L enseignement de la langue anglaise en Algérie; Evaluation de certains aspects de la réforme scolaire de 2003

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1 REPUBLIQUE ALGERIENNE DEMOCRATIQUE ET POPULAIRE MINISTERE DE L EDUCATION NATIONALE Institut National de Recherche en Education L Institut National de la Recherche en Education Journée d étude sur L enseignement de la langue anglaise en Algérie; Evaluation de certains aspects de la réforme scolaire de 2003

2 Cultural Contextualisation in Algerian EFL Textbooks: which place for the local culture? Dr YASSINE Souryana Department of English Mouloud mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou

3 Résumé: L enseignement des langues étrangères n implique pas uniquement des choix d approches théoriques ou de méthodes didactiques mais aussi celui d une contextualisation culturelle appropriée et à même de répondre aux objectifs tracés afin de permettre l épanouissement des apprenants qui acquièrent une nouvelle langue. Ainsi, la question épineuse dans l enseignement de la langue anglaise en Algérie reste le choix de la culture à véhiculer dans les programmes et manuels scolaires. Deux courants se disputent ce champs à savoir ; 1- les défenseurs de la culture nationale et 2- les adeptes de la culture étrangère. Mais n y a-t-il pas une autre voie qui peut réconcilier les deux et qui offre un contexte plus serein où l élève Algérien se sent à l aise avec sa culture et ouvert sur les cultures de l autre? Dans cette communication, nous nous proposons d examiner les contenus culturels de certains manuels d anglais conçus pour le collège et le lycée avant et après la réforme (ex. Spring One, Spotlight on English, On the Move, Think it Over, Comet, New Prospects) pour déterminer les images qu ils reflètent concernant la représentation de soi et de l autre. Il est important de comprendre la portée de cette représentation culturelle qui est un facteur d identification pour les apprenants.

4 Introduction The teaching of foreign languages does not only require sound linguistic and psychological theories but also a relevant cultural framework since the teaching of a language implies the teaching of culture. The present study evaluates the development of Algerian EFL textbooks (used in Middle and Secondary schools) cultural components following the Education Reform. It further explores Secondary school EFL teachers perceptions of the developments relating to cultural components of three locally designed Algerian English textbooks : Think it Over (1989), Comet (2001), and New Prospects (2007)

5 Research Questions: 1) What cultural contents are displayed in the Algerian EFL textbooks (before and after the reform)? a) At the level of texts b) At the level of images 2) How do the teachers perceive the developments of the cultural contextualization in the teaching materials?

6 Culture and EFL culture learning is not an option for language learning, and all language learning (really all learning) takes place in a cultural milieu (Swiderski, 1993: 09) effective learning begins with making learning culturally relevant and meaningful to learners (Hall, 2002: 75).

7 Culture in EFL materials Moran (2001) proposes thinking of culture as a whole that has five dimensions. 1) Products: tools, food, cloths 2) Practices: verbal and non-verbal language, actions and interactions, taboos 3) Perspectives: values, beliefs 4) Communities: race, gender, religion 5) Persons: individuals

8 Cultures represented in EFL materials

9 Types of Cultural Content in EFL Textbooks The type of cultural content included in a given EFL textbook depends on the type of the textbook itself; whether it is a global textbook or a local one. Global EFL textbooks are produced for the international market and are centered on topics with fairly transnational appeal (Pulverness, 1995: 07). In other words, these textbooks have an almost neutral (non-specific) cultural content that could be set everywhere. Local textbooks, on the other hand, are generally designed as part of a national curriculum of a particular country. They consequently have very different requirements from the global textbooks. The most demanding requirement of local textbooks is a need to conform to the national curricular ideology set by the educational authorities of the country both as relates to policies of foreign language education objectives and cultural stances. (Yassine, 2012: 73)

10 Textbooks Based on Source Culture produced at a national level for particular countries that mirror the source culture rather than target cultures, so that the source and target cultures are identical (Cortazzi and Jin, 1999: 205). Textbooks Based on Target Culture The materials designed along this trend generally focus on one or two target cultures; mainly British and American. Textbooks Based on International Culture They focus neither on learners source culture nor on target language culture but aims at including a variety of cultures. The latter are set either in English-speaking countries such a Britain and America or in other countries where English is not a first or second language but, is used as an international language.

