of our customers, we must not lose sight of Man s power (Yousefi, 2005). Attitudes of job characteristics Turner and Lawrence studies were a prologue to job characteristics attitudes. in order to evaluate employees reaction to different jobs They conducted a great project.. They believed that employees prefer 2264

4 complex and effortful jobs to steady and boring jobs, and believe that the complexity of a job will follow satisfaction and presents of the employees (Moorhead & Griffin, 2008). Characteristics of a job is mentioning to its functions, responsibilities, duties, and aspects of a job. Some occupations are common and ongoing because their activities are similar and repeated and some others are unusual, some require different skills and some need limited skills, some makes employees exhausted by having them to follow up with strict procedures. And some leave the employees free to do their own work. Some jobs follow the most success by cooperation with other employees as a group and others by who primarily works independently (Nasrolah Pour, 2006). Job Characteristics Model special theory that Turner and Lawrence are presented based on the specific job requirements makes the basis of what could be defined job characteristics by it and the relationship between motivation, performance and job satisfaction can be realized. It means Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham could present the job characteristics model (based upon it) (Robbins, 2004). Stones and others expressed Richard Hackman and his colleagues wanted their workers to have high motivation to do their work. They considered five dimensions of jobs. With regards to the pattern of job characteristics, any kind of work or job can be expression in terms of 5 main dimensions as following: (Nasrolah pour, 2006): Variety in skills (variety in jobs) Robins claimed that: different degrees and levels of skills needed that workers should have such skills (Robbins, 2004). Moorhead Grifftin believed that diversity of skills is the degree of job requiring to variety of activities that its requirements are having skills and different talents for jobs. (Moorhead & Griffin, 2008). Work Identity Robbins believes that work identity is a degree or level that the type of work becomes completely identifiable (Robbins, 2004). Degree of requirements to doing a specific job, in other words, having a job that has a beginning and an ending and a tangible result (Moorhead & Griffin, 2008). Work importance Robbins believes that it is a extent or degree which the work could affect the lives of other people. (Robbins, 2004). In Moorhead Griffin view importance of job depends on the effects of people s job on other s living or working in the same organization or in the environment outside the organization (Moorhead & Griffin, 2008). Freedom of action (independence) In Moorhead and Griffin view degree of freedom, is independence and involvement of a person in adjusting related working tables and methods of doing business in planning and organizing the work (Moorhead & Griffin, 2008). Mahdad states: the employee s degree of autonomy in planning and organizing work. (Nasrolah pour, 2006). RESULT S REFLECTING Robbins states: it is a degree or level which results of done works give to individual and the information about effectiveness of function is given directly to employee or staff. Moshabaki believes that: it is the amount of administrative work required by the job that causes obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of the individual function. Receiving environment information is known as feedback. The process that a part of output functions as input (Nasrolah Pour, 2006). Job characteristics model has been studied in many ways. Thus many results of researches confirms the total theoretical framework (i.e., there is a set of job characteristics and these characteristics could effect on behavior), he attributes that which characteristics (or properties) make up the core, There is no complete agreement. There is no agreement also about the fact that feeling of need to grow acts as a mediating factor or not (Robbins, 2004). According to available document and evidence we can summarized the results of this research that has been done in this area as follows: 2265

