Software Engineering Process Economy & Quality

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1 Project delivery: Progress report Software Engineering Process Economy & Quality ETSF 01 The SPA reports you RECEIVED Your actions on received feedback Excel format preferred Lecture 4: Agile PM Paper 3, Ch , [Hughes] Monitor & Control - Ch 9 except 9.6 & 9.9, 12.4 [Hughes] Agile AGILE PROJECT MANAGEMENT Ch , [Hughes], P4 (not DSDM parts): Coram, Bohner, The Impact of Agile Methods on Software Project Management, Proc of 12 th Int. Conf. and Workshops on the Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, One name for many different methods Each implementation is unique Today s lecture: Scrum, XP and Kanban Principle-Driven Approach based on Agile Manifesto Agile focuses on More valuable Individuals & interactions Working software Customer collaboration Responding to change Valuable Processes and tools Comprehensive documentation Contract negotiation Following a plan Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum, Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin Fowler, James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas, The Agile Manifesto, Maximizing ROI - delivering business value Quickly delivering working code Expecting and managing changes changes target scope lead time cost / effort

2 Agile SPM Agile project Gradual detailing Traditional Work order project Priority Just-in-time Self-governing teams Level of detail at dev start Traditional Development Reqts Design Impl Testing Agile Development ReqtsDesignImpl Testing ReqtsDesignImpl Testing + a preparatory phase: High-level reqts + design! ReqtsDesignImpl Testing Same activities different sizing and sequence Agile principles and management are different Scrum Development POST-GAME Time boxing time-box fixed deadline by which something has to be delivered typically two to six week iterations Develop the most prioritized stories first PRE-GAME Continuous Feedback & Transparency Kanban: No iterations, team pull Business, Management and Development roles involved in Sprint planning meeting Daily stand-up meetings End-of-sprint demo Sprint retrospective meeting Max velocity WIP (work in process) / state Optimize average lead time / work item

3 Kanban boards Simplest version: columns for to-do, in progress, done Common: Backlog, Ready, Coding, Testing, Approval, Done columns Used to visualize workflow limit work-in-progress pull work from column to column monitor, adapt, improve XP Development Stories Priorities (strict) Backlog Effort estimates Pair programming, TDD Analysis Feedback Auto test Continuous review Design Test planning Code base Testing Continuous integration Customer approval & release Kent Beck, extreme Programming explained, Addison Wesley, 2000 Agile (XP) Phases Exploration Planning: Release + per iteration Development (iterations) Productionizing Maintenance Death Exploration Pair programming A D T P T Release Maintce Rel Final Rel Define high-level requirements Prioritize from business perspective Explore / prototype HL reqts Business prio Prototypng Effort estimates Prio backlog Estimate Capacity TCs Kent Beck, extreme Programming explained, Ch 21, Addison Wesley, 2000 Planning Prioritize user stories Backlog (scrum) Story cards, story board Re-estimate, for each sprint Select set of stories for iteration according to capacity Development in Scrum vs XP Iterations aka sprints Scrum XP Work in prio order Scrum XP 30 days prescribed, varies in reality 1-4 weeks team chooses stories in sprint planning team chooses stories strictly according to agreed prio (set by product owner) Managing change: Constant re-prio of backlog Scrum XP no changes in scope during sprint changes allowed within sprint for non-started stories

4 Activity Planning Product Owner/Customer defines & prioritises User stories Backlog or Story card management Dependencies are built into the prioritised list, i.e. not explicitly marked Effort Estimate Early estimates during exploration phase User stories estimated as part of iteration/sprint planning Time (man / person hours / days) or relative estimates (story points, bananas, gummy bears) Planning game (XP) or Planning poker (Scrum) Backlogs Story cards Resource Allocation Risk Management Capacity driven Project level: In exploration phase Iteration level: In iteration planning Within iteration: team pull, i.e. self-allocation Built into the process, e.g. stand-up meetings: Hindrances? Transparency, openess with information Iteration demos with customer / product owner Traditional risk management techniques can be used, even if not prescribed Monitor Progress monitored by asking How much work remains? Frequent status checks -> Burn-down charts & Control Management does not control in agile, rather facilitate is responsible for managing itself pull! responsible for its own work practice / process within the rules Regular feedback loops: pair programming, daily stand-up Sprint retrospectives

