SAN BENITO CONSOLIDATED INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT

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1 SAN BENITO CONSOLIDATED INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT BILINGUAL / ESL EDUCATION PROGRAMS INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL PREKINDERGARTEN 12 TH REVISED JUNE 2013

2 FOREWORD Chapter (a) states it is the policy of the state that every student in the state who has a home language other than English who is identified as limited English proficient shall be provided a full opportunity to participate in a bilingual education or English as a second language program, as required in the Texas Education code, Chapter 29, subchapter B. In compliance with state law, San Benito CISD, has in place the Transitional Bilingual Early Exit Program. The Bilingual/ESL Educational Program Instructional Manual, adopted in , includes clarification of the program and its implementation process. Professional development on the program and how to use the manual to facilitate the implementation of the bilingual/esl program is required for all bilingual teachers teaching in a bilingual setting. This professional development is in conjunction with the LPAC training that each bilingual teacher is required to attend every year. This manual integrates district, state and federal Title III of Public Law (No Child Left Behind) requirements regarding the English and Spanish oral and written fluency in both English and the other language of instruction, which in our case is Spanish, student identification, program placement, parent notification, annual review, and assessment of English language learners as they attain language and academic proficiency. Three major topics covered in this manual: Program features Transitional Bilingual Late Exit Model Effective Practices and Instructional Areas of Focus for the Transitional Bilingual Program i

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 STATE LAW 1 MISSION STATEMENT 1 GOALS 1 OBJECTIVES 2 PROGRAM FEATURES 2 ANNUAL PROCEDURE 5 SECTION 2 PRIMARY LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION 8 REQUIREMENT 8 INSTRUCTIONAL COMPONENTS 8 TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCTION MODEL (TBEM) 10 TBEM INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK/TIME & TREATMET 12 TBEM PROGRAM MODEL 15 EFFECTIVE PRACTICES AND INSTRUCTION 17 SECTION 3 IDENTIFICATION AND SECONDARY LEVEL 27 ESL CATEGORIES 28 CHART STATE EXIT CRITERIA 31 PROCESS FOR CONSIDERING SPECIAL ED STUDENTS FROM BILINGUAL/ESL 32 ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE 34 ESL INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 35 ESL VIA SHELTERED ENGLISH INSTRUCTION 37 ESL INSTRUCTIONAL MODIFICATIONS 37 MODIFYING THE LANGAUGE ARTS CURRICULUM FOR ELL STUDENTS 39 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MODIFICATIONS FOR MATH 41 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MODIFICATIONS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES 43 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MODIFICATIONS FOR SCIENCE 44 SECTION 4 BILINGUAL COMPLIANCE INDICATORS 47 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 50 FINDINGS OF TEXAS SUCCESSFUL SCHOOLS 54 DISTRICT PROCEDURES Q & A 55 ii

4 SECTION 5 TEACHER STIPEND PK END OF YEAR EVALUATION FORMS - ELEMENTARY 61 END OF YEAR EVALUATION FORMS MIDDLE SCHOOL 62 END OF YEAR EVALUATION FORMS HIGH SCHOOL 63 SECTION 6 ELEMENTARY TRANSITIONAL MODEL TIME ALLOCATION 65 CATEGORY PROGRESSION 66 RECOMMENDED TIME & TREATMENT 67 SECTION 7 CHAPTER BILINGUAL/ESL SECTION FROM STUDENT ATTENDANCE 90 HANDBOOK SECTION 8 ESL INNOVATIVE COURSES 106 SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR ESL STUDENTS (SIESL) 112 FOUNDATIONS OF INTENSIVE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND SUPPORT (FILAS) 115 BE/ESL FORMS 118 iii

5 SECTION 1

6 SAN BENITO CONSOLIDATED INDPEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT BILINGUAL/ESL EDUCATION PROGRAMS GRADES PRE-K THROUGH 12 TH STATE LAW According to Chapter 89, Subchapter BB, Commissioner s Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating Limited English Proficient Students, each school district which has an enrollment of 20 or more limited English proficient students in any language classification in the same grade level district-wide shall provide bilingual education and English as a second language programs, as integral parts of the regular program as described in the Texas Education Code, 4.002; in prekindergarten through the elementary grades for students who speak that same language. "Elementary grades" shall include at least prekindergarten through Grade 5; sixth grade shall be included when clustered with elementary grades (subsection ). The goal of bilingual education programs shall be to enable limited English proficient students to become competent in the comprehension, speaking, reading, and composition of the English language through the development of literacy and academic skills in the primary language and English. Such programs shall emphasize the mastery of English language skills, as well as mathematics, science and social studies, as integral parts of the academic goals for all students to enable limited English proficient students to participate equitably in school ( ). Bilingual education and English as a second language programs shall be integral parts of the total school program. Such programs shall use instructional approaches designed to meet the special needs of limited English proficient students. The basic curriculum content of the programs shall be based on the essential skills and knowledge required by the state (Subsection ). MISSION STATEMENT The San Benito CISD Bilingual/ESL program emphasizes the mastery of the state s curriculum and the English language through the child s primary language and the instruction of English via ESL to allow students to reach full potential through equitable experiences which ensure that they become proficient in the English language, confident, productive, and competent members of our multicultural society. GOALS SBCISD implements the state mandated Transitional Bilingual Education Program as per Chapter of the Texas Education Code. The Transitional Bilingual Education Model is a full-time program of transitional instruction. The amount of instruction in each language (primary and English) shall be commensurate with students linguistic and academic proficiency in both languages. Coordination, collaboration, and articulation among all campus/district staff concerning the education of ELL students will ensure 1