5 Those who are engaged in works that have main characteristics feel more satisfied, become more stimulated, have more motivation and in comparison to those who had not engaged in such activities are more efficiency. Job Characteristics makes a person to be in an excellent mental condition and such a spirit can affect the efficiency (Nasrolah pour,2006). Conceptual model of research In this study features Variables of job, including job variety, job identity, job significance, job autonomy and job feedback as independent variable and the human resource productivity as dependent variable have been studied And the relationship between these variables will be examined and evaluated. The main goal of this research is to examine the impact of job characteristics on the productivity of human resources at Tejarat Bank of Guilan. Job characteristics Job variety Job identity Job significance Job autonomy Feedback Human resource productivity The main hypothesis According to the conceptual model and research background, the main hypothesis of this study is as follows: there is a significant relationship between the job characteristics and productivity of human resources. Sub-hypotheses There is a significant relationship between diversity of skills and productivity of human resources. There is a significant relationship between importance of the job and Productivity of human resources. There is a significant relationship between identity of the job and productivity of human resources. There is a significant relationship between independence of the job and productivity of human resources. There is a significant relationship between feedback of the job and productivity of human resources. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study stands in descriptive researches category because it is concerned with evaluating and identifying the relations between variables in the present situation (Sarmad et al, 1997). In other hand this study can be placed in the category of field study. The researcher has attempted by selecting a statistical population and specified sample, discover and identify the relationship between the variables of the study by the views of participants in the study. Finally, this study can be placed in the category of correlation research. Correlation researches are those that include all studies in which the correlation between different variables by using correlation coefficient try to be explore and evaluated (Delawar, 1997). In this study, researcher by using correlation coefficient analysis examined between job characteristics and employee productivity. This study population consisted of all employees working in the branches of Tejarat Bank and also administrator of Tejarat bank branches of Guilan and they have at least Diploma. Total population is 600 people. The sample size is obtained 234 people according to Cochran formula. In order to evaluate data as much as the required sample sizes, 300 copies of questionnaires were distributed among the employees and the amount of returned questionnaires were 270 versions which analyzing was based on it. Data Related to measuring study variables collected by the questionnaire. This questionnaire had 36 questions in which respondents were asked to answer each question based on the Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, no opinion, disagree and strongly disagree). Questions assigned to research variables as follows that first 2266

6 15 question of questionnaire, were related to job characteristics and next 21 question of the questionnaire were devoted to human resources productivity variables, based on the achieve model. Job characteristics in the study that is the same skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback have been devoted 3 questions for each in the questionnaire. Questionnaire reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient 89/0. So it can be said that above questionnaire has enough guarantee, it means that given responses are not by chance or accident, but it is for variable effectiveness that has been tested. RESEARCH RESULTS in this chapter In order to describe the sample characteristics, first collected data is digested and classified using descriptive statistics, then by using inferential statistics indicators deal to confirm or reject the hypotheses. Description of study sample According to data collected by questionnaire, 6/69% of this research sample was male and 4/30% of it was women. Also, 60% of the sample had bachelor degree, 20% diploma, 7/8% of them associate degree and 9/11% of them master degree or higher. In other words, more than 70% of employees have bachelor degree or higher. Analyzing Research hypotheses The primary and secondary research hypotheses examined using Pearson correlation coefficient and relationships between variables will be test that the results of the analysis are shown in Table 1. Then by using hierarchical regression affecting variables on productivity of human resources and their impact is evaluated. Table1. the result of testing hypotheses of research Research hypotheses coefficient Sig. Result 1- There is a significant relationship between job characteristics and productivity of human resources accepted 1-1- There is a significant relationship between diversity of skills and productivity of human resources accepted 2-1- There is a significant relationship between importance of the job and Productivity of human resources accepted 3-1- There is a significant relationship between identity of the job and productivity of human resources accepted 4-1- There is a significant relationship between independence of the job and productivity of human resources accepted 5-1- There is a significant relationship between feedback of the job and productivity of human resources accepted Determination of regression Model of job characteristics and employees productivity now, after considering variables one by one, we want to evaluate all variables relating to job characteristics with employees productivity by using multiple regression. So first of all we consider all independent variables with the dependent variable of job characteristics and employee productivity. In this research step by step method (stepwise) is used. Table2. the result of input and output variables in stepwise model Method Output variables Input variables Stepwise (Criteria: Probability-of-F-to-enter <=.050, Probability-of-F-to-remove >=.100).. diversity Stepwise (Criteria: Probability-of-F-to-enter <=.050, Probability-of-F-to-remove >=.100).. feedback a Dependent Variable: employee productivity Model 1 2 Output of Table 2 shows that the first step (Model 1) is to enter variable of skill variety to Equation, and then the feedback received variable as the second step (Model 2) enter the regression model. As it is clear regression is stopped step by step after entering these two variables and other variables are not entering at all. S.E Table3. the result of multiple correlation coefficients in regression model Adjusted R 2 R 2 R a Predictors: Diversity b Predictors: Diversity, Feedback c Dependent Variable: Employee productivity.372(a).410(b) Model