11 Middle School Textbooks: Spring One and Spotlight on English The designer s notes: the designers fore word in Spring One consists of a short text in English that describes the objectives of the textbook. It does not include any explicit or implicit reference to the manual s cultural content. There is no indication to the way the textbook would be used. On the contrary, in Spotlight on English the fore word consists of a relatively long text in Arabic addressed to the learners explaining to them their active role in the learning process. It overtly deals with the notion of culture setting it within an intercultural perspective. Culture: while Spring One includes exclusively national culture in Spotlight on English the perspective is rather one of intercultural scope. In the first textbook all the settings and characters are made up Algerian. There is hardly a reference to a foreign character. But Spotlight on English adopts an intercultural perspective. Reference is made both to the learners first culture and to a set of other foreign cultures. It points to the parallels that are to be drawn among various world cultures. International communication too is present through Internet chat.

12 The analysis of the explicit and the implicit content of these textbooks would sort out which values they hold. It hence, explains the implied and unjustified fear from the learners acculturation if exposed to the foreign culture translated by an open rejection of all that comes from the other culture in Spring One. It further reveals negative attitudes towards cultural content resulting in a kind of over "instrumentalization" of the English language. The latter is almost reduced to a set of structures and the learners nearly never know when, where, how and with whom to use this new language they are taught. However, the change in the adopted paradigm in the context of the recent Educational Reform can explain the emerging of positive attitudes towards the foreign culture which is no longer seen as a threat. The move from a structural approach to a communicative and even to competency-based paradigms can account for fostering of a certain intercultural awareness. In fact, the competency-based teaching relies basically on project works, problemsolving situations and task-based-teaching or practices that require more interaction and call for cultural competencies to cope with new situations and negotiations. It is then for the sake of intercultural awareness that Algerian textbook designers have included an important amount of the national culture besides to the others cultures within the materials for the teaching of foreign language.

13 Secondary School Textbooks

14 A questionnaire addressed to 30 EFL teachers working in 17 different Secondary schools.

15 Cultural elements prevailing in Think it Over ( )

16 Cultural elements prevailing in Comet ( )

17 Cultural Elements Prevailing in New Prospects (2007)

18 Teachers comments T1: Culture must not be viewed as something consisting of facts to be learnt, but a helpful tool to make learners feel the need to speak and use the target language. T2: As far as the cultural elements are concerned, there is no particular emphasis in the three textbooks on foreign culture. In fact, the three textbooks are based on themes or topics which deal with the problems and changes of life. T3: The schoolbook remains one of the most important sources of learning a foreign language. However, knowing how to use it is more important. I am certain that there are teachers who do not know what does culture awareness mean? A teacher s book will be useful too.

19 Implications The teachers answers to the questions about the cultural content of the three textbooks revealed how cultural contextualisation is important to teaching English as foreign language in the Algerian Secondary Schools. They also pointed out the fact that the three textbooks are alike in including a higher rate of international/universal culture compared to target/foreign and local/national but differ considerably in their visual display. However, their evaluations of the type of cultural elements prevailing in each of the textbooks made it plain they hold different attitudes towards the local/national culture, the foreign/target culture, and the international/universal culture and this both at the linguistic and visual levels. Actually, most of them remained sceptical about including the learners local culture in EFL textbooks. They did not seem to recognize the role it may play in learning the foreign language. But, they explained that their learners reacted positively to the visual elements that were referring to the local culture or portraying local people. Most of the teachers preferred the international/universal culture which sounds neutral and indicated that the full colour visual design of the recent textbook contributes to motivating their learners.

20

21 Developing attitudes towards the representation of the local culture in Algerian EFL textbooks

22 Reconsidering Issues of Selfing, Othering and Negotiation of Third Spaces English language teaching in Algeria during the 1990 s and early 2000 s adopted forms of linguistic and visual representations that led to Othering learners rather than encouraging their Selfing. They contributed to denying the Self either through making it invisible in the materials or by providing a negative representation which can lead to alienation. There is a timid move towards integrating Thirdness mainly at the linguistic level as regards the reading materials. The learners are no longer exposed to texts which denigrate their local culture or language(s) as it was the case few years before, but still it is not possible to affirm that necessary affordances or resources are provided to create a Third Space.

23 Conclusion The unbalanced and biased cultural contextualisation which characterises the teaching of English during the 1990s and early 2000s and which starts to change slightly recently as a result of the shift in overall paradigm and educational orientation unveil the different ideologies which shape EFL teaching in the country. Therefore until recently, though locally designed and subject to Ministry of Education approval, Algerian EFL textbooks seem to reproduce Native- Speakerism and Centre vs. Periphery discourses which establish a hierarchy among different cultures. As a result they promote transmission ideologies where culture is reduced to its surface aspects and packaged as a set of facts. These ideologies portray the contact of cultures in a negative way suggesting evaluative stances wherein the culturally different is either better or worse. They accordingly distort the relation of the Self (C1) and the Other (C2) by not giving opportunities for Thirdness to emerge.

24 Thank you!

25 Your Questions and Comments are Welcome!

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