7 consistent implementation of the bilingual education/esl program thereby gaining the understanding and active support of all segments of the community; opportunities to develop students confidence, self-assurance, and positive identity with their cultural heritage and the history of the United States; opportunities for all personnel involved in the planning, development, and delivery of services to ELL to be trained so that they have the knowledge that will enable them to offer the appropriate instruction and support; and opportunities for all ELL parents to be involved in the educational development of their children and included in decision making processes affecting their children s education.. so that all SBISD ELL students meet state and national standards, graduate from high school under the Recommended or Distinguished state plans, select college or postsecondary educational advancement, and pursue lifetime work opportunities in a socially responsible manner. OBJECTIVES The SBCISD Bilingual/ESL Program will meet the affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs of the ELLs by ensuring that they receive equitable opportunities with regard to a positive learning environment and high stakes curriculum that will enable them to 1. Become literate and competent in the comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing of the English language through the development of on grade level TEKS in both the primary language and English through effective second language strategies, 2. Attain academic skills in mathematics, science and social studies, 3. Achieve mastery through teachers use of individualized instruction, pacing, appropriate curriculum, materials and strategies, assessment, and supplementary/enriched instruction, and 4. Participate equitably in gifted and talented programs, technology (e.g., computers, lab equipment/time); and other special programs/services available to other students including school-to-work, leadership skills, community service, and independent study, etc. PROGRAM FEATURES SBCISD implements the state mandated Transitional Bilingual Education Program (Late exit) (TBEP) as per Chapter 89, Sub Chapter BB. Commissioner s Rules Concerning State Plan for educating Limited English Proficient Students of the Texas Administrative Code. The TBEP is a full time program of transitional instruction. A transitional program is predicated on the use of developmentally appropriate linguistic and academic instruction in both Spanish and English until test results and academic progress are evident for an ELL student to transition to an all-english curriculum. San Benito CISD implements the Transitional Bilingual Late Exit program. Late exit is a bilingual program that serves students identified as students of limited English proficiency in both English and Spanish, or another language, and transfers students to English-only instruction; academic growth is accelerated through cognitively challenging academic work in the student s first language along with meaningful academic content taught through the 2

8 student s second language, English. The goal is to promote high levels of academic language proficiency n the student s first language and English. Student enrolled I the transitional bilingual/late exit program are eligible to exit the program not earlier than six or later than seven years after the students enroll in school. Students that have met exit criteria in accordance with TAC (h)(ii)(k) may continue receiving services but the school district will not be allocated the bilingual allotment.- TEC Students who are proficient in English may also be served in this program only with appropriate parental permission, but are not eligible for Bilingual Program allotment. A transitional program is predicated on the use of developmentally appropriate linguistic and academic instruction in both Spanish and English until test results and academic progress are evident for a LEP student to transition to an all-english curriculum. Further detail on this type of program is found in pages 15 19, description of the TBEP Model in this Manual. Additional descriptive charts can be found in attachment V. District staff, including principals, teachers, support staff and central office administrators assigned to work with the ELL population at all grades levels shall participate and be trained for coordination, collaboration, and articulation concerning the education of ELLs to ensure consistent implementation of the bilingual education/esl program thereby gaining the understanding and active support of all segments of the community; opportunities to develop students confidence, self-assurance, and positive identity with their cultural heritage and the history of the United States; opportunities for all personnel involved in the planning, development, and delivery of services to ELLs to be trained so that they have the knowledge that will enable them to offer the appropriate instruction and support; and opportunities for all parents of ELLs to be involved in the educational development of their children and included in decision making processes affecting their children s education. A well-organized and well-planned transitional bilingual program offers many children perhaps the best chance they have to develop English, increase their capacity for learning, and maintain self-concept (Gibbons, 1991, p. 62). The main aim of the Transitional Bilingual program is to support conceptual development through the use of the mother tongue. The Transitional Bilingual Program will follow Program Features for All Bilingual Program as written by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) based on state mandates and State Board of Education rules that include: 1. Pre-literacy skills and reading will be taught in Spanish for all students who are identified as ELL and placed in a Bilingual program; 2. Initial concept development for all ELLs will be in Spanish until students reach English proficiency at functional levels specified in the TELPAS Reading; 3. Spanish language instruction will focus in high levels of learning such as vocabulary development and concept development to ensure the development of cognition at the upper level grades, and will continue at a minimum level unless more is needed as long as the ELLs remain in the Transitional 3