5 Strengths of Incremental Delivery [Hughes 4.10] quickly delivers working increments user gets some benefits earlier reduces gold-plating focus on ROI avoids unnecessary overhead, e.g. keeping docs updated experienced engineers can be more productive shorten comm paths with customer & within crossfunctional teams feedback from early stages used in developing latter stages Weaknesses of Incr Delivery [Hughes 4.10] weak long-term and overall perspective loss of economy of scale refactoring causes software breakages weak / missing documentation esp for large scale Dependent on personal knowl: negative for new members, transitioning to other team, audits, user doc Decision rationale, reqst-tc tracing may be lost Generalists have weaker specialist competence, e.g. reqts, testing, architecture Less structure/guidance for weaker engineers Monitor & Control (Ch 9 except 9.6 & 9.9, 12.4) Plan Reality / facit! Aim is to reach Scope: good product Budget: cost Timeliness: market window, commitments etc Monitor & Control Schedule vs Reality Roadworks! Accident! Monitoring Monitor via Reporting Formal reporting via organisational structures Objective: to check if project is on track relative plan Different kinds of data (measurements!) Data from reports Subjective data on completion rate Data comparing actual cost and planned cost Data comparing actual value and planned value PM for subproject Legacy Project Sponsor / Director Steering Committee Project manager Leader for Media Player Customer leader for FS ext Media Storage member: MM Dev member UX Design member Tester member FileS Dev member Tester

6 Different Types of Reporting Formal Informal, Oral Written, Regular - Ad Hoc Oral Written Formal Regular Re-occurring progress meetings, eg stand-ups Job sheets, progress reports Informal Around coffee machine s to known collegues Ad Hoc Oral Review meetings Ad hoc meetings Written Issues reports, change requests s for issues investigation Project vs Line Organisation Functional (usually Line) Manager Analysis Coding Testing Feature A Task (usually Project) Feature B PM System Test Collecting progress details Need to collect data about: Achievements Costs Exercise on partial completion Developer has produced 250 lines of Java code for a task estimated at total 500 loc. Quantitive cost & remaining effort, but thin on qualitative info, e.g. issues, actual state of progress. Questions 1.Reasonable to assume task 50% complete? 2.Why / Why Not? 3.How can PM deal with this? Cost vs Time Actual relative planned cost actual relative planned time Project can be behind time but under budget Example: Delayed due to not deploying committed staff Project can be on time but over budget Example: additional resources have been added to cope with work load Need to monitor both achievements and costs Collecting progress details Need to collect data about: Achievements Costs Exercise on partial completion Developer has produced 250 lines of Java code for a task estimated at total 500 loc. Questions 1.Reasonable to assume task 50% complete? 2.Why / Why Not? 3.How can PM deal with this? Possible answers 1. Not necessarily 2. Possible issues Incorrect estimate Non-typical or uneven progress so far Test & debugging not started yet 3. More (qualitative) knowledge of progress & remaining sub-tasks.

7 Gantt charts Slip charts Burn-Down Charts (Scrum) Fever Chart (Critical Chain) Prioritized monitoring [Hughes 9.7] Monitoring and reporting has a $-tag! Focus on monitoring based on risk Critical path activities: if delayed later dependent activities are delayed Activities with less than a specified float High risk activities: E.g. top 5-10 risks Activities using critical resources + activities with external dependencies + resource allocations Assessing progress Checkpoints predetermined times when progress is checked (plan + process) Event driven: check takes place when a particular event has been achieved Time driven: date of the check is predetermined Frequency and level of reporting Corresponding to organizational level Higher risk more frequent assessment Red/Amber/Green or Traffic Lights

8 Control or Getting back on track [Hughes 9.8] + Understand the issues! E.g. missing information, weak tools, non-functioning team etc etc etc Try to shorten critical path by adding resources Overtime Re-allocate existing staff to more critical activities Get more staff Reconsider activity dependencies Over-lap activities to avoid waiting for completion of another Split activities to remove dep. to activities / critical resources Control by Modifying the Target Re-negotiate the commitment: time (deadline), cost or scope Reduce scope &/ quality Increase cost or deliver later. Consider incremental delivery! For changes that affect business case (scope-cost-time) involve All affected stakeholders Inform and gain approval from steering committee and project sponsor Ensure affected parties are informed Summary Recommended exercises: 9.1 and 9.2 Two main PM tasks PLAN GUIDE, i.e. monitor & control a project to meet agreed goals and targets Monitor and control Monitor through analysing, compiling incoming reports Take corrective and adjustive action when needed Manage change in a structured way Coordinate roles and people (project meetings etc)

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