Single Axle Running Gears FEBA - a New Concept of Radial Steering

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1 Single Axle Running Gears - a New Concept of Radial Steering Oldrich Polach DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems (Switzerland) Ltd, Winterthur OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 1 - _Milan.ppt

2 Contents Introduction of Adtranz Winterthur Principle of running gears Test vehicle Running tests (Video) Result of measurements Conclusions OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 2 - _Milan.ppt

3 ADtranz Winterthur Formerly: Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works Ltd Now : DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems (Switzerland) Ltd Winterthur Zürich HB Product Unit: Bogies Specialisation: Bogies for locomotives and for regional traffic, single axle running gears Milano Centrale OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 3 - _Milan.ppt

4 Development and Production of Railway Vehicles in Winterthur Well known products: Loco 2 (Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Hong-Kong) Bogies for regional traffic vehicles Mountain rack and adhesion traction vehicles Modern steam rack locomotives OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 4 - _Milan.ppt

5 From conventional bogie to coupled single axles Disconnectability Disconnectability Weight Weight Bogie conventional + - Jakob Bogie - + conventional Coupled single-axles new! + + OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 5 - _Milan.ppt

6 Decoupling of coupled single axles Normal service new! Maintenance + + Decoupling is very easy Separated coaches can be moved without subsidiary device OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 6 - _Milan.ppt

7 EMU NSB Class 72 Technical Data Coupled single axle running gears Total Length: 8 m Vehicle Width: 31 mm Floor Height: 75 / 121 mm Max. Axle Load: 2,3 t Traction Power: 26 kw Max. Speed: 16 km/h Number of Seats: 3 OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 7 - _Milan.ppt

8 Single Axle Running Gears Principle Flexibler Einzelachs BAukasten (Flexible Modular Single Axle Running Gear) OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 8 - _Milan.ppt

9 Single Axle Running Gears Comparison with Conventional Concepts Single Axle Gear Coupled Gears Jakob Bogie OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 9 - _Milan.ppt

10 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Running Gear Prototype OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 1 - _Milan.ppt

11 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Design of Test Vehicle Unsere Neue Fahrwerktechnologie......im Test für Sie OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 11 - _Milan.ppt

12 Single Axle Running Gears Models for Vehicle Dynamics Simulations Test vehicle NSB Class 72 OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 12 - _Milan.ppt

13 Single Axle Running Gears Curving Simulation Angle of attack Lateral wheel-rail force 6 5 [mrad] 4 2 coupling of the running gears hard aq = 1 m/s² aq = m/s² Y coupling of the running gears hard aq = 1 m/s² aq = m/s² soft curve radius [m] 1 soft curve radius [m] OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 13 - _Milan.ppt

14 Tests of Single Axle Running Gears Test Purposes Vehicle dynamic tests Comfort Running stability Curving Noise and vibrations Body noise transfer function Outside noise Test of assembly groups Load spectra of assembly groups Air spring behaviour Measurement of suspension displacements Displacement in primary and secondary suspensions Roll angle of coach body OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 14 - _Milan.ppt

15 Tests of Single Axle Running Gears Running Tests Contents of Video Overview of products Principle of single axle running gears Development of Test vehicle for running gears Measurement of Eigenmodes Measuring equipment Tests up to 12 km/h Tests up to 176 km/h OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 15 - _Milan.ppt

16 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Parameter Variants Primary suspension Air springs: Volume of auxiliary reservoir, orifice diameter Vertical dampers Lateral dampers Yaw dampers Coupling of the running gears Inter-car dampers OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 16 - _Milan.ppt

17 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Measurements and Analysis Comfort Running stability Wheel-rail forces Angle of attack, ets radial steering Suspension displacements Roll angle coefficient Acceleration and noise transfer functions Outside noise Load spectra of assembly groups OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 17 - _Milan.ppt

18 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Test results - Presented results of the vehicle dynamics tests : running stability ride comfort curving steering angle quasi-static wheel-rail forces dynamic wheel-rail forces OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 18 - _Milan.ppt

19 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - running stability without 1 anti-yaw damper speed [km/h] calculation: critical speed measurement: lateral accelerations on -frames <4m/s^2 measurement: lateral accelerations on -frames 4-8m/s^ equivalent conicity OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 19 - _Milan.ppt equivalent conicity calculated for measured rail profiles and wheel profile S12 with linearization amplitude 3mm configuration: basic, axle load 13t, 1 anti-yaw damper per dismantled dry rails

20 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured Ride Comfort limit NSB N-value measuring-point 1 measuring-point 2 limit NSB speed [km/h] Line: Gümligen-Thun configuration: basic OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 2 - _Milan.ppt

21 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - steering angle on dry rails steering angle [mrad] 4-4 steering angle OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 21 - _Milan.ppt Ideal measured curvature [1/km] straight radius of curve [m] Line: Oberwinterthur- Stammheim speed: 7-11km/h rails: dry configuration: basic