9 Bilingual Program. This will be done by providing high levels of language development in the primary language; 4. The program maintains strict separation, no simultaneous translation, of the language of instruction throughout specified content area time blocks. (There may be times when an instant translation is all that is required to clarify a particular issue or classroom instruction for a child, but bilingual approaches should not depend on this as an organizing principle for the program.) 5. All content area objectives are taught in the students native language during the early grades in order to enhance the development of high levels of cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) in the students first language. Knowledge learned in one language paves the way for knowledge acquisition in the second language; 6. ESL instruction must occur daily. English instruction in the curriculum gradually increases as the students English proficiency develops; 7. Daily comprehensible content area instruction in English is taught using concepts and skills drawn from content already taught that day/week in Spanish; 8. Content area instruction and the language of instruction for each content area are noted in the teacher s lesson plan; 9. Assessment to students with a language other than English will be administered by the respective campus LPAC in the primary language and English for students in grades PK -5 for initial identification and placement, and in English only for students in grades In addition, a reading normed referenced test will also be administered to students in grades The oral language proficiency growth will be measured at the end of the year to determine proficiency level growth using the IPT and the TELPAS. Students will be classified as follows: i. K-6 th in English: Students scoring at Level A, B or C shall be classified as Beginner (Non English Speaker). Students scoring at Level D or E shall be classified as Intermediate (Limited English Speaker), and students scoring at Level F shall be classified as Advanced (Fluent English Speaker). ii. 7-12th in English: Students scoring at Level A shall be classified as Beginner (Non English Speaker). Students scoring at Level B, C, D, or E shall be classified as Intermediate (Limited English Speaker), and students scoring at Level F shall be classified as Advanced (Fluent English Speaker). iii. K-6 th in Spanish: Students scoring at Level A or B shall be classified as Beginner (Non Spanish Speaker). Students scoring at Level C, D or E shall be classified as Intermediate (Limited Spanish Speaker), and students scoring at Level F shall be classified as Advanced (Fluent Spanish Speaker). iv. In addition, the TELPAS results for all English Language Learners (ELL) students in the area of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, must be taken into consideration to ensure the classification of a student s language proficiency is done appropriately. Through the 4

10 reading assessment, TELPAS provides information on academic progress for LEP students. 10. The classroom environment is rich in language content and reflects a bilingual setting. There is evidence of English and Spanish in: instructional bulletin boards, center labels, center materials and equipment, student products, posted classroom and school rules, and written communications to parents; and 11. Strong parental support and involvement is essential to reinforce the students native language development and communicate high expectations about academic achievement. Annual Procedures In addition to the LPAC reviews for student progress, reclassification at the end of the school year, and the revision of the students individual educational plan utilizing the time and treatment, and the allocation of teacher units for the beginning of a school year are procedures that campus administrators are faced with each year. Additionally, the need and focus of professional development of teachers assigned to the bilingual education and ESL programs also should be identified early in the school year. These procedures can be accomplished by implementing the following: Step 1. Reviewing the Student Data The campus principal must review the campus LPAC records to discern the number of LEP students at each grade level for the current, and/or upcoming school year. The data should reflect the number of LEP students in each of three categories, e.g. Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced according to test results of the IPT (English) in Grades PK-12, and a norm-referenced test in Grades 2-11th. STAAR should not be used for the identification of LEP students in the three language categories, e.g., Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced (See identification process in Chapter 89). The number of teachers needed should be predicated on the number of LEP students identified. The number of students drives the number of bilingual education teachers needed to meet the needs of LEP students in the bilingual program required by state law. Upon deciding on a departmentalized setting at the elementary level, bilingual certification of all content area teachers in that setting is required. It is important to have an adequate number of certified bilingual education teachers to serve the LEP student population enrolled in PreK-5 to eliminate the need for an exception to the required bilingual education program. Step 2. Assessing Staff Training Needs It is always best to assess what a campus principal has in place to address the linguistic and academic needs of the LEP student population. The assessment of teachers needs is crucial to be done at the end of a school year, or by the first day of school. This assessment can take place with a dedicated campus effort via or as part of the pre and in-service days scheduled in the district. In order to focus on overall training needs of the teachers assigned to the bilingual education program, campus administrators should proceed as follows: A. Develop a survey for completion by bilingual education teachers assigned to the campus and mail out to teachers electronically or hand delivered with instructions and reasons for the survey. Allow an adequate time for completion and return of the surveys. Impress upon teachers the importance of 5