7 R, is sample of correlation coefficient between observed data, X and Y are called data. Squared of correlation coefficient (determination coefficient), is used as a measure of relation closeness to linear. Square of standardized correlation coefficient indicates the percentage of variation in dependent variable by linear regression. In the above table, in model 1, it means when the only thing available is skill variety in model, R is 0/372 and then after entering feedback receiving variable in the model, R increase up to 0/41.So in the above table, the standard multiple determination coefficient in model 2, is 0.15, which represents the percentage of not so much variation in the dependent variable by linear regression. Sig t Table4. the result of coefficients of regression model Correlation coefficients Std.error coefficients a Dependent Variable: employee productivity Models constant diversity constant diversity ( x1) feedback ( x2) 1 2 According to Table 4, the statistical model of research in model 2, it means after entering the variables of skill variety and receiving feedback is as follows: y X X 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As statistical studies show, there is a significant relationship between job characteristics and employee s productivity. It means that by increasing the dimensions of job characteristics the employee s productivity can be increased. Because the improvement of job characteristics dimensions makes the work meaningful, create a sense of responsibility and awareness of results performance for individual, makes motivation, increase job satisfaction of employees, makes performance improved and finally increase productivity. However, we should consider the knowledge and skills, and the need to make employees grow. Because increasing the dimensions of job characteristics will increase job motivation and if a person has a low growth rate, and have not enough needed knowledge and skills to perform the desired job, makes them fed up and probability of leaving job will increase. Accordingly, the following items recommend to Directors in order to increase employee s commitment through increasing motivation: Since statistical population of this research is Guilan Tejarat bank and duties and activities in banks are determined and specified And Bank staff are required to perform their duties in accordance as predefined guidelines, So it seems one way that things are able to solve work s uniformity and routines and by diversifying bank employees activities reduce their boredoms, is job rotation or workflow that this method suggests, that employees in the same job level do another work. Another solution could be suggest to managers of Tejarat Bank is, job promotion in order to diversifying the duties of employees. However, banks are among organizations that must keep pace with technology moving and apply needed changes to their activities and tasks. Thus, using new technologies in improving banking level is recommended. In this regard, attending training courses and participating in seminars can motivate employees from boredom to learning new phenomena and causes job satisfaction and making motivation. Therefore in order to provide a desirable variety of skills, applying some training seems to be necessary. For example, some software used for calculations and work activities involve previous training and because of tasks diversity of how doing works can cause pleasant feelings and experiences to the staff. REFERENCES Althin Richard- Behrenz L Efficiency and Productivity of Employment Offices Employment: Evidence from Sweden, International Journal of Manpower, Vol.26, No.2, PP Asgari J Productivity indicators, Entrepreneur magazine, No. 10. Bhramzadh HA, Khedmatgozare baghban S The role of human resources in an organization productivity with an emphasis on quality of work life, Journal of Management, No. 85. Delawar A Principles and Practice of Research in Social and Human Sciences, Tehran, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Gui dance Publication, second edition, pp. 186 and

8 Gilani M Banks and productivity, prosperity Magazine, Issue 28. Henri H, Rezayean A, Kozehchian H, Ehsani M The relationship between Motivation and Productivity of man power in the P hysical Education Organization of Iran, No.27.pages: Khaki G Analytical approach to productivity management in an organization ", Koohsar publication, Tehran, Fifth Edition (First Publisher), page 44. Koneshloo B productivity Management and quality of work life, Program magazine, Issue 215. Mohseni Azqandi M Productivity, the history, definitions and misunderstandings, automotive magazine, Issue 2. Moorhed, Griffin Organizational behavior, translated by doctor Seyed Mehdi Alvani and Gholamreza Memarzadeh, pearls Publication, Thirteenth Edition. Nasrollah Pour M Study The pattern of job characteristics of Hackman and Aldham, Tehran. Ozbiligin M Theory and Practice, International Human Resource Management, First Published By Dalagrave Macmlilan. Robbins SP organizational behavior management, translated by Mohammad Ali Parsaeian and seyed mohammad A, rabi, Tehran, cultural studies publication, pp Sarmad Z, Bazargan A, Hijazi E Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences, Tehran, Agah Publishing, pp and pp and 169. Savery Lawsen K Management and Productivity Increases, Journal of Management Development, Vol.17, No.1, PP Stainer A Logistic-a Productivity and Performance Perspective, Suuly Chan Management an International Journal, Vol.2, No.4, PP Wysocki Alen F, Kepner Karl W Management Beliefs That Tend to Reduce Association Motivation And Productivity, P.1-2. Yoosefi Z The role of efficient manpower in bank, s Productivity, Bank of Iran Quarterly, No

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