22 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - steering angle on wet rails steering angle [mrad] 4-4 steering angle Ideal measured curvature [1/km] Line: Oberwinterthur- Stammheim speed: 7-11km/h rails: wet configuration: basic OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 22 - _Milan.ppt straight radius of curve [m]

23 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Steering angle: dependency on weather conditions 1 steering angle related to ideal steering angle [%] dependency on weather conditions 2 Ideal dry rails Coupled s wet rails Conventional bogie (rigid axle guidance) OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 23 - _Milan.ppt

24 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Steering angle: dependency on coupling stiffness 1 steering angle related to ideal steering angle 8 dependency on coupling-stiffness [%] Ideal Coupled s, stiffness of coupling low medium high Conventional bogie (rigid axle guidance) OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 24 - _Milan.ppt low = 25 kn/mm radial stiffness of the sphäro-links on the coupling-bars medium = 5 kn/mm high = 7 kn/mm

25 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Advantages of the good steering angle - The advantages of the good steering angle are: little wear of little wear of rails small risk, that become out-of-round ( with polygons) less noise in narrow curves minimised wheel/rail-forces less running-resistance and therefore save of traction-force and energy OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 25 - _Milan.ppt

26 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured quasistatic lateral wheel/rail-forces - Axle Axle Load Load 13t 13t R=3m, bg=.8m/s^2 2 1 R=4m, bg=.8m/s^2 Y (inner wheel) Y (outer wheel) limit NSB 6kN sum Y Prudhomme (k=.85) 44.6kN Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim dry rails positive forces are acting towards curving center OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 26 - _Milan.ppt 2 1

27 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured quasistatic lateral wheel/rail-forces - Axle Axle Load Load 18t 18t 2 1 R=3m, bg=.9m/s^2 R=4m, bg=.7m/s^2 R=5m, bg=.6m/s^2 Y (inner wheel) Y (outer wheel) limit NSB 6kN OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 27 - _Milan.ppt sum Y Prudhomme (k=.85) 58.6kN Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim wet rails positive forces are acting towards curving center

28 Test Vehicle for Running Gears Lateral forces: Comparison with calculation Y (inner wheel) radius of curve [m] Y (outer wheel) limit NSB 6kN radius of curve [m] Sum Y 5 4 Prudhomme (k=.85) 44.6kN radius of curve [m] 1, axle load 13t x measurement bg=.5m/s^2 dry rail calculation bg=.5m/s^2 creep-force coefficient.3 OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 28 - _Milan.ppt

29 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured quasistatic lateral wheel/rail-forces - left left axle load 13t right right Y limit NSB 6kN Y Y OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 29 - _Milan.ppt Y Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 276A right curves shown as left curves dry rails

30 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured dynamic lateral wheel/rail-forces - Y limit NSB 75kN left left axle load 13t Y right right Y OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 3 - _Milan.ppt Y Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 276A right curves shown as left curves dry rails

31 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured derailment quotient Y/Q - left left axle load 13t right right.8.6 limit NSB Y/Q.4 Y/Q Y/Q.6.4 Y/Q OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 31 - _Milan.ppt Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 276A right curves shown as left curves dry rails values averaged over 2m

32 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured sum of lateral wheel/rail-forces Y- axle load 13t 5 Y limit NSB 44.6kN Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 32 - _Milan.ppt Y Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 276A right curves shown as left curves dry rails values averaged over 2m

33 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured dynamic lateral wheel/rail-forces - Y limit NSB 75kN left left axle load 18t Y right right Y OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 33 - _Milan.ppt Y Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 342A2 right curves shown as left curves wet rails

34 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured derailment quotient Y/Q - left left axle load 18t right right.8.6 limit NSB Y/Q.4 Y/Q Y/Q.6.4 Y/Q OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 34 - _Milan.ppt Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 342A3 right curves shown as left curves wet rails values averaged over 2m

35 Test Vehicle for Running Gears - Measured sum of lateral wheel/rail-forces Y- axle load 18t 6 5 limit NSB 58.5kN 4 Y Confidence Intervals k=3 Left curves 99.85%-values, right curves.15%-values OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 35 - _Milan.ppt Y Line: Oberwinterthur-Stammheim configuration: basic, LN 342A3 right curves shown as left curves wet rails values averaged over 2m

36 Conclusions Coupled single axle running gears were invented by Adtranz Winterthur replace conventional Jakob s bogies in articulated trains allow an easy separation for maintenance without subsidiary devices has been tested with speed of up to 18 km/h without any problems are built with proven elements offer a good ride comfort and stability behaviour showed an excellent curving behaviour with good radial steering and low forces between wheel and rail OP BWED, 8-Mai- - Seite 36 - _Milan.ppt

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