11 their input to prioritize focus training at their campus. This approach will update training needs since there may have been teacher turnover, classroom reassignments, and/or new hires since the prior school year. B. The training needs that surface from the survey should be shared with the Bilingual Director to focus on such training needs in the master training plan of the district for the upcoming school year. C. If the training needs do not align with the district s professional development plan, the principal can schedule the focused training and prioritize the expenditures in their respective campus budget. Principals wishing focused training for bilingual education or ESL teachers should work closely with the Bilingual Director to ensure that the best expertise in teacher training is sought and acquired. Funding for this type of training may be defrayed from the campus local budget and Title 1, Title III, SCE and bilingual education allotments. If it should be decided to use the survey approach, it is important to pose the questions in the survey that will solicit information necessary to impact on the teaching and learning of LEP students. Teachers should be assured of the administration s desire to provide the necessary support and training, and be encouraged to be candid with their responses. It is therefore recommended that the survey include questions such as: 1. I would like more training to better understand the areas of language proficiency measured by TELPAS Yes No Not Sure 2. I need more training to better understand the criteria for identification of LEP students Yes No Not Sure 3. I fully understand the levels of language proficiency as found in the state policy for the education of LEP students Yes No Not Sure 4. I fully understand the components of a Transitional Bilingual Education program Yes No Not Sure 5. I need more training on the goals of the SBCISD transitional bilingual education program Yes No Not Sure 6. I need more training on how to differentiate my instruction in the affective, linguistic and cognitive domains Yes No Not Sure 7. I fully understand the required assessment procedures for LEP students Yes No Not Sure 8. I need more training on how to use Spanish as a medium of instruction in language arts and the content areas Yes No Not Sure 9. I know how to differentiate my instructional focus between oral language development and reading in Spanish according to Spanish language categories of my LEP students Yes No Not Sure 10. I need more training on how to use ESL methods and shelter the instruction in language arts and the content areas Yes No Not Sure 11. I know how to differentiate my instructional focus between oral language development using ESL methodology and reading in English according to English language categories of my LEP students Yes No Not Sure 12. I fully understand what criteria to use to discontinue Spanish reading in language arts for LEP students who have initiated the transition to English 6

12 reading Yes No Not Sure 13. I fully understand what criteria a teacher should use to transition a LEP student to all English instruction Yes No Not Sure 14. I need training in the following areas: All No and Not Sure responses should be viewed as priority areas for focused professional development early in the school year. This Instructional Manual can serve as the primary training tool, along with the PowerPoint slide presentation that has been developed as a complement to the Manual. Additionally, the Bilingual Director will help identify experts in the field to present training on best practices and scientifically-based research, as well as area workshops at Region I ESC for bilingual education teachers to attend and improve their individual teaching competencies. For principals in secondary grades, e.g. 6 th -12 th, the survey questions can be modified for ESL by removing all references to bilingual education (questions #4 and #5) and the Spanish language (questions #8 and #9). Step 3: Evaluation of Program Chapter 89 mandates that the program be evaluated annually. Although this procedure takes place at the district level, information from your campus must be compiled and reviewed for the purpose of improving the program. See the evaluation form at the end of this manual which is to be submitted to the office of bilingual education before the last week of school. 7

13 SECTION 2

14 PRIMARY LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION Children bring a rich array of natural language from their homes. The school must then develop each child s primary language from the concrete to the abstract or formal levels. The attainment of the formal levels is required for mastering essential knowledge and skills for language arts and other required subjects. Knowledge learned in one language paves the way for knowledge acquisition in the second language. Thus, students in the Transitional Bilingual Program will learn content (reading, mathematics, science, etc.) in their native language during the early primary grades. Premises for First Language Development and Reading in the First Language include: Concept development in the first language should precede re-labeling of the same concepts in the second language. All of the language skills should be integrated: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Second language acquisition is most successful when there is a strong foundation in the first language. Academic skills learned in school transfer readily from one language to the other, so that skills taught in the native language in a transitional bilingual program do not have to be re-learned in English. A child who learns to read well in his/her first language can later transfer reading skills to the second language, usually with better results than learning to read directly in the second language. The thousands of hours of experiences in the home language that the child has had is a more solid base for initial reading experiences than the minimal experiences in a second language. Language use/allocation: For ELL students entering school speaking predominately Spanish, the primary language of instruction shall be Spanish. The amount of instruction in each language is noted in the following pages to ensure the continuing development of: The students native language Cognitive academic skills in the students native language, and Linguistic and cognitive academic proficiency skills in English. Requirement Students in Grades PK Through 5 Students in Grades PK through 5 (or through 6, if Grade 6 is clustered with elementary grades who are counted for funding in the bilingual/esl program must be served by bilingual/eslcertified staff. 1 Instructional Components Teachers in the TBEP shall provide instruction in both languages to focus on the affective, linguistic and cognitive domains as called for in the state policy under Program Content. The instructional focus in each of the three components shall be as described below Student Attendance Accounting Handbook, page 151 8

15 1. Affective: ELL students shall be provided instruction in their home language to introduce basic concepts of the school environment and instruction both in their home language and in English to instill confidence, self-assurance, and a positive identification with their cultural heritage. The program shall address the history and cultural heritage associated with both the students home language and the United States. Essentially, the affective component of bilingual education should be used to: Provide orientation to the schools setting in the student s primary language and comprehensive communications for adjustment into the learning environment. Allow successful initial communication, which contributes to the social adjustment of the student. Provide introduction to the school environment through the primary language to allow the continuation of natural language acquisition without interruption. Help schools to bridge the child s home culture and background to the society in which the child will participate as an adult. This adjustment should be accomplished without alienating the child or the child s family. 2. Linguistic: The ELL students shall be provided instruction in the skills of comprehension, speaking, reading, and composition both in their home language and in English. The student receives instruction in the primary language while beginning to develop the English language. English as a second language (ESL) must be taught daily for a minimum of 30 minutes to ensure the development of the English language. The instruction in both languages shall be structured to insure that the students master the required TEKS, higher order thinking skills in all subjects, and develop the English language for an effective and successful transition to the English language. Children bring a rich array of natural language from their homes. The school must then develop each child s primary language and the second language from the concrete to the abstract or formal levels of language to increase its usability at school. Although informal language is useful for social purposes, attainment of the formal levels is required for mastering TEKS for language arts and other required subjects. Students should be constantly exposed to high academic levels of Spanish in Language Arts and the content areas. The development of the ability to think about and reflect upon the nature and functions of language is achieved more quickly in the student s primary language than in the student s second language. Comprehensible linguistic input in the second language is required for concept development. 3. Cognitive: The ELL students shall be provided instruction in mathematics, science, health, and social studies both in his/her home language and in English. The content area instruction in both languages shall be structured to ensure that the students master the required TEKS and higher order thinking skills in all subjects. Initial concept development should be in Spanish. English must be taught for a minimum of 30 minutes daily to ensure the student learns the English language. Instruction in 9

16 Spanish is gradually decreased as the student masters the academics in the primary language and begins to understand the English language. As the child transitions to English, sheltered English teaching strategies is utilized throughout the day to develop the academic concepts and vocabulary in English to provide: Development of language and content area concepts that is interdependent. Development of higher order thinking skills is dependent upon effective participation in the content area subject. The following section of the Manual is dedicated to describing San Benito s CISD s Transitional Bilingual Education Model in Grades PK-5 and the English as a second language program in Grades 6-12 th. District staff assigned to work with the ELL population at every grade level and every campus is encouraged to become conversant with the content and detail found in this Model. District appraisers must also become functionally knowledgeable of the contents, activities and instructional focus detailed in this Model to effectively and fairly conduct appraisals of professional teachers, campus administrators and other professional staff for the PDAS system of the District. Questions on the Model and requests for training should be directed to Dr. Margarita Y. Greer, Director of Federal Programs and Bilingual Education in San Benito CISD. TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION MODEL The Transitional Bilingual Education Model described in this section is being provided to guide campus administrators and teachers in the design, implementation and evaluation of appropriate instructional services for the English language learner [ELL] student population in Grades PK-5 in the elementary campuses of San Benito CISD. The model is based on the minimum requirements of the state policies as found in 19 TAC Chapter 89 Subchapter BB, Commissioner s Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating Limited English Proficiency Students, and findings of the Texas Successful Schools Study: Quality Education for Limited English Proficient Student [TEA-August 2000]. The SBCISD Transitional Bilingual Education Model described below shall be the official program that campus administrators and teachers of LEP students will implement and support starting with the school year. The TBEM has been designed to provide the LEP population genuine opportunities in all educational efforts to acquire literacy and proficiency in English, as effectively as possible, and as described herein. Prior to acquiring academic language in either language, students develop their oral language for communication. This conversational or social language is known as the basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS). Academic language, a child s knowledge of reading, writing, provides the teacher with evidence that a LEP student has acquired essential literacy skills to use language for learning concepts and subject matter. These students have acquired the academic language to learn and be successful in the regular curriculum. This level of language development necessary for school success is called cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). English language proficiency in SBCISD is defined as becoming competent in speaking, reading, writing and comprehending, which are prerequisite skills for integration into the mainstream school curriculum. This definition is aligned with proficiency as found in state policy. The use of the child s first language as a means of reaching this goal is vital. Students are 10

17 allowed to continue their linguistic and academic development in their first language as they are learning English and transitioning to an all-english curriculum. The TBEP shall be a program of bilingual instruction in Grades Pre K-5 that will be offered as the regular program for every LEP student with parental approval to participate in the program. The instructional focus shall be on both languages to help the LEP children progress from the oral communication skills of listening and speaking to the written communication skills of reading and writing in both the home language and the second language. The use of the home language and English shall be used as mediums of instruction on a daily basis across the state mandated curriculum, e.g., TEKS. For optimal language development, the languages are separate for the specific instruction of the lesson. There is no direct translation of material during instruction for the student. Bilingual instruction shall be provided until such time that the child is able to transition from developing language skills, to effective or excellent language proficiency in both languages. LEP students with prior schooling, such as the immigrant student, will tend to demonstrate literacy in Spanish (L1), so it is important to diagnose the extent of literacy in L1. The Transitional Bilingual Education Model Instructional Framework is shown below for guidance and utilization of language for instructional focus and time allocations to be devoted to each language. It is important to note that the time allocations and the instructional focus are different and more intensive in the Spanish language in Grades PreK-2 than it is in Grades 3-5. This intensification of primary language instruction is to facilitate a strong literacy base in the home language while acquiring the second language. This will also lead to high levels of proficiency and literacy in both languages for the LEP student. The TBEM is based on a percentage of time to be devoted to each language of instruction, i.e., Spanish and English (ESL) ranging from 80% to 20% (time) and the focus of instruction (treatment) in language arts, reading and the content areas (See Graphic A on page 15). The Model shows detailed groupings of categories and allocates the time and the treatment commensurate with the language categories as noted. It is also important to note that the percentages of time to be devoted to Spanish instruction do not diminish with each grade level, but rather by language categories as the ELL student progresses in the acquiring of English proficiency. This instructional framework dispels the myth that ELL students should get less Spanish instruction as they move up the grades. This should only happen when it can be documented that the student is making both linguistic and academic progress in both Spanish and English. Some students may progress from one proficiency level to another at a faster rate, particularly those with prior schooling and Spanish literacy such as our immigrant students, while others may continue to require Spanish instruction and/or clarification at 3 rd, 4 th, and 5 th grade levels. ELL students must make a transition from the oral communication skills (BICS) to the written communication skills (CALP) in both languages, before making a transition or exiting the bilingual education program. The Bilingual Education Department will provide staff development, guidance, technical assistance and monitoring to assist and assess the implementation of the Transitional Bilingual Education Program Model. The Model is shown graphically in the following pages. 11

18 Transitional Bilingual Education Program (Instructional Framework) TIME AND TREATMENT PreK-2 Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus Beginner/Beginner 80% oral language development in language arts, writing, science, and social studies. Beginner/Intermediate 70% oral language development in language arts, writing, science, and social studies. Beginner/Advanced (This time allotment is for 2 nd grade LEP students below the 40%tile on the NRT) 40% oral language development in language arts, writing, science, and social studies. English Instructional Focus 20% in English language development (ESL), and specific, sheltered content. 30% in English language development (ESL) in language arts, and ESL sheltered content areas 60% ESL and sheltered content areas, mathematics, may begin either transitioning or reading in English PreK-2 Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus Intermediate/Beginner 80% oral language development in writing, mathematics, reading, science, and social studies. Intermediate/Intermediate 70% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Intermediate/Advanced (This time allotment is for 2 nd grade LEP students below the 40%tile on the NRT) 40% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. English Instructional Focus 20% in English language development (ESL) and sheltered content areas 30% in English language development, (ESL) sheltered science, mathematics and social studies 60% in English reading and mathematics and ESL sheltered science and social studies 12

19 PreK-2 Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus Advanced/Beginner 80% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Advanced/Intermediate 70% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Advanced/Advanced (This time allotment is for 2 nd grade LEP students below the 40%tile on the NRT) 40% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. 3 rd -5th Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus Beginner/Beginner 80% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Beginner/Intermediate 60% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Beginner/Advanced 30-40% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. English Instructional Focus 20% in English language development (ESL) sheltered content areas 30% in English language development (ESL), initiate English reading, and ESL sheltered science, mathematics and social studies 60% in English reading and mathematics, sheltered science and social studies English Instructional Focus 20% in English language development (ESL) in language arts and sheltered content areas 40% in English language development (ESL) in language arts, initiate transition to English reading if at grade level in Spanish reading, and ESL sheltered science, mathematics and social studies 60-70% in English reading and mathematics in mainstream English and ESL sheltered content areas 13

20 3 rd -5th Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus Intermediate/Beginner 80% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Intermediate/Intermediate 60% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Intermediate/Advanced 30-40% oral language development in writing, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. English Instructional Focus 20% in English language development (ESL) in language arts, and ESL sheltered content areas 40% in English language development (ESL) in language arts, initiate transition to English reading if on grade level in Spanish reading and ESL sheltered content areas 60-70%% in English reading and mathematics regular English and ESL sheltered science and social studies 3 rd -5th Category Levels--L1/L2 Spanish Instructional Focus English Instructional Focus Advanced/Beginner 80% oral language 20% in English language development in writing, development (ESL) in reading, mathematics, language arts, and ESL science, and social studies. sheltered content areas Advanced/Intermediate 60% oral language 40% in English language development in writing, development (ESL), initiate reading, mathematics, transition to English reading science, and social studies. if on grade level in Spanish reading, and ESL sheltered science, mathematics and social studies Advanced/Advanced 20-30% oral language 70-80% in English reading development in writing, and mathematics and reading, mathematics, science in mainstream science, and social studies. English, and ESL sheltered social studies 14

21 Graphic A This Model focuses on an instructional approach that utilizes both languages in all elementary grade levels and in all areas of the curriculum. The Model is designed to promote bilingualism and facilitate literacy in two languages for the ELL [LEP] students. To progress linguistically and cognitively on the LEP continuum, e.g., from Beginner, to Intermediate, to Advanced, to Exit stage, teachers must ensure that the ratio of the second language-english [L2] to the first language-spanish [L1] gradually and systematically increases as the LEP student progresses from one language category to the next. In the illustration of the Model, the LEP categories are shown as Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced starting from the upper left to the bottom right of the illustration. 15

22 This Model requires the assessment of L1 and L2 linguistically and academically for each student by the LPAC to determine the instructional focus or placement in each language. The assessment must rely on the results of a TEA approved oral language proficiency test (OLPT) in Grades PK-5 in both languages and a TEA approved normed-referenced test in Grades 2-5 in both Spanish and English. Since this assessment process is to ensure the proper identification of each student who comes from a home where the language spoken is other than English. Test results available for STAAR or TELPAS Reading are not acceptable to comply with the state policy requirements for identification. The instructional focus by teachers should guide the time and treatment of both languages in the oral communication skills [BICS] and/or the written communication skills [CALP] for each language category as appropriate. The amount of time to be devoted to each language depends on the progress made by the students in the listening and speaking skills in Spanish [L1]. This requires a continuous assessment by the teachers. As the student demonstrates greater oral proficiency in the primary language, as evidenced by the end-of-year OLPT, TELPAS, and moves to the next language category, the amount of time for Spanish instruction is reduced and the amount of ESL instruction is increased. Upon initial assessment, a student who scores in the Intermediate or Advanced level in Spanish, should not be placed in the Beginner instructional focus. The amount of time to be devoted to English in this case should be equal to, or greater than, the amount of time devoted to Spanish. As the LEP student progresses through the oral communication skills, e.g., listening/speaking and understanding, to the written communication skills, e.g., reading/comprehension and writing in both Spanish and English, equal time [50%:50%] should be devoted to both languages until teachers see evidence of literacy [cognition] in both languages. It should be noted that recent immigrants will acquire language proficiency at different stages, depending on their literacy in the primary language and prior schooling of each student. The reclassification of a LEP student to Non-LEP status should not procedurally result in students exiting from the bilingual education program until proficiency in English can be documented by objective test scores. Movement of LEP students between language categories must not take place until the end of each school year, as determined by the respective campus LPAC. 16

23 EFFECTIVE PRACTICES AND INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS OF FOCUS FOR THE TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAM The TBEP shall be implemented using the areas of focus and effective practices that are described below. The areas of focus and practices for the TBEP shall be: I. Continuous assessment II. Instructional service delivery with modifications III. Instructional service delivery that will use both Spanish and English IV. Equal prestige to both languages V. Balanced literacy approaches VI. Instructional leadership VII. Grouping for instructional purposes VIII. Instructional technology IX. Compliance/Accountability X. Evaluation XI. State adopted textbooks and supplementary systems XII. Professional development XIII. Parental involvement XIV. Program expectations aligned to state standards 17

24 The following tables illustrate suggested instructional activities and methods to implement the effective practices and areas of focus listed above. Respective expectations are also noted for accountability purposes and program impact assessments. 1. Continuous Assessment Activities/Methods The campus LPAC shall be responsible for all LEP student records used for classification and placement of each student. The Spanish and English language categories of each student shall be provided to teachers of record for the TBEP. Expectations Student records must document reliable assessment results and processes. The LPAC ensures compliance with the state policies. Placement decision forms for each student will be completed and a copy will be kept in the LPAC binder. The campus LPAC will meet monthly to assess, place or monitor LEP students. Teachers will monitor ELL students daily, and review the progress of the students every 6 weeks to ensure student is not falling behind. If student is falling behind, teacher must notify LPAC chair, an LPAC meeting must be held to evaluate and recommend interventions that must be provided the child s teacher, placed in the Permanent Record Folder (PRF) Progress or regressions must be documented. Principals should monitor these folders twice a year. Appropriate instructional decisions in both languages for each LEP student shall be made according to the LPAC information. Teachers shall rely on assessment information that becomes available to target daily instruction in both languages across all subject areas. Teachers shall keep assessment information; such as TELPAS Reading, writing samples in both languages, ESL assessments in a portfolio to use when making decisions to transition a student to English literacy, TAKS assessment recommendations, and recommendations for special programs. Principals shall ensure that all staff administering the required assessments in both languages is trained for these purposes. Specific training and retraining of staff on test administration will be offered on a timely basis. The Principal ensures compliance with district and state policies. All criteria and actions on every LEP student by the LPAC committee must be recorded in the individual LEP folders for use by teachers assigned to work with those students. 18

25 Principals shall monitor program implementation to evaluate processes and service delivery. LEP students may only be reclassified from one language category to the next at the end of the school year. The LPAC shall document that all LEP students who are exited in Grades 4 and above meet all of the criteria for exiting. These criteria include: 1. Assessment results that indicate the student has developed listening, speaking, reading and writing language proficiencies and specific language skills in both languages, and 2. Student performs at passing or commended level on the STAAR test in English reading and writing at grade level, or 3. Student scores at or above the 40 th percentile on both the English reading and English Language Arts sections of a TEA approved normreferenced test, and 4. Student has passing grades in all subjects, which includes subjective criteria such as benchmark results throughout the year, report card grades, final grades, and other data that can assist the LPAC with an appropriate placement of the student. The campus LPAC and individual student records shall serve as the campus audit trail and records management. The Bilingual Director and/or the Principal shall conduct periodic sample record checks to ensure consistency and quality in record keeping for the TBEP. LPACs shall monitor the academic performance of all LEP students who are exited for two years. If at the end of any one 6 weeks, student is not performing up to par, LPAC must meet and make recommendations for interventions. M1 students (1 st year monitored students and M2 students (2 nd year monitored students) shall be coded in PEIMS. Assessment information regarding these students will be discussed in regular LPAC meetings. LPAC member will sign the ARD form as a participant in the ARD meeting. The campus LPAC will make recommendations for TAKS administration and language of administration for all LEP students. An LPAC member will attend all ARD meetings dealing with LEP student assessments and placement. Exit criteria for LEP students who are also classified as Special Ed must be developed at the beginning of the year by the LPAC and the ARD. If at the end of the year, the student meets the exit criteria specified by the ARD and LPAC, the committees may exit student from the bilingual program. 19

26 2. Instructional service delivery with modifications Activities/Methods LEP students in the Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced language category levels shall be instructed daily in L1 and L2 according to the instructional service delivery designations for the TBEP. Expectations Accountability for the implementation, effectiveness and success of the TBEP shall be the responsibility of the Principals, bilingual/esl teachers and the Bilingual Director. 3. Instructional service delivery that will use both Spanish and English Activities/Methods Expectations Teachers are to institute the use of Spanish [L1] The principal ensures that the and English [L2] as mediums of instruction across Instructional Framework of the TBEP is all grade levels and every subject for every LEP implemented effectively and student enrolled in the program Time devoted for ESL instruction must be part of the instructional day for LEP students consistently at all grade levels by all bilingual teachers through monitoring of teaching and lesson plans. 4. Equal prestige to both languages Activities/Methods Teachers must not show preference of one language over the other for instructional purposes. The LEP students and their parents must know that the home language of the students is as important as the second language children are to learn. Expectations Equal prestige devoted to both languages shall be evident in the teacher s lesson plans, daily instruction, classroom environment and the purchasing of resources. Books in primary language reflect the authentic literature and language. They are not translation of English materials. Teachers provide and involve parents in activities that value home language and cultural backgrounds. Teachers provide parents with the information regarding the purpose of instructing in both languages. 